Cycle Movement. The cycle routes through the Study Area are shown in Figure 5.7.

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1 Cycle Movement 91 The cycle routes through the Study Area are shown in Figure 5.7. St John Street LCN+ Link 108 has cycle lanes marked on both sides of the road, however on the eastern side the vehicular parking is permitted to encroach across the cycle lane, nullifying its effectiveness and placing cyclists at risk. The cycle lane along the western side is adjacent to parallel parking and not of consistent width along the length. The volume of cycles appears to be tidal with the highest flow (approximately 170 per peak hour) travelling southbound during the AM Peak and northbound during the PM Peak. Clerkenwell Road Of all the roads in the area Clerkenwell Road accommodates the highest volume of cyclists with the flow being largely tidal travelling westbound in the AM Peak and eastbound in the PM Peak. Approximate westbound peak hour volumes: AM Peak 375; Inter-peak 120; PM Peak 175. Approximate eastbound peak hour volumes: AM Peak 140; Inter-peak 80; PM Peak 285. No facilities for cyclists are provided along the road. The westbound movement is afforded some measure of protection from the general traffic by using the bus lane. Cyclists are particularly at risk crossing the road-over-rail bridge between the junctions of Farringdon Road and Turnmill Street where the narrow road width creates a pinch point for traffic. Cowcross Street The with-flow cycle movement is reasonably high during the AM Peak at 164 cyclists per peak hour, but less than 100 cyclists per hour during the other times of the day. Cyclists have been observed to travel contra-flow from St John Street to reach the dedicated cycle lane provided at the station to access Farringdon Road. Although cyclists have been afforded priority across the closed portion of the street, the U-turning movements of taxis and goods vehicles conflicts with them. They also compete with motorcycles along this cycle lane. Turnmill Street The cycle movement southbound is not particularly high with approximately 46 cyclists during the AM Peak hour, 18 during the Inter-peak and 9 during the PM Peak hour. The internal streets also support cycle movements but not in significant numbers to warrant specific cycle facility provision. Also, the vehicular volumes are low and the speeds not excessive because of the traffic calming effect of narrow streets and short block lengths. Cycle Routes Figure 5.7 Signed and Recommended Cycle Routes ST JONH STREET Routes Recommended For Cyclists Routes Signed For Cyclist CLERKENWELL ROAD FARRINGDON RD BARBICAN FARRINGDON

2 92 Parking, Loading and Road Safety Parking and Loading Farringdon is currently within a Controlled Parking Zone (CPZ) with hours of parking restriction from Monday to Friday 08:30am 18:30 and Saturday 08:30 13:30. This means that only vehicles with permits to park within the restricted times are allowed into the area, therefore the number of vehicles are controlled by the LB Islington. As indicated in Appendix D only about 50% of the Pay and Display parking is utilised on Turnmill Street and during the daytime only about 35% of the Resident s Permit parking is occupied. Therefore under provision of vehicular parking is not considered an issue within the area. It has been noted that the accesses along St John Street are often blocked by vehicles parking across them to load. Also, there is insufficient loading provision in St John s Square. Although cycle parking facilities are provided within the area, the number of cycles chained to fences and poles indicates that these are either in the wrong location or insufficient parking stands are provided. A spot survey of the area indicates that only 61 of the 94 allocated cycle parking spaces are being utilised, although 110 cycles were counted within the Study Area. The motorcycle parking of 14 bays on Turnmill Street appears to be oversubscribed. Bus/Coach 6 4% Goods 12 8% Pedestrian 16 11% Motorcycle 21 14% Pedal Cycle 26 18% Cars (inc. taxi) 64 45% Figure 5.8 Accidents per mode

3 Clerkenwell Village Renaissance 05 Movement & Transport 93 Road Safety Indicative numbers at accident locations are presented in Appendix D. From the figure it can be seen that the highest concentration of accidents is along Clerkenwell Road. This should be expected as the highest volumes of traffic and the greatest number of conflicting movements (vehicular and pedestrian) occur here. The following are a summary from the accident records to highlight certain issues, particularly where vulnerable road users have been involved: Clerkenwell Road/St John Street junction Of the five accidents that occurred at this location two involved pedal cycles, one a fatality. In both instance the cyclists travelling along Clerkenwell Road were hit by vehicles turning, one left and the other right. Indicating possible lack of awareness of the cyclists. Clerkenwell Road/Turnmill Street Nine accidents occurred at this junction. Five accidents caused slight injury to cyclists, all of whom were travelling along Clerkenwell Road. Only one pedestrian was slightly injured as a vehicle turned right from Clerkenwell Road into Turnmill Street. Two motorcyclists were involved in collisions with cars. Most of the accidents display characteristics of vehicles attempting to access gaps in the traffic stream and not noticing the more vulnerable and less visible road users. Clerkenwell Road/Clerkenwell Green Both the accidents involved motorcycles and vehicles turning right from Clerkenwell Road into Clerkenwell Green, a noted cut-through route. Clerkenwell Road (vicinity of Britton Road) Ten accidents happened at this location. Three pedestrians, four cyclists and one motorcyclist were slightly injured. No definite pattern can be established, however from site-observation many of the accidents could have occurred because the visibility of Britton Street is not evident when travelling along Clerkenwell Road. Clerkenwell Road/St John s Square One accident involved a cyclist and one involved a motorcyclist. In both cases it appears that neither was seen by the vehicle that collided with them. Cowcross Street/Turnmill Street Three accidents occurred, involving 4 slight injuries: a motorcyclist injured two pedestrians; a goods van injured a pedestrian; and a car injured a cyclist. All the accidents involved vulnerable road users. St John Street Zebra crossing A pedestrian was slightly injured at this crossing. St John Street/St John s Lane A car collided with a motorcyclist at this junction where motorcycle parking is located in the centre of the road. St John s Square A cyclist was seriously injured as he entered the carriageway from the footpath and collided with a goods vehicle. The lack of definition of space in the square could have contributed to this accident. Figure 5.8 presents the breakdown of accidents per mode. None of these percentages are greater than the LB Islington accident rates, as published in the Levels of Collision Risk in Greater London (Issue 11) December 2006.

4 94 Transport Issues and Recommendation Transport Issues Clerkenwell Road Narrow pinch point created, particularly for cyclists, by the road-over-rail bridge and complex junction operation with the close proximity of Farringdon Road, Turnmill Street and the Pelican crossing east of Turnmill Street. Insufficient pedestrian crossings along the road. St John s Square Ill defined pedestrian route along the western edge and lack of loading facilities. St John Street Insufficient pedestrian crossing opportunities along the road. There is poor pedestrian access to the motorcycle and pedal cycle parking facilities on the central island at St John s Lane. Crossing St John s Lane at St John Street by pedestrians is problematic because of the angle of the junction, poor sight distance of vehicles entering and lack of step-free pedestrian access. The southbound cycle lane is shared with parking provision, which negates the effectiveness of the cycle lane. The cycle lanes are not consistent along the length of the road. There is a lack of loading provision along the street. Benjamin Street Conflict between extremely high volumes of pedestrians and low volumes of vehicles. Clerkenwell Green Suffers from cut-through traffic, inefficient traffic movement and poor pedestrian crossing opportunities, as pedestrians have to walk between parked vehicles. Cowcross Street/St John Street/ Chaterhouse Street junction This complex, closely spaced junction with multiple turning movements creates vehicle/pedestrian conflicts and suffers from motorists forcing their way out of Cowcross Street into the southbound traffic stream on St John Street and blocking the left turning traffic movement from Charterhouse Street into St John Street. The pedestrian environment throughout the area is in poor condition and cluttered with signs, bollards, garbage bags, outdoor restaurant tables and chairs or patrons milling on the footway and cycles chained to poles and railings. Also, the pedestrian crossing points are often not DDA complaint. The lack of wayfinding signage in the area does not encourage pedestrians to use the minor streets. The cycle parking facilities provided are insufficient in certain locations and in other cases inappropriately located and therefore underutilised. Turnmill Street High volume of fast flowing cut-through traffic conflicts with extremely high volume of pedestrians crossing the road. Re-open cycle lane The completion of bridge strengthening works and carriageway widening should allow this cycle lane to be re-opened.

5 Clerkenwell Village Renaissance 05 Movement & Transport 95 Road-over-rail bridge The road-over-rail bridge at Clerkenwell Road is a major pinch point. Transport Recommendations Figure 5.3 (P.87) presents the proposed vehicular movements within the Study Area. Clerkenwell Road Widen the road-over-rail bridge to provide cycle lanes on either side to remove potential cycle / vehicle conflicts. Provide a formal Pelican pedestrian crossing west of St John s Square to cater for this demand and enhance this as a safer north/south route to Jerusalem Passage. St John s Square Move the parking along the western edge further into the square and extend the footway to enhance the pedestrian route. St John Street Realign the road at its junction with St John s Lane to provide improved motorcycle and pedal cycle parking facilities and pedestrian crossing opportunities. Narrow the width of the carriageway and construct kerb build-outs to provide rationalised parking and full cycle lanes in both directions. This realignment will improve the pedestrian crossing opportunities, as the kerb build-outs will further reduce the crossing distance. Also, it will improve the sight distance for pedestrians, past parked vehicles, of oncoming vehicles, permitting improved gap selection. The provision of a raised table adjacent to Passing Alley will enhance this as an access route to Farringdon. Cowcross Street/St John Street/ Chaterhouse Street junction The rearrangement of the Chaterhouse Street/ St John Street junction to a standard T-junction and the reversal of the traffic flow on Cowcross Street should remove the majority of the current delays and vehicle/pedestrian conflicts, thereby allowing road space to be reclaimed for public realm improvements. Benjamin Street Discourage and limit vehicular traffic exiting onto Turnmill Street constructing a raised table across the junction with Turnmill Street. This will provide pedestrians a measure of protection and support the new proposed entrance to Farringdon Station (Thameslink) on Turnmill Street. Turnmill Street Change the direction of the one-way from southbound to northbound. This would remove cut-through traffic crossing Clerkenwell Road from Farringdon Lane into Turnmill Street and thereby reduce the safety risk and associated accidents by reducing the complexity of the competing turning movements and conflicts at the junction of Clerkenwell Road/Turnmill Street/Farringdon Lane. The through traffic should be travelling on the primary routes of Farringdon Road and Charterhouse Street. Further, reducing the volume of traffic on Turnmill Street would improve the pedestrian environment with respect to noise and air pollution. It would also decrease the pedestrian / vehicle conflicts when crossing the road. It is recommended that most of the Pay and Display parking could be removed, however, the motorcycle parking should be increased. Clerkenwell Green Realign the gyratory movement to a two-way movement on the southern side of the Green and close the access to Farringdon Lane. This would allow rationalisation of the parking associated with the Green and allow improved pedestrian crossing opportunities. It would also prevent the current cut-through traffic from Clerkenwell Road to Farringdon Lane. A Disability Discrimination Audit of the pedestrian routes should be undertaken and step free access provided at all crossing points. The footways should be cleared of clutter and superfluous bollards and signage removed. It is recommended that the number of cycle parking stands be increased possibly by using kerb build-outs to locate them where most desired by cyclists.

6 Clerkenwell Village Renaissance 05 Movement & Transport

7 Vision 06

8 Clerkenwell Village Renaissance 06 Vision Right: St Pauls Dome and Farringdon Station

9 Clerkenwell Village Renaissance 06 Vision

10 Transport and Public Realm Vision 100 Key objectives of the Vision 1. Reduce and partially remove vehicular through traffic. 2. Improve gateways and humanise streets. 3. Improve road safety and address accident hot spots. 4. Renew the public realm so it will last into the next century. 5. Create new high quality public spaces that will host diverse activities and improve the setting of the historic townscape. 6. Ensure a step free public realm for universal accessibility. 7. Improve legibility and permeability. 8. Reflect and reinforce the current and future character. 9. Interpret the historic evolution of the area. 10. Balance the night time economy with other community uses. 11. Install a common language of materials that enhances identity. 12. Provide new sustainable soft landscape to cater for demand. 13. Remove street clutter. 14. Respect and enhance the diverse and vibrant character of the City within the City Quick Wins Twenty six packages of works have been identified in order to deliver the future public realm as identified in the Vision Plan. These are major pieces of public realm works and can be broken down further into stages but may still require considerable planning, detailed design and time to deliver. Also funding for the full value of these works may not always be available, however smaller packages of funds that need to be spent within a time frame or the financial year could be put towards immediate improvements to the public realm. Here are some that have already been identified: Dropped kerbs should be installed on side streets where there are none currently. Trip hazards and extremely uneven pavements should be remedied to ensure universal access in the interim. Wayfinding Study to identify locations for monolith mapping boards and finger posts. This should be looked at in relation to existing documented historic trails. Street Furniture Audit to identify items for an immediate and preliminary de-cluttering exercise and to identify which items should be retained in future works packages. Repainting and or renovation of existing historic street furniture. Increase sight lines into and out of St John s Benjamin Street Park by pruning and or replanting the boundary shrubs to allow more natural surveillance from the street. This may need to be consulted upon and an Arborists report should be commissioned. Much of the remaining historic and listed street furniture (See Appendix A for mapping) is in a poor state of repair. (Above, Clerkenwell Green) Repainting and or renovating these would bring an immediate improvement to the Study Area. Interim measures to improve universal accessibility including the installation of a dropped kerb here at Clerkenwell Green have occurred recently.

11 L 5M L R 4M R 6M L 5M L L L R R L L L R R L R S Clerkenwell Green proposals subject to further consultation See Action Plan for Issues and Opportunities L L L L L 5M L L R R R 2M 2M 2M 7M R R R R L 4M 14M 7M 7M R P P P L L R S 3M 2M R R VISION PLAN KEY New Plazas... Footway Widening... R R 4M 4M R R R R R R R R R 4M R R R L L R R R 5M R R Footway Repaving... R Place Making Surface Treatments... R 7M 4M L L Cycle Lanes... L Shared Surfaces L All vehicle shared route... Emergency vehicle... Driveway access shared route... Secure Bicycle Parking... New Active Use... Multi Functional Space... Purpose Built Kiosks... Contra-flow cycle lane on Cowcross Street subject to feasibility. Parking T T T T T Pay & Display Parking... Shared Vehicle Parking Spaces... Motor Cycle Parking... Resident & Permit Holder Parking... Loading Only Parking... Taxi Stand... Raised Entry Treatments... White Lighting... New Lawns... New Crossings... Existing trees are not shown for clarity purposes

12 102 Clerkenwell Village Renaissance 06 Vision 1. Innovative solutions for the public realm may combine traditional elements, in this case projected light street trees as a public art installation. 2. St John s Benjamin Street. Every section of lawn or sunny refuge in Clerkenwell is used by workers who wish to take lunch away from their desks. There is a great need to increase the amount of this type of space in the Study Area as well as to improve the design of the existing spaces by increasing sight lines into and out of them. This will make users feel safer on days when there are few people around especially on the weekends. 3. The poor placement of street trees can obscure historic townscape in this case St John s Gate. St John s Benjamin Street Park Currently St John s Benjamin Street Park has controlled entry restricted to the daylight hours. It is open seven days a week but is only heavily used on sunny weekdays between 11am and 3pm. The park is irregularly used on weekends and has poor natural surveillance in and out of the site due to the surrounding buildings and planting design. Additionally the park is linked to the adjoining commercial development which in turn is linked to Britton Street. This creates a day time pedestrian desire line that further activates the space. By night however the adjoining setback development with its open internal pathways and carparks can become a crime generator that may infect the park. The development is monitored with CCTV cameras, however the park is not and it is only a relatively small leap for vandals and criminals to access this space. 1 Street Trees Greening and street trees are seen as a key part of the Vision for the Study Area. However, new street trees have not been shown on the Vision Plan for a variety of reasons. The successful location of new street trees and the tree pits they require for sustainable growth, is dependant on the availability of space and the location of services below the surface. Determining whether this space is available can only satisfactorily be achieved by digging a series of test pits. The locations of services as shown on service providers plans are often incorrect and misleading, therefore it is difficult and irresponsible to show avenues of street trees at preliminary design stage, especially if this is formally consulted on with local residents. The location of new street trees should and can only be reliably decided at later stages. Additionally, the impact of street trees on historic townscape and in areas where they were never traditionally used should also be considered. Sometimes maintaining views of the rhythm of articulation of historic facades is more important. It may be assumed however that street trees can be located on old kerb lines where build outs have been used to widen the footway. Services are rarely located right against or under existing kerbs and therefore a tree pit is more likely achievable in these locations. This principle has been employed when designing the inset parking bays in streets like Turnmill and St John. Locating street trees on regularly spaced build outs can create a rhythm of trees that is not often achieved in central London. 2 3

13 Clerkenwell Village Renaissance 06 Vision 103 Public Conveniences Public conveniences have been shown on the Vision Plan as a possibility at Clerkenwell Green and St John Street. These two locations have had managed toilets historically and it is the recommendation of this report that substantial, and universally accessible toilets for men and women are re-provided in the Study Area. The provision of these could be packaged into New Active Use development opportunities in these locations. Further investigation into the feasibility of private re-provision and management of public conveniences should be carried out. Alternatively the feasibility of providing retractable dual sex toilets / urinals at key locations and the implications in terms of management and the availability of sufficient ground depth should also be addressed. There are several recently developed models of retractable urinals in use in London today. The most well known example is the hydraulic lifted, telescopic men s urinal at Cambridge Circus. This example requires ground space of approximately 1.3m 2 by 1.3m deep. The cylindrical structure is made from thick and durable stainless steel, is vandalism resistant and is connected to the electricity, water and sewerage systems. They are above ground during peak times at nodal locations, not in back alleys. After peak periods an attendant on duty pushes a button and the unit descends underground. All that remains visible in the pavement is a circular cover which is designed to withstand traffic class 45. If desired the existing paving can be used to achieve a fully integrated result. They cost approximately 17k to procure and install. Continued development in this product area has delivered a retractable urinal / toilet suitable for use by women (unisex). The unit incorporates an angled seat to lean against and sliding doors to give privacy. As yet the unit has not been used in the UK and there are several issues with its design including: Enclosable space leaves the units open to vandalism, criminal and anti-social behaviour. Sliding doors are a maintenance issue. The provision of toilet paper is a maintenance issue. A lack of hand washing facilities is a public health issue. As the units are not telescopic the ground space and depth required is considerable at 1.5 x 2.0m and 2.2m deep. Despite these limitations it is a welcome development as provisions for women have been reduced considerably in recent decades. The revenue to maintain managed public toilets has been reduced as their provision has been seen as a serious crime and anti-social behaviour generator. Retractable Urinals Top right: Men s telescopic urinal. Bottom right: Unisex urinal with sliding doors for privacy.

14 104 Clerkenwell Village Renaissance 06 Vision Imperfect kerbs The majority of the kerbs in the Study Area are in extremely poor condition and the foundations upon which they rest are collapsing. LED installation At Waterloo Bus Interchange, the tray in this instance allows the LED Strip to be lifted without being disconnected and incorporates small granite sets which bulk out the strip to the width of one paver, therefore fitting within the existing paving bond pattern. Replacement of Kerbs The Vision Plan and the costed packages of works in this document have been developed on the basis that all kerbs in the area are in need of renewing. Specific criteria for deciding whether kerbs should be replaced can be found later in this chapter under the sub heading of Footway Repaving. Replacing kerbs across the Study Area is seen as key to the successful delivery of a robust and long standing Vision for Clerkenwell, Farringdon and north Smithfield. Installing new 300mm wide granite Flat Kerbs is a mark of quality and will ensure better and longer performance than the existing 150mm wide granite (and in some locations concrete) kerbs. The sustainable re-use on site of the existing replaced kerbs (laid on their side) in driveways and areas of heavy loading will add an additional dimension of quality and character that will enhance the identity of the area. Feature Lighting and Maintenance Feature lighting is employed in the Vision for the Study Area as a method of improving perceptions of certain areas (like the medieval pedestrian paths) as well as highlighting important nodes or historic locations. Feature lighting has been employed increasingly in the public realm of recent years to add vitality and drama. It could be said however that feature lighting is proposed much more than it is ever installed. Only the most robust and low maintenance designs are appropriate for the public highway, or on the walls, in the ground plane or as catenary treatments. It is important to note that capital funds for works to the public realm are always more readily available than revenue funding to maintain what has been installed. Designs are required to be low maintenance for this reason. Advances in LED technology of recent years have allowed designers to incorporate light fittings that only need to be replaced at approximately 15 to 18 years. Using LED technology alone however does not necessarily mean a design is low maintenance. In situations where in ground feature lighting is proposed in the public realm it is important to remember that service providers like Thames Water, will need to access the pipes and conduits that may be directly below the proposed lighting and are notoriously bad at restoring what they need to lift in order to do so. Feature lighting of this type should therefore be designed to be easily and safely lifted without needing to be disconnected (as this would require an electrician that they have no legal obligation to pay for). Other ways of reducing the maintenance implication of in ground and other feature lighting are listed below: Ensure that LED units and the associated cabling are designed for use underwater and have a IP68 rating even if they are just in the ground this is now standard for some suppliers. Ensure that the chosen product is designed to withstand traffic. Most suppliers are aware of the issues of the public realm and have included antivandal / tamper aspects to their designs. Ensure that the electrical cabling for each unit is independent. This means that under a low voltage system each unit can be lifted to access services below without disconnecting the unit or affecting a main line. This means there are no connections (outside of the transformer) and it also means that faults are easy to identify. The placement of the units is also important and they should be located away from underground services if possible. Flexibility in arrangement will mean that the units will be less likely to be dug up when services are accessed. In locations where it is not possible to be flexible in arrangement or there are many underground services it is beneficial to house the units in an LED Tray (See Appendix E for sample details).

15 Expanded Vision Plan Key 105 New Shared Surfaces This recently completed street in Brighton shows how step free and contemporary treatment of the public realm can revitalise what was once a vehicle dominated environment and create new places for pedestrians to use and gather. Drivers know that these are locations of pedestrian priority and drive accordingly. The following pages explain the individual improvement components as described in the Vision Plan above, including: New plazas Shared surfaces Footway widening + options for St John Street Footway repaving Place making surface treatments Secure bicycle parking New active uses Multi-functional space Purpose built kiosks Parking Taxi stands Raised entry treatments White lighting New lawns New Plazas New pedestrian plazas are shown at six locations on the Vision Plan. These include: The intersection of Cowcross, St John and Charterhouse Streets. The western section of Cowcross Street and the southern end of Turnmill Street at Farringdon Station and the proposed CrossRail and Thameslink stations. The northern end of Turnmill Street at Clerkenwell Road. The north and south sides of St John s Gate. The western end of Benjamin Street at Turnmill Street. St John Street at the intersection of St John s and Peter s Lanes. There is also the possibility of a new plaza at Clerkenwell Green from Sekforde Street to the Vine Street Bridge subject to further consultation. The size and arrangement of these new places of pedestrian priority have been chosen for the following reasons: High volumes of pedestrian movement that are expected to increase. Conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles. The potential of these spaces to re-invigorate and further regenerate the area. They are strategic locations where traffic needs to be calmed and / or vehicle rat-runs need to be removed. They are key destinations or form part of important pedestrian desire lines that are currently compromised. They are local points of historic interest in need of better interpretation. In general these are key opportunities that affect the current and future use of the area. Shown schematically these spaces are intended to provide the following : Clear uncluttered space for arrival via a variety of transport modes. Safer routes to destinations within the area. Controlled, safe and slower vehicular movement across shared surfaces for driveways or private traffic circulation only. Controlled access for emergency vehicles. Contemporary and memorable Places to Meet, finished in natural stone that reflect the vibrant character and history of the area. Well lit night time environments that have good natural surveillance that support the evening economy. Clean and animated break-out spaces for lunch time or meetings that support the day time economy. Safe locations to lock bicycles. Nodal and safe locations for public art. Public conveniences where they are needed the most. Increased development potential for redundant community assets. (E.g. underground Edwardian toilets in Clerkenwell Green and the site of the former toilets in St John Street) This will enable these to return to active use, the sale of which could part fund the public realm improvements and the possible provision of replacement universally accessible public conveniences. Opportunities to reinterpret local points of historic interest with lighting, public art, interpretation signage and way finding. Improvements to replace redundant vehicle dominated environments with designs appropriate to the vibrancy of the area today.

16 106 Clerkenwell Village Renaissance 06 Vision Cowcross Street Farringdon Station Forecourt An enlarged place which is less cluttered to cater for the needs of convenient pedestrian movement. Shared Surfaces Shared surfaces are step free environments where all vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians have an equal right of way and the movement of traffic is slow and respectful of other users of the space. They are shown on the Vision Plan on all of the five new Plaza s. There are three categories of shared surfaces utilized in the design. These are: All vehicle shared route These parts of the plazas are trafficable by all vehicles that need to access the local area only. The route is confined with the use of bollards or a suite of necessary street furniture. Emergency vehicle shared route These parts of the plazas are accessible only to emergency vehicles. These may not need to be confined by bollards or similar street furniture except where basements need protecting. Driveway access shared route These parts of the plazas are infrequently used and are trafficable by vehicles that need to access a particular property. They do not form part of a through route but may need to be confined with the use of bollards or a suite of necessary street furniture. Shared surfaces are more commonly seen on the continent but are being implemented throughout London with some level of success. This type of intervention is not appropriate for all locations and the detail design of these Places needs to be considered thoroughly. Shared surfaces may be appropriate where: Relatively low volumes of local traffic and no through traffic exists. Pedestrian desire lines are many and varied and pedestrians already tend to occupy the carriageway. Step free environments are required to facilitate equitable access for all. Authorities wish to slow traffic considerably without proliferating speed humps and chicanes. Basements can be easily protected without the proliferation of clutter. Spaces are well known and used but have little positive character. Multiple 20 th century public realm interventions have obscured historic kerb lines, views and settings of fine buildings. In order to successfully steward shared surfaces through the approval processes, clarity around the benefits and the potential issues will be key. Stakeholder consultation with authorities like TFL English Heritage and disabilities groups early in the process will ensure that proposals are revised for practicality prior to consultation with local residents.

17 Clerkenwell Village Renaissance 06 Vision 107 Parking Parking arrangements have been greatly modified and controlled in the Vision for the Study Area. Generally however, the streets at the centre of the site that have a higher proportion of ground floor commercial businesses and residences in the upper floors have not been changed. These include: Britton Street Briset Street Albion Place St John s Lane Cowcross Street Eagle Court Parking arrangements have been significantly modified in: Turnmill Street St John Street Farringdon Lane St John s Square (south) The criteria used for judging whether parking could be changed, reduced or removed are listed below: There is a clear over-provision with many spaces remaining empty for large portions of the weekday and most of the weekend. The street forms part of a major pedestrian route, especially in peak periods. Parking arrangements preclude the free and easy movement of pedestrians laterally. Footways are narrow. There are relatively few active uses. In these streets single yellow lines have been removed completely. Dedicated inset bays for resident and permit holder spaces, loading only and motor cycle parking have been provided with a view to match or better their current provisions. The exact quantities required should be ascertained at feasibility stage. Where there are no dedicated spaces double yellow lines should be employed. Compliance and the enforcement of these new arrangements have been considered and the following techniques have been employed to reduce the likelihood of illegal parking and loading: Carriageways have been reduced to a minimum width for all vehicle use over two lanes of 6.2 meters. New and ordered streetscapes provide a psychological barrier to illegal activity and crime as a general principle, as they embody a sense of guardianship and pride. Dedicated inset loading only spaces have been provided as near to drop off points as possible where none are currently available. Where on carriageways, cycle lanes are shown on St John Street, build-outs have been reduced to near the length of one car and dispersed regularly reducing the likelihood of illegal parking over the cycle lane. All new inset parking bays are to be paved in granite setts and are to be ramped to 20mm short of the top of the kerb edge to create step free environments. When these spaces are not in use they will become part of the footway, the added benefit being reduced carriageway width and amount of Tarmac. Resident and Permit Holder Parking In principle Resident and Permit Holder parking has been shown as re-provided like for like on the Vision Plan. In some locations the provision could be slightly increased to accommodate increases in resident population upon redevelopment of some of the key sites in the area. This is subject to a review of Pay and Display parking provisions at feasibility stage. Loading Only Parking Loading only parking spaces in dedicated inset bays have been introduced to the Study Area and are shown on the Vision Plan at the following locations: Turnmill Street St John Street Farringdon Lane St John s Square south South end of Britton Street (close to White Horse Alley) Loading only parking provision is an important tool in improving the function of the public realm. As part of a suite of interventions loading only spaces provide the following opportunities: Dedicated inset bays are paved in granite setts and ramped to the kerb edge to create a step free environment. When loading is not occurring; such as during the day on the weekend, these paved spaces become part of a broader footway. The amount of Tarmac used in the streetscape is greatly reduced improving the setting of the historic townscape. Safe and legible environments are the outcome as white vans and other delivery vehicles have more guaranteed locations to park which reduces the likelihood of illegal loading on single or double yellow lines. Inset bays force delivery vehicles to park properly off the road and precludes on street parking and pull up and drop off behaviour that inhibits the free movement of traffic and may make informal crossing for pedestrians dangerous.

18 108 Clerkenwell Village Renaissance 06 Vision Motor Cycle Parking Secure motor cycle parking facilities are shown on the Vision Plan at the following locations: St John Street Briset Street Turnmill Street St John s Square (south) Benjamin Street Farringdon Lane Britton Street In principle provisions in some locations have been increased considerably (e.g. St John and Turnmill Streets) and in others, dedicated spaces have been provided where there are currently none. It is important to note that there are many spaces for motor cycle parking on private forecourts and above basements within property boundaries. Locations of note include, under the office building overhang on St John s Lane and Peter s Lane and on basement lights at Clerkenwell Green. Shared Vehicle Parking Spaces-Streetcar Parking spaces have been provided for use by (to be leased to) shared vehicle schemes on the Vision Plan. Currently within the Study Area two shared vehicle parking spaces are provided. One is located in St John Street (north of Clerkenwell Road) and another in Cowcross Street. The Vision Plan shows new shared vehicle parking facilities at: St Johns Street (south of Clerkenwell Road) 2 spaces. Clerkenwell Green. (Subject to further consultation) It may be appropriate to lease spaces to another provider in order to introduce some competition and encourage more local take up of the scheme. It is also important to note that when the parking survey was carried out most motor cycle stands were completely full. In these cases a 10m bay stand that was designed for 10 vehicles housed 11 or 12. As this more accurately reflects the demand for motor cycle parking these numbers should as the base provision at feasibility stage. Pay and Display Parking In general Pay and Display parking facilities have been reduced for the following reasons: To gain carriageway space in order to make footway gains. To create dedicated loading only spaces. To discourage users accessing the site by private vehicle. To make more space for shared vehicle schemes. To increase the provisions for Resident and Permit Holders. The implications of this approach should be investigated at feasibility stage.

19 Clerkenwell Village Renaissance 06 Vision 109 St John Street Hick s Hall Place Sketch view showing the proposed western footway widening of St John Street. Also shown is a potential new active use or interpretation centre on the site of the former Hick Hall and later the Edwardian toilets.

20 110 Clerkenwell Village Renaissance 06 Vision St John Street Preferred Arrangement Footway Widening Plan showing proposals to widen the footway along St John Street, showing inset parking bays and opportunities for cycle parking in build outs and creating a new plaza on the western side of the street. Creating a new plaza on the western side is preferred as there are less driveways and this space will receive better AM sunlight. R R R L 2M 2M Footway widening is shown on the Vision Plan in the following areas: Turnmill Street on both sides of the street. St John Street on both sides of the street. St John Square in the southern section. Charterhouse Street on the Smithfield Market side at the intersection with St John Street. Footway widening can be continuous to provide improved pedestrian environments where additional space is needed, or localised to constrict vehicle movement as a component of traffic calming. KEY New Plazas... Footway Widening... Footway Repaving... Place Making Surface Treatments... Cycle Lanes... Shared Surfaces All vehicle shared route... Emergency vehicle... Driveway access shared route... L R R R R L R 2M R 7M R Where footway widening is shown on the Vision Plan repaving of the whole footway in the current standard flush jointed ASP (artificial stone paving concrete flagstones) in traditional modules and bond patterns should be employed. The principle of Seamless Pavements where the whole of the pedestrian accessible footway including segments that fall on private property (e.g. above basements) are repaved, should be employed. Secure Bicycle Parking... New Active Use... Multi Functional Space... Purpose Built Kiosks... Parking Pay & Display Parking... Shared Vehicle Parking Spaces... Motor Cycle Parking... Resident & Permit Holder Parking... Loading Only Parking... Taxi Stand... Raised Entry Treatments... White Lighting... New Lawns... New Crossings... 7M R 7M L L S 3M R R R L 5M 7M P P P 2M R R S Footway widening can also be coupled with broken inset parking bays to create Build-outs. Build-outs play an important role in the function of streets like Turnmill and St John and provide the following benefits: They narrow the carriageway and enable good visibility for pedestrians who want to cross informally (not at signals or other controlled crossings). When spaced at regular intervals they provide locations where cycle parking facilities can be located close to places of work and play. Street trees and the underground space required can be located on the existing kerb line where there are usually less underground services. Other items of essential street furniture like grit and recycling bins can be neatly housed here away from pedestrian desire lines. St John Street (Right) Artist s impression of a new plaza created at the intersection of St John Street and St John s Lane. New green space, cycle parking and public conveniences feature here. L L L

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