Alcohol, bicycling, and head and brain injury: a study of impaired cyclists' riding patterns R1

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Alcohol, bicycling, and head and brain injury: a study of impaired cyclists' riding patterns R1"

Transcription

1 American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2010) 28, Brief Report Alcohol, bicycling, and head and brain injury: a study of impaired cyclists' riding patterns R1 Patrick Crocker DO b, Omid Zad MD a, Truman Milling MD a,, Karla A. Lawson PhD b a University Medical Center at Brackenridge, Austin, TX 78731, USA b Dell Children's Medical Center of Central Texas, Austin, TX 78723, USA Received 8 August 2008; revised 3 September 2008; accepted 3 September 2008 Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the interactions between alcohol, bicycle helmet use, experience level, riding environment, head and brain injury, insurance status, and hospital charges in a medium-sized city without an adult helmet law. Methods: A study of adult bicycle accident victims presenting to a regional trauma center over a 1-year period was undertaken. Data were collected at the bedside regarding helmet use, alcohol use, experience level, location and type of accident and prevailing vehicle speed (for road accidents), and presence and degree of head or brain injury. Results: Two hundred patients 18 years or older were enrolled from December 2006 through November Alcohol use showed a strong correlation with head injury (odds ratio, 3.23; 95% confidence interval, ; P =.001). Impaired riders were less experienced, less likely to have medical insurance, rarely wore helmets, were more likely to ride at night and in slower speed zones such as city streets, and their hospital charges were double (all P values b.05). Conclusions: Alcohol use leads to a host of unsafe bicycling practices, increased head and brain injuries, and costs to the cyclist and community. The interrelated characteristics of the riding patterns of the cyclists who use alcohol might help target interventions Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The National Safety Council estimates that 35.6 million Americans ride bicycles [1]. About of those end up in emergency departments for injuries, and are admitted to the hospital [1,2]. Head injury accounts for about a third of bicycle-related injuries, and these victims are more likely to die Corresponding author. address: (T. Milling). [3]. Those that survive have more long-term sequela [3]. However, the riding habits, experience level, and riding environment of riders who have been drinking alcohol have not been fully characterized. Understanding when, where, and how these cyclists come to be head-injured has important implications for public safety campaigns targeting interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality from bicycle accidents. Our goal was to study a group of bicycle accident victims presenting to a regional trauma center and examine which characteristics correlated with alcohol use and head and/or brain injury /$ see front matter 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi: /j.ajem

2 Alcohol, bicycling, and head and brain injury 2. Methods This was a consecutive cross-sectional study of all bicycle accidents involving adults (18 years or older) presenting to a regional trauma center from December 1, 2006, to November 30, By community standard, ambulances bring all patients with more than trivial traumatic injury to this hospital. The hospital is level II per the American College of 69 Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects according to injury status Characteristics No head Injury Head injury a P b No. of patients Mean age (y) 0 missing 34.5 ± ± Male (%) 0 missing 103 (81.8) 56 (77.8).50/.58 Skill level (%) 32 missing Beginner 12 (11.2) 8 (13.6).40/.41 Intermediate 53 (49.5) 34 (57.6) Expert 42 (39.3) 17 (28.8) Helmet use (%) 7 missing Yes 48 (40.0) 22 (31.0).21/.22 No 72 (60.0) 49 (69.0) Accident type (%) 3 missing Single Bike 71 (56.8) 46 (65.7).37/.35 Bike vs auto 50 (40.0) 21 (30.0) Bike vs bike 4 (3.2) 3 (4.3) Alcohol use (%) 9 missing Yes 17 (13.9) 23 (34.3).001/.001 No 105 (86.1) 44 (65.7) Road conditions (%) 23 missing Dry 96 (87.3) 60 (92.3).30/.45 Wet 14 (12.7) 5 (7.7) Disposition 0 missing Discharged from ED 114 (90.5) 50 (69.4).001/b.001 Admitted 11 (8.7) 21 (29.2) Eloped 1 (0.79) 1 (1.4) Mean hospital charges ($) 1 missing 5,247 ± 7,375 17,537 ± 36, Location (%) 17 missing Street 88 (77.2) 52 (77.6).97/.98 Off-road 7 (6.1) 3 (4.5) Developed trail 10 (8.8) 6 (9.0) Highway 9 (7.9) 6 (9.0) Speed limit at location (%) 55 missing 0-25 mph 32 (35.2) 23 (44.2).56/ mph 49 (54.9) 24 (46.2) mph 10 (11.0) 5 (9.6) Weather conditions (%) 5 missing Clear 88 (72.7) 55 (76.4).48/.58 Cloudy 27 (22.3) 14 (19.4) Rainy 6 (5.0) 2 (2.8) Foggy 0 (0.0) 1 (1.4) Time of accident (%) 05:01 AM-09:00 am 12 (10.1) 6 (8.5).76/.79 09:01 AM-04:00 pm 44 (37.0) 22 (31.0) 04:01 PM-08:00 pm 36 (30.3) 23 (32.4) 08:01 PM-05:00 am 27 (22.7) 20 (28.2) Insurance status 0 missing None or assistance insurance c 73 (57.9) 35 (48.6).21/.24 Private insurance 53 (42.1) 37 (51.4) a Head injury was defined as any minor (headaches and concussions), mild (GCS score 13-15), moderate (GCS score 9-12), or severe brain injury (GCS score 8). b Group means and frequencies were compared by 2-sided Student t tests or by χ 2 tests/fisher exact test, respectively. Statistical significance was set at P b.05. c Medicaid (n = 3), Medicare (n = 4), county or state medical assistance program (n = 13), and self-pay/uninsured (n = 88).

3 70 P. Crocker et al. Surgeons, although it is the only trauma center serving an 11-county region anchored by a medium-sized city (greater metropolitan area population 1.2 million), and it sees patients per year. The protocol was approved by the Brackenridge Hospital Institutional Review Board. Data collection was performed at the bedside by a nurse and/or study coordinator. Prospectively defined data points were helmet use, type of helmet, skill level (self-described), accident type, alcohol use immediately before or during ride (self-reported in conscious patients and confirmed with serum alcohol level in conscious and unconscious), road type, street address, weather conditions, time, type of bicycle, and head or brain injury. Head injury was defined as any injury to scalp or skull. Brain injury was defined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score: mild, 13-15; moderate, 9-12; severe, 8 or less. Mild brain injuries with GCS score of 15 were defined as those who required a head CT in the opinion of the treating physician (such as for prolonged loss of consciousness before arrival). Hospital charges were culled from a finance database. Data were entered into a Microsoft Excel worksheet and imported into STATA. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test for continuous variables and χ 2 and/or Fisher exact test for categorical analysis and reported with P values, for which Table 2 Serum ETOH level, head/brain injury, and hospital charge for 40 patients who used alcohol ID Age (y) Serum ETOH (mg/dl) Injury Disposition Hospital charge ($) 7 47 SR No injury Admitted SR Head injury Discharged Head injury Discharged No injury Discharged No injury Admitted Head injury Discharged SR Head injury Discharged SR No injury Discharged Severe brain injury Admitted SR No injury Discharged Head injury Discharged SR Head injury Discharged SR Head injury Discharged SR No injury Discharged SR No injury Discharged SR Head injury Discharged SR Head injury Discharged Mild brain injury Discharged SR Head injury Discharged Mild brain injury Admitted No injury Discharged SR No injury Discharged SR No injury Discharged SR Head injury Discharged SR Head injury Discharged Severe brain injury Admitted SR No injury Discharged Mild brain injury Discharged Mild brain injury Admitted Mild brain injury Discharged SR No injury Discharged No injury Discharged SR Head injury Discharged SR No injury Discharged a 55 SR Head injury Admitted SR No injury Discharged SR Head injury Discharged Head injury Discharged SR No injury Discharged SR No injury Discharged 1940 SR indicates self-report. a The only patient with helmet in alcohol use group.

4 Alcohol, bicycling, and head and brain injury.05 or less was considered significant. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds of head/brain injury in those who did and did not use alcohol. 3. Results A total of 200 patients were enrolled during the study period. Information on helmet use was available in all but 8 (4%) riders and alcohol use in all but 10 (5%). Head injury data were unavailable for 2 patients (1.0%). Median age was 32 (range, 18-67), and the population was 19.5% female. Seventy-two patients had a head or brain injury (52 head injury; 17 mild brain injury; 1 moderate brain injury; 2 severe brain injury). The subjects were divided by head or brain injury and the degree thereof, and variables were examined for their correlation thereto (see Table 1). Alcohol use showed the strongest association in logistic regression modeling (odds ratio, 3.23; 95% confidence interval, ; P b.001). There were 40 riders who consumed alcohol. Serum alcohol levels were available in 15 patients. All but 1 of those were above 80 mg/dl, the state legal limit for driving a car. Twentyfive patients reported alcohol use at the bedside (see Table 2). The cohort of riders who used alcohol was then examined for correlating characteristics (see Table 3). 4. Limitations In an analysis of this many variables, it is always possible that some statistically significant correlations will be found by chance. We believe that the strength of the correlations and the fact that these variables were chosen for previously reported significance or high clinical relevance mitigate against this possibility. Also, hospital charges are not formal costs and represent only a rough estimate of the economic impact of acute care in a bicycle accident. In addition, because alcohol use was partially examined by self-report, some patients may have been missed and categorized as non alcohol using. Finally, GCS is a measure of level of consciousness and only an indirect assessment of brain injury, although all 3 patients with moderate to severe brain injury defined by GCS had CT findings of brain injury as well. The treating physician's assessment that a patient needed a CT is also somewhat subjective but was the best available marker for a clinical determination of severity. 5. Discussion There have been several reports on the link between alcohol use, helmet non-use, and bicycling injury [4-10]. Table 3 Characteristics of study subjects according to alcohol use Characteristics Using alcohol P a Yes No No. of patients Mean age (y) 36.6 ± ± Male (%) 32 (80.0) 120 (80.0) 1.00 Skill level (%) Beginner 4 (12.1) 16 (11.9).016 Intermediate 24 (72.7) 63 (47.0) Expert 5 (15.2) 55 (41.0) Head injury (%) Yes 17 (42.5) 105 (70.5).001 No 23 (57.5) 44 (29.5) Accident type (%) Single bike 26 (66.7) 86 (57.7).59 Bike vs auto 12 (30.8) 57 (38.3) Bike vs bike 1 (2.6) 6 (4.0) Helmet (%) Yes 1 (2.6) 65 (44.2) b.0001 No 38 (97.4) 82 (55.8) Road conditions (%) Dry 28 (77.8) 125 (91.2).025 Wet 8 (22.2) 12 (8.8) Disposition Discharged from ED 33 (82.5) 124 (82.7).75 Admitted 7 (17.5) 24 (16.0) Eloped 0 (0.0) 2 (1.3) Mean hospital 14,825 ± 32,631 7,059 ± 9, charges ($) Location (%) Street 38 (97.4) 101 (72.1).009 Off-road 0 (0.0) 10 (7.1) Developed trail 1 (2.6) 14 (10.0) Highway 0 (0.0) 15 (10.7) Speed limit at location (%) 0-25 mph 19 (55.9) 36 (33.6) mph 15 (44.1) 56 (52.3) mph 0 (1.0) 15 (14.0) Weather conditions (%) Clear 26 (68.4) 114 (77.0).17 Cloudy 8 (21.1) 29 (19.6) Rainy 4 (10.5) 5 (3.4) Time of accident (%) 05:01 AM-09:00 am 1 (2.6) 15 (10.3) b :01 AM-04:00 pm 3 (7.7) 60 (41.4) 04:01 PM-08:00 pm 11 (28.2) 46 (31.7) 08:01 PM-05:00 am 24 (61.5) 24 (16.6) Insurance status None or assistance 30 (75) 73 (48.7).003 insurance Private insurance 10 (25%) 77 (51.3) a Means and frequencies were compared by 2-sided Student t tests and χ 2 tests, respectively. Statistical significance was set at P b.05. Prior research indicates that riding a bicycle is a much more complex psychomotor task than driving a car, and alcohol has a greater negative impact on riding abilities than driving 71

5 72 P. Crocker et al. abilities [11,12]. Our data showing a more than tripled risk of head/brain injury support this finding. A well-designed analysis from Maryland found a similar odds ratio (5.6) for any injury in riders under the influence of alcohol, but the study specifically excluded enrollment at night out of concern for the safety of researchers enrolling controls [13], although 2 prior reports found that nighttime riders are more likely to be impaired [4,8]. These retrospective reports also found a strong correlation between alcohol and bicycling injury. Another report from Sweden using telephone interviews attempted to characterize alcohol use and riders' environment in Goteborg, that nation's second largest city (population ) [10], but these data are difficult to extrapolate to American cities because of likely differences in riding and driving patterns. No detailed, prospective report has been published fully describing where alcohol-using bicyclists are likely to ride and thus where interventions targeted at reducing drunken riding are most likely to succeed. From our data, a number of strong associations arise with riders who use alcohol. Only 1 of the 40 riders wore a helmet. Local laws require only riders younger than 18 years to wear one, and Texas has no state law. Only 21 states and the District of Columbia have state laws, all applying to minors only, although there exists a patchwork of 186 local laws, some applying to adults, in many states [14]. (The Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute publishes a yearly review of helmets meeting impact safety criteria [14], and it identified the Bell Citi model as one of the safest and best value.) Impaired riders were less experienced by self report, impervious to adverse road conditions and unlikely to have medical insurance, leaving society to bear the financial burden of their care. With rare exception, they rode in the evening or at night on city streets with speed limits less than 45 mph. Under local laws, impaired cyclists can only be arrested for public intoxication and not the more serious charge of driving while intoxicated. Our data support a call for national and/or state legislation specifically addressing cycling while intoxicated and imposing much stronger penalties for this hazardous activity. Although our data set did not find significance in relative risk of cycling without helmet (most likely due to small sample size), it did show a trend consistent with previous studies that form an overwhelming body of evidence that helmets prevent injuries and save lives, and laws should be passed to encourage cyclists to wear helmets. 6. Conclusion Riders who use alcohol appear to exhibit predictable and unsafe riding patterns in this mid-sized American city, and, confirming prior reports, are much more likely to have head or brain injury, lack medical insurance, and generate increased hospital charges. Awareness of these interrelated characteristics may lead to more successful interventions. References [1] National Safety Council. Injury facts. Washington (DC): National Safety Council; p [2] Baker SP, Li G, Fowler C, Dannenberg AL. Injuries to bicyclists: a national perspective. Baltimore (Md): The Johns Hopkins Injury Prevention Center; [3] Kraus JF, Fife D, Conroy C. Incidence, severity and outcomes of brain injuries involving bicycles. Am J Public Health 1986;77:76. [4] Li G, Baker SP. Alcohol in fatally injured bicyclists. Accid Anal Prev 1994;26: [5] Spaite DW, Criss EA, Weiss DJ, Valenzuela TD, Judkins D, Meislin HW. A prospective investigation of the impact of alcohol consumption on helmet use, injury severity, medical resource utilization, and health care costs in bicycle-related trauma. J Trauma 1995;38: [6] Frank E, Frankel P, Mullins RJ, Taylor N. Injuries resulting from bicycle collisions. Acad Emerg Med 1995;2: [7] Yelon JA, Harrigan N, Evans JT. Bicycle trauma: a five-year experience. Am Surg 1995;61: [8] Li G, Baker SP, Sterling S, et al. A comparative analysis of alcohol in fatal and nonfatal bicycling injuries. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1996;20: [9] Olkkonen S, Honkanen R. The role of alcohol in nonfatal bicycle injuries. Accid Anal Prev 1994;22: [10] Anderssen A, Bukertorp O. Cycling and alcohol. Injury Int J Care Injured 2002;33: [11] Schewe G, Englert L, Ludwig O, et al. Untersuchungen über Alkoholbedingte Leistungseinbuben bei Fahrrad- und Mofa- Fahrren (Examining the influence of alcohol on the performance of bicyclists and Mofa-riders). Beitr Gerichtl Med 1978;36: [12] Schewe G, Knoss HP, Ludwig O, et al. Experimental studies on the question of the marginal value of alcohol-induced unfitness to operate a vehicle in the case of bicyclists. Blutalkohol 1984;21: [13] Li G, Baker SP, Smialek J, et al. Use of alcohol as a risk factor for bicycling injury. JAMA 2001;285: [14] Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute. Helmet laws for bicycle riders: a summary. BHSI, Retrieved from the Internet at (Sept. 1, 2008).

Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System

Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System HEALTH AND COST OUTCOMES RESULTING FROM TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY CAUSED BY NOT WEARING A HELMET, FOR MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN WISCONSIN, 2011 Wayne Bigelow Center for Health

More information

Analysis of Patients with Severe Trauma Caused by Motorcycle Accidents 1

Analysis of Patients with Severe Trauma Caused by Motorcycle Accidents 1 Analysis of Patients with Severe Trauma Caused by Motorcycle Accidents 1 1 You In-Gyu, 2 Lim Chung Hwan, 3 Shim Jae Goo 1, First Author Dept of Health Care, Hanseo University, semicoma72@daum.net *2,Corresponding

More information

Nonfatal Bicycle Accident Risk After an Evening of Alcohol Consumption

Nonfatal Bicycle Accident Risk After an Evening of Alcohol Consumption The Open Addiction Journal, 2009, 2, 1-5 1 Open Access Nonfatal Bicycle Accident Risk After an Evening of Alcohol Consumption Joris C. Verster *, Jessica van Herwijnen, Edmund R. Volkerts and Berend Olivier

More information

Using Trauma Center Data to Identify Missed Bicycle Injuries and Their Associated Costs

Using Trauma Center Data to Identify Missed Bicycle Injuries and Their Associated Costs Using Trauma Center Data to Identify Missed Bicycle Injuries and Their Associated Costs Presented by: Dahianna Lopez, RN, MSN, MPH San Francisco Injury Center Co-Authored by: Dharma Sunjaya, BS Shirley

More information

Comparative Costs and Outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury from Biking

Comparative Costs and Outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury from Biking Comparative Costs and Outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury from Biking Accidents With or Without Helmet Use Jehane Dagher MD, BScPT, ABPMR, FRCPC Physical Medicine& Rehabilitation Montreal General Hospital

More information

What You Should Know About: Bicycle Injury. National Statistics

What You Should Know About: Bicycle Injury. National Statistics What You Should Know About: Bicycle Injury National Statistics Soon after a blacksmith by the name of Kirkpatrick MacMillan invented the bicycle, it became apparent that a bicyclist needed something to

More information

BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES

BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES Injury Prevention Plan of Alabama 3 BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES THE PROBLEM: An estimated 140,000 children are treated each year in emergency departments for head injuries sustained

More information

Epidemiology of bicycle injuries and risk factors for serious injury

Epidemiology of bicycle injuries and risk factors for serious injury 110 Injury Prevention 1997; 3: 110-114 Epidemiology of bicycle injuries and risk factors for serious injury Frederick P Rivara, Diane C Thompson, Robert S Thompson Prevention and Research Center, Department

More information

V. Martínez Ruiz, E. Jiménez Mejías, C. Amezcua Prieto, J.D. Luna del Castillo, P. Lardelli Claret, J.J. Jiménez Moleón

V. Martínez Ruiz, E. Jiménez Mejías, C. Amezcua Prieto, J.D. Luna del Castillo, P. Lardelli Claret, J.J. Jiménez Moleón V. Martínez Ruiz, E. Jiménez Mejías, C. Amezcua Prieto, J.D. Luna del Castillo, P. Lardelli Claret, J.J. Jiménez Moleón Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health University of Granada No conflict

More information

A ccording to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission s

A ccording to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission s 42 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Effects of state helmet laws on bicycle helmet use by children and adolescents G B Rodgers... Injury Prevention 2002;8:42 46 Correspondence and reprint requests to: Dr Gregory B Rodgers,

More information

Key Words: motorcycle helmet; functional outcomes; speech deficit; locomotion deficit; feeding deficit; National Trauma Data Bank; trauma.

Key Words: motorcycle helmet; functional outcomes; speech deficit; locomotion deficit; feeding deficit; National Trauma Data Bank; trauma. Journal of Surgical Research 158, 1 5 (2010) doi:10.1016/j.jss.2009.06.034 ASSOCIATION FOR ACADEMIC SURGERY Motorcycle Helmets Save Lives, But Not Limbs: A National Trauma Data Bank Analysis of Functional

More information

Rural Disparities in posthospitalization. after traumatic brain injury.

Rural Disparities in posthospitalization. after traumatic brain injury. Rural Disparities in posthospitalization rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury. Ashley D Meagher MD, Jennifer Doorey MS, Christopher Beadles MD PhD, Anthony Charles MD MPH University of North Carolina

More information

A decrease in both mild and severe bicycle-related head injuries in helmet wearing ages trend analyses in Sweden

A decrease in both mild and severe bicycle-related head injuries in helmet wearing ages trend analyses in Sweden Health Promotion International, Vol. 22 No. 3 doi:10.1093/heapro/dam020 # The Author (2007). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org

More information

Statement before the Maryland House Environmental Matters Committee. Motorcycle Helmet Laws. Michael Fagin

Statement before the Maryland House Environmental Matters Committee. Motorcycle Helmet Laws. Michael Fagin Statement before the Maryland House Environmental Matters Committee Motorcycle Helmet Laws Michael Fagin The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety is a nonprofit research and communications organization

More information

Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1. Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009

Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1. Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009 Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1 Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009 Of all types of injury, traumatic brain injuries () are among the most likely to cause death or permanent

More information

North Carolina. Bicycle Crash Facts 2008-2012. Prepared for

North Carolina. Bicycle Crash Facts 2008-2012. Prepared for North Carolina Bicycle Crash Facts 2008-2012 Prepared for The North Carolina Department of Transportation Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation Prepared by The University of North Carolina

More information

Analysis of bicycle crashes during winter period

Analysis of bicycle crashes during winter period Cyclist Injuries Treated in Emergency Department (ED) in South-eastern Finland: Analysis of bicycle crashes during winter period Noora Airaksinen, MSc (Civ. Eng.), Sito Ltd PhD Student, Tampere University

More information

STUDENT VERSION. Bicycle Helmet Effectiveness In Preventing Injury and Death. Cases in Population-Oriented Prevention (C-POP)-based teaching

STUDENT VERSION. Bicycle Helmet Effectiveness In Preventing Injury and Death. Cases in Population-Oriented Prevention (C-POP)-based teaching STUDENT VERSION This project has the objective to develop preventive medicine teaching cases that will motivate medical students, residents and faculty to improve clinical preventive competencies complemented

More information

Maryland s Motorcycle Crash Picture

Maryland s Motorcycle Crash Picture Maryland s Motorcycle Crash Picture Cindy Burch University of Maryland, Baltimore National Study Center for Trauma and EMS Maryland Center for Traffic Safety Analysis Challenges Motorcycle safety is not

More information

Proposal 1. I. M. Writer 520 Safe Drive St. Anytown, Anystate, USA 01000 (555) 555-1212. October 13, 2004

Proposal 1. I. M. Writer 520 Safe Drive St. Anytown, Anystate, USA 01000 (555) 555-1212. October 13, 2004 Proposal 1 Cover letter I. M. Writer 520 Safe Drive St. Anytown, Anystate, USA 01000 (555) 555-1212 October 13, 2004 Mr. David Decider Director, Policy Branch Department of Highways 759 Main Rd. E. Suite

More information

Motor Vehicle Collisions in Eastern Ontario. Supplement to the Eastern Ontario Health Unit Injury Report

Motor Vehicle Collisions in Eastern Ontario. Supplement to the Eastern Ontario Health Unit Injury Report Motor Vehicle Collisions in Eastern Ontario Supplement to the Eastern Ontario Health Unit Injury Report September 8, 2009 For more information: Eastern Ontario Health Unit www.eohu.ca Bureau de santé de

More information

ANALYSIS OF MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN MICHIGAN 2009-2013 CAROL A.C. FLANNAGAN PATRICK J. BOWMAN

ANALYSIS OF MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN MICHIGAN 2009-2013 CAROL A.C. FLANNAGAN PATRICK J. BOWMAN UMTRI-2014-35 NOVEMBER 2014 ANALYSIS OF MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN MICHIGAN 2009-2013 CAROL A.C. FLANNAGAN PATRICK J. BOWMAN Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. UMTRI-2014-35 2. Government Accession

More information

Motorcycle Safety & Laws. Stewart Milner Chief Judge, City of Arlington

Motorcycle Safety & Laws. Stewart Milner Chief Judge, City of Arlington Motorcycle Safety & Laws Stewart Milner Chief Judge, City of Arlington 1 1. Safety What percentage of Riders involved in fatal Motorcycle crashes are over 40 years old? A. 25% B. 10% C. 33% D. 47% 2 2.

More information

Department of Legislative Services Maryland General Assembly 2006 Session FISCAL AND POLICY NOTE

Department of Legislative Services Maryland General Assembly 2006 Session FISCAL AND POLICY NOTE Department of Legislative Services Maryland General Assembly 2006 Session SB 163 FISCAL AND POLICY NOTE Senate Bill 163 Judicial Proceedings (Senator Hafer, et al.) Vehicle Laws - Protective Headgear Requirement

More information

Motorcycle Safety Program Initiatives: Achievement and Challenges

Motorcycle Safety Program Initiatives: Achievement and Challenges Motorcycle Safety Program Initiatives: Achievement and Challenges Mehdi Nassirpour Illinois Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Safety Objectives 1. General Statistics on Motorcycles

More information

TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI)

TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI) TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI) A husband and wife, in their late forties, attend a support meeting of professionals in the TBI field. He is a survivor of a traumatic brain injury. The man rides in a special

More information

The spectrum of motorcycle research in Maryland

The spectrum of motorcycle research in Maryland The spectrum of motorcycle research in Maryland Cynthia Burch MPH, Timothy Kerns MS National Study Center for Trauma & EMS, University of Maryland School of Medicine Abstract Motorcycle riders experience

More information

Geographic Analysis of Traffic Injury in Wisconsin: Impact on Case Fatality of Distance to Level I/II Trauma Care

Geographic Analysis of Traffic Injury in Wisconsin: Impact on Case Fatality of Distance to Level I/II Trauma Care Geographic Analysis of Traffic Injury in Wisconsin: Impact on Case Fatality of Distance to Level I/II Trauma Care Maureen Durkin, PhD, DrPH; Jane McElroy, PhD; Hui Guan, MBBS, MS; Wayne Bigelow, MS; Tom

More information

Motorcycle Related Crash Victims (What the Statistics Say) Mehdi Nassirpour Illinois Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Safety

Motorcycle Related Crash Victims (What the Statistics Say) Mehdi Nassirpour Illinois Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Safety Motorcycle Related Crash Victims (What the Statistics Say) Mehdi Nassirpour Illinois Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Safety Illinois Highway Safety Program Areas Occupant Protection

More information

Legal consequences for alcohol-impaired drivers injured in motor vehicle collisions: a systematic review

Legal consequences for alcohol-impaired drivers injured in motor vehicle collisions: a systematic review ACIP 2015 Injury Prevention Conference Legal consequences for alcohol-impaired drivers injured in motor vehicle collisions: a systematic review Robert S. Green, Nelofar Kureshi, Mete Erdogan Mete Erdogan,

More information

Cycling-related Traumatic Brain Injury 2011

Cycling-related Traumatic Brain Injury 2011 Cycling-related Traumatic Brain Injury 2011 The Chinese University of Hong Kong Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery Accident & Emergency Medicine Academic Unit Jockey Club School of Public

More information

Does referral from an emergency department to an. alcohol treatment center reduce subsequent. emergency room visits in patients with alcohol

Does referral from an emergency department to an. alcohol treatment center reduce subsequent. emergency room visits in patients with alcohol Does referral from an emergency department to an alcohol treatment center reduce subsequent emergency room visits in patients with alcohol intoxication? Robert Sapien, MD Department of Emergency Medicine

More information

An Article Critique - Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims. Ashley Roberts. University of Cincinnati

An Article Critique - Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims. Ashley Roberts. University of Cincinnati Epidemiology Article Critique 1 Running head: Epidemiology Article Critique An Article Critique - Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims Ashley Roberts University of Cincinnati

More information

ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR

ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR ORIGINAL ARTICLE JUMMEC 2008:11(1) ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR Moe H Department of Social

More information

Characteristics of Motorcycle Crashes in the U.S.

Characteristics of Motorcycle Crashes in the U.S. Characteristics of Motorcycle Crashes in the U.S. Jeya Padmanaban, M.S. JP Research Inc., USA. 7 West El Camino Real, Suite 2 Mountain View, CA, 944 jeya@jpresearch.com Vitaly Eyges, PhD., JP Research,

More information

Cyclist Injuries Treated in Emergency Department (ED): Consequences and Costs in South-eastern Finland in an Area of 100 000 Inhabitants

Cyclist Injuries Treated in Emergency Department (ED): Consequences and Costs in South-eastern Finland in an Area of 100 000 Inhabitants Vol 54 ~ October 20101 Cyclist Injuries Treated in Emergency Department (ED): Consequences and Costs in South-eastern Finland in an Area of 100 000 Inhabitants Noora Airaksinen, MSc (Civ. Eng.) 1, Peter

More information

The Economic Impact of Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Pedestrians and Bicyclists

The Economic Impact of Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Pedestrians and Bicyclists The Economic Impact of Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Pedestrians and Bicyclists Florida Department of Health Health Information and Policy Analysis Program Release Date: September 9, 2015 Date Range:

More information

Measuring road crash injury severity in Western Australia using ICISS methodology

Measuring road crash injury severity in Western Australia using ICISS methodology Measuring road crash injury severity in Western Australia using ICISS methodology A Chapman Data Analyst, Data Linkage Branch, Public Health Intelligence, Public Health Division, Department of Health,

More information

Increased Risk of Death or Disability in Unhelmeted Wisconsin Motorcyclists

Increased Risk of Death or Disability in Unhelmeted Wisconsin Motorcyclists Increased Risk of Death or Disability in Unhelmeted Wisconsin Motorcyclists Carley Sauter, BA; Shankuan Zhu, MD, PhD; Shane Allen, BS, MPH; Stephen Hargarten, MD, MPH; Peter M. Layde, MD, MSc ABSTRACT

More information

A DESCRIPTION OF MOTORCYCLE CRASH INJURIES AND HELMET USE IN A SAMPLE OF MARYLAND TRAUMA PATIENTS

A DESCRIPTION OF MOTORCYCLE CRASH INJURIES AND HELMET USE IN A SAMPLE OF MARYLAND TRAUMA PATIENTS A DESCRIPTION OF MOTORCYCLE CRASH INJURIES AND HELMET USE IN A SAMPLE OF MARYLAND TRAUMA PATIENTS Timothy J. Kerns, MS, Cynthia A. Burch, MPH, Patricia C. Dischinger, PhD University of Maryland National

More information

Cycling Safety Policy, Rules, Procedure and Etiquette V5

Cycling Safety Policy, Rules, Procedure and Etiquette V5 Cycling Safety Policy, Rules, Procedure and Etiquette V5 Purpose Cycling is an enjoyable activity that can have significant health benefits. Yet, like other physically active sports, cycling has many inherent

More information

The effects of Michigan s weakened motorcycle helmet use law on insurance losses

The effects of Michigan s weakened motorcycle helmet use law on insurance losses Bulletin Vol. 30, No. 9 : April 2013 The effects of Michigan s weakened motorcycle helmet use law on insurance losses In April of 2012 the state of Michigan changed its motorcycle helmet law. The change

More information

CYCLISTS INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA

CYCLISTS INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA FACT SHEET CYCLISTS INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA August 2014 The following data represents police reported incidents of fatal, and minor casualties. Police data does not show the location

More information

TRAUMA IN SANTA CRUZ COUNTY 2009. Kent Benedict, MD, FACEP EMS Medical Director, Santa Cruz County EMS. November 1, 2010

TRAUMA IN SANTA CRUZ COUNTY 2009. Kent Benedict, MD, FACEP EMS Medical Director, Santa Cruz County EMS. November 1, 2010 TRAUMA IN SANTA CRUZ COUNTY 2009 Kent Benedict, MD, FACEP EMS Medical Director, Santa Cruz County EMS November 1, 2010 The Santa Cruz County Emergency Medical Services (EMS) 2009 annual comprehensive review

More information

Epidemiologic Features of Facial Injuries among Motorcyclists using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)

Epidemiologic Features of Facial Injuries among Motorcyclists using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) Epidemiologic Features of Facial Injuries among Motorcyclists using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) Hamed Akhlaghi 1, Ali Adibi 2 and Mohammad Reza Zafarghandi 3 Sina Trauma Research Center, Sina General

More information

Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Data Analysis: 2005-2010

Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Data Analysis: 2005-2010 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Data Analysis: 2005-2010 FINAL REPORT Prepared by: T.Y. Lin International and Western Michigan University 4/3/2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS List

More information

Traffic Safety Facts. Laws. Motorcycle Helmet Use Laws. Inside This Issue. Key Facts. April 2004

Traffic Safety Facts. Laws. Motorcycle Helmet Use Laws. Inside This Issue. Key Facts. April 2004 Traffic Safety Facts Laws April 2004 Motorcycle Helmet Use Laws Motorcycle helmets provide the best protection from head injury for motorcyclists involved in traffic crashes. The passage of helmet use

More information

June 2006 Dear Traffic Safety Partners: The Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Safety is pleased to provide you with a copy of the 2003 Wisconsin Alcohol Traffic Facts book.

More information

Large increases in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital

Large increases in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital Large increases in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital charges following the repeal of Pennsylvania s mandatory motorcycle helmet law Word count abstract: 80 Word count

More information

Compassionate Allowance Outreach Hearing on Brain Injuries. Social Security Administration. November 18, 2008. Statement of

Compassionate Allowance Outreach Hearing on Brain Injuries. Social Security Administration. November 18, 2008. Statement of Compassionate Allowance Outreach Hearing on Brain Injuries Social Security Administration November 18, 2008 Statement of Jerome E. Herbers, Jr., M.D. Office of Healthcare Inspections Office of Inspector

More information

SECTION 3.2: MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC CRASHES

SECTION 3.2: MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC CRASHES SECTION 3.2: MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC CRASHES 1,155 Deaths* 4,755 Hospitalizations 103,860 ED Visits *SOURCE: OHIO DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, VITAL STATISTICS SOURCE: OHIO HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS:

More information

INCIDENT REPORTING INSTRUCTIONS

INCIDENT REPORTING INSTRUCTIONS INSURING AMERICA'S PASTIMES AND FUTURE TIMES INCIDENTREPORTINGINSTRUCTIONS WheneveranAccidentOccurs: AnIncidentReportformmustbecompletedimmediatelyafteranaccidentoccursandmailedor faxedtoamericanspecialtyinsurance&riskservices,inc.asindicatedbelow.thisholdstrue

More information

Bicycling under the influence of alcohol

Bicycling under the influence of alcohol Bicycling under the influence of alcohol Published in Transportation Research Part F, 2015 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2015.03.003 Dick de Waard, PhD 1, Sjoerd Houwing, PhD 2, Ben Lewis-Evans,

More information

酒 後 駕 駛 與 道 路 使 用 者 撞 傷 嚴 重 程 度 間 的 關 係

酒 後 駕 駛 與 道 路 使 用 者 撞 傷 嚴 重 程 度 間 的 關 係 Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine Association between drink driving and severity of crash injuries to road users 酒 後 駕 駛 與 道 路 使 用 者 撞 傷 嚴 重 程 度 間 的 關 係 KL Tsui 徐 國 樑, NN Sze 施 能 藝, FL So 蘇 鳳 玲,

More information

Excessive alcohol consumption increases the likelihood of accidental injury. This

Excessive alcohol consumption increases the likelihood of accidental injury. This Abstract Excessive alcohol consumption increases the likelihood of accidental injury. This pilot study reports on the prevalence of hazardous drinkers presenting to a Minor Injuries Unit. The proportion

More information

Drinking and Driving: Global Status

Drinking and Driving: Global Status Drinking and Driving: Global Status Ward Vanlaar, Ph.D. Vice President Research Traffic Injury Research Foundation Bogotá, Colombia November 19th, 2013 1 One million dollar question How is Colombia doing

More information

Survey of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in Taiwan

Survey of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in Taiwan Surgical Neurology 66 (2006) S2:20 S2:25 Trauma Survey of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in Taiwan Jia-Wei Lin, MD a,1, Shih-Han Tsai, MD, PhD a,b,1, Wan-Chen Tsai, MS d, Wen-Ta Chiu, MD, PhD a,e, 4,

More information

Section C: Examples of Interventions in the Developing World. Adnan Hyder, MD, PhD

Section C: Examples of Interventions in the Developing World. Adnan Hyder, MD, PhD This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this

More information

Estimated Medical Cost Savings in New Hampshire by Implementation Of a Primary Seat Belt Law

Estimated Medical Cost Savings in New Hampshire by Implementation Of a Primary Seat Belt Law DOT HS 810 934 March 2008 Final Report Estimated Medical Cost Savings in New Hampshire by Implementation Of a Primary Seat Belt Law This document is available to the public from the National Technical

More information

Evidence-Based Management of Pediatric Head Trauma. Mariann Nocera, MD Siraj Amanullah, MD, MPH November 13, 2014

Evidence-Based Management of Pediatric Head Trauma. Mariann Nocera, MD Siraj Amanullah, MD, MPH November 13, 2014 Evidence-Based Management of Pediatric Head Trauma Mariann Nocera, MD Siraj Amanullah, MD, MPH November 13, 2014 Objectives Discuss the types and mechanisms of blunt head trauma in children Discuss the

More information

Head Injury. Dr Sally McCarthy Medical Director ECI

Head Injury. Dr Sally McCarthy Medical Director ECI Head Injury Dr Sally McCarthy Medical Director ECI Head injury in the emergency department A common presentation 80% Mild Head Injury = GCS 14 15 10% Moderate Head Injury = GCS 9 13 10% Severe Head Injury

More information

A Review of Serious Casualty Motorcycle Crashes in Tasmania

A Review of Serious Casualty Motorcycle Crashes in Tasmania A Review of Serious Casualty Motorcycle Crashes in Tasmania D epart ment of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources A Review of Serious Casualty Motorcycle Crashes in Tasmania Traffic and Infrastructure Branch

More information

Talking Points. About Roadway Users

Talking Points. About Roadway Users General facts regarding the driver: Talking Points About Roadway Users Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in the U.S. for people ages 6-33. They annually account for more than 1 million

More information

Evidence-Based Medicine Study between Bicycle Helmet and Head injury

Evidence-Based Medicine Study between Bicycle Helmet and Head injury Evidence-Based Medicine Study between Bicycle Helmet and Head injury Tsai Lung Wen a, Lin Shyr-Yi b,,ing Fang Yang c, Ten Fang Yang d a EBM Center of Taipei Medical University Hospital b Department of

More information

CAGE. AUDIT-C and the Full AUDIT

CAGE. AUDIT-C and the Full AUDIT CAGE In the past have you ever: C tried to Cut down or Change your pattern of drinking or drug use? A been Annoyed or Angry because of others concern about your drinking or drug use? G felt Guilty about

More information

Drugged Driving. What is Drugged Driving? How Many People Take Drugs and Drive?

Drugged Driving. What is Drugged Driving? How Many People Take Drugs and Drive? Drugged Driving What is Drugged Driving? "Have one [drink] for the road" was, until recently, a commonly used phrase in American culture. It has only been within the past 20 years that as a Nation, we

More information

The Effectiveness of a New Law to Reduce Alcohol-impaired Driving in Japan

The Effectiveness of a New Law to Reduce Alcohol-impaired Driving in Japan Original Article The Effectiveness of a New Law to Reduce Alcohol-impaired Driving in Japan JMAJ 49(11 12): 365 369, 2006 Takashi Nagata,* 1 3 David Hemenway,* 4 Melissa J Perry* 5 Abstract Objectives

More information

Motorcycle Safety A Trauma Surgeon s Perspective Sean A. Nix, D.O.

Motorcycle Safety A Trauma Surgeon s Perspective Sean A. Nix, D.O. Motorcycle Safety A Trauma Surgeon s Perspective Sean A. Nix, D.O. Disclosure I have nothing to disclose No political or financial attachments I do take care of injured patients Motorcycle Safety Injury

More information

of the role of alcohol in driver and cyclist.

of the role of alcohol in driver and cyclist. , BICYCLE ACCIDENTS INVOLVING MOTOR VEHICLES J A 10 year study of child mortality and morbidity with an analysis of the role of alcohol in driver and cyclist. John Pearn Ross Clacher James Nixon Alison

More information

BACKGROUND. National. Cell Phone Use and Text Messaging

BACKGROUND. National. Cell Phone Use and Text Messaging BACKGROUND National Developing public policies and legislation is an important component of injury and violence prevention. Implementing and enforcing regulations and laws can help reduce injuries, reduce

More information

Originals and Papers

Originals and Papers Originals and Papers A comprehensive study of motorcycle fatalities in South Delhi C. Behera*, (Lt. Col.) Ravi Rautji **, Sanjeev Lalwani*** & T. D. Dogra **** Abstract Ninety four of motorcycle fatalities

More information

MISSOURI TRAFFIC SAFETY COMPENDIUM

MISSOURI TRAFFIC SAFETY COMPENDIUM 2010 MISSOURI TRAFFIC SAFETY COMPENDIUM MISSOURI STATE HIGHWAY PATROL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS CENTER 1510 East Elm Jefferson City, Missouri 65101 (573) 751-9000 CONTENTS PAGE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION...1

More information

JUVENILES BEHIND THE WHEEL LAWS FOR YOUNG DRIVERS

JUVENILES BEHIND THE WHEEL LAWS FOR YOUNG DRIVERS JUVENILES BEHIND THE WHEEL LAWS FOR YOUNG DRIVERS Mara Dudley Llano Municipal Court Where Are We Going? Identify relevant statutes applicable to young drivers Discuss the need for restrictive laws on young

More information

Graduated Driver Licensing Laws and Insurance Collision Claim Frequencies of Teenage Drivers. Rebecca E. Trempel

Graduated Driver Licensing Laws and Insurance Collision Claim Frequencies of Teenage Drivers. Rebecca E. Trempel Graduated Driver Licensing Laws and Insurance Collision Claim Frequencies of Teenage Drivers Rebecca E. Trempel November 2009 ABSTRACT Objectives. This study examined the effect of different graduated

More information

The Importance of Understanding External Cause of Injury Codes

The Importance of Understanding External Cause of Injury Codes The Importance of Understanding External Cause of Injury Codes This presentation is designed to: Define external cause of injury codes Inform and Educate health care providers, policymakers, and the public

More information

The Statistics. Tips for Parents

The Statistics. Tips for Parents The Statistics In 2001, the most recent statistics for Texas, 985 children, age 0-14, were injured in crashes with motor vehicles. For that same period of time and age range, 9 children died and 66 percent

More information

PROMOTING BICYCLE SAFETY FOR CHILDREN: Strategies and Tools for Community Programs

PROMOTING BICYCLE SAFETY FOR CHILDREN: Strategies and Tools for Community Programs PROMOTING BICYCLE SAFETY FOR CHILDREN: Strategies and Tools for Community Programs This issue brief provides strategies and resources for community organizations to use in developing and implementing bike

More information

The cost of personal injuries claims in New Zealand by claimant characteristics. Nick Allsop David Gifford Chris Latham Noeline Woof

The cost of personal injuries claims in New Zealand by claimant characteristics. Nick Allsop David Gifford Chris Latham Noeline Woof The cost of personal injuries claims in New Zealand by claimant characteristics Nick Allsop David Gifford Chris Latham Noeline Woof November 2004 Overview A description of the benefits provided under the

More information

Pedal Cycle Injuries to Children Aged 0-17 Years Miami-Dade County 2008-2012

Pedal Cycle Injuries to Children Aged 0-17 Years Miami-Dade County 2008-2012 Pedal Cycle Injuries to Children Aged 0-17 Years Miami-Dade County 2008-2012 Injuries from riding pedal cycles were the eighth leading cause of medically-treated injury to Miami-Dade County children aged

More information

Hospitalizations and Medical Care Costs of Serious Traumatic Brain Injuries, Spinal Cord Injuries and Traumatic Amputations

Hospitalizations and Medical Care Costs of Serious Traumatic Brain Injuries, Spinal Cord Injuries and Traumatic Amputations Hospitalizations and Medical Care Costs of Serious Traumatic Brain Injuries, Spinal Cord Injuries and Traumatic Amputations FINAL REPORT JUNE 2013 J. Mick Tilford, PhD Professor and Chair Department of

More information

NON-FATAL INJURIES SUSTAINED IN ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS : A PILOT STUDY IN PROVINCIAL HOSPITALS IN CHON BURI, THAILAND

NON-FATAL INJURIES SUSTAINED IN ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS : A PILOT STUDY IN PROVINCIAL HOSPITALS IN CHON BURI, THAILAND NON-FATAL TRAFFIC INJURY IN THAILAND NON-FATAL INJURIES SUSTAINED IN ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS : A PILOT STUDY IN PROVINCIAL HOSPITALS IN CHON BURI, THAILAND Sansnee Jirojwong 1, Koolarb Rudtanasudjatum 2,

More information

Risk of Head, Facial and Neck Injury in Bicycle and Motorcycle Crashes in relation to Helmet Use. Email: toh.pang@unsw.edu.au

Risk of Head, Facial and Neck Injury in Bicycle and Motorcycle Crashes in relation to Helmet Use. Email: toh.pang@unsw.edu.au Risk of Head, Facial and Neck Injury in Bicycle and Motorcycle Crashes in relation to Helmet Use T.Y. Pang 1, K.T. Thai 1, T. Rankin 2, K. Curtis 2,3, E. Schilter 1, A.S. McIntosh 1 1 School of Risk and

More information

Bicycle Helmet Effectiveness in Preventing Injury and Death

Bicycle Helmet Effectiveness in Preventing Injury and Death The Young Epidemiology Scholars Program (YES) is supported by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and administered by the College Board. Bicycle Helmet Effectiveness in Preventing Injury and Death Lloyd

More information

Report Compiled by the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles

Report Compiled by the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles Report Compiled by the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles 2009 Florida Quick Facts: Definitions: Bicycle A vehicle propelled solely by human power or a motorized bicycle propelled

More information

Code of Conduct for Commercial Drivers

Code of Conduct for Commercial Drivers Code of Conduct for Commercial Drivers RoadDriver 2011 Safe Use of Vehicles Watch your Speed Drive within the speed limit at all times. You should drive at speeds that are safe for the conditions, recognising

More information

Per vehicle mile traveled, motorcyclists were more than 26 times more likely than passenger car occupants to die in a traffic crash.

Per vehicle mile traveled, motorcyclists were more than 26 times more likely than passenger car occupants to die in a traffic crash. TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2012 Data DOT HS 812 035 June 2014 Motorcycles In 2012, 4,957 motorcyclists were killed in motor vehicle traffic crashes an increase of 7 percent from the 4,630 motorcyclists killed

More information

BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models

BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models Archives of Emergency Medicine, 1985, 2, 209-213 BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models J. WORRELL Senior Registrar, Accident and Emergency Department, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth,

More information

SSMJ Issue 2 Vol 4. Downloaded from http://www.southernsudanmedicaljournal.com

SSMJ Issue 2 Vol 4. Downloaded from http://www.southernsudanmedicaljournal.com Motorcycle-Related Trauma in South Sudan: a cross sectional observational study. Andrew Allan, University of Birmingham. AXA615@bham.ac.uk Abstract Motorcycle related trauma is a major cause of morbidity

More information

Oxfordshire Local Transport Plan 2011-2030 Revised April 2012. Objective 3 Reduce casualties and the dangers associated with travel

Oxfordshire Local Transport Plan 2011-2030 Revised April 2012. Objective 3 Reduce casualties and the dangers associated with travel 6. Road Safety Objective 3 Reduce casualties and the dangers associated with travel Road safety continues to be a core priority both nationally and locally reflecting the very high human and other costs

More information

FIRST REVIEW OF THE COMPULSORY THIRD PARTY

FIRST REVIEW OF THE COMPULSORY THIRD PARTY Submission No 12 FIRST REVIEW OF THE COMPULSORY THIRD PARTY INSURANCE SCHEME Organisation: Date received: 20 May 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons NSW REVIEW OF THE COMPULSORY THIRD PARTY INSURANCE

More information

RULES OF THE ROAD BY LWTL Staff Writer

RULES OF THE ROAD BY LWTL Staff Writer RULES OF THE ROAD BY LWTL Staff Writer Publisher s Note This is the First of a Three Part Series on Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety. This First Part is made available to all readers. The final two parts

More information

! # % & (( ) +,!., / 0 1 # 2 ( 0 3 (42

! # % & (( ) +,!., / 0 1 # 2 ( 0 3 (42 ! # % & (( ) +,!., / 0 1 # 2 ( 0 3 (42 5 317 ORIGINAL ARTICLE New Zealand bicycle helmet law do the costs outweigh the? M Taylor, P Scuffham... Injury Prevention 2002;8:317 320 See end of article for authors

More information

What happens when walkers and cyclists share the space?

What happens when walkers and cyclists share the space? What happens when walkers and cyclists share the space? Narelle Haworth and Amy Schramm Walk21, Sydney, 21-23 October 2014 CRICOS No. 00213J Outline Safe Systems principles Review literature Crash and

More information

Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on the German In-Depth Accident Study. Chiara Orsi

Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on the German In-Depth Accident Study. Chiara Orsi Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on the German In-Depth Accident Study Chiara Orsi Centre of Study and Research on Road Safety University of Pavia State of the art Vulnerable road

More information

The impact of graduated driver licensing restrictions on young driver crashes in New Zealand

The impact of graduated driver licensing restrictions on young driver crashes in New Zealand The impact of graduated driver licensing restrictions on young driver crashes in New Zealand Begg, D.J.; Alsop, J. Langley, J.D. Injury Prevention Research Unit Department of Preventive and Social Medicine

More information

Charlotte A. Kilvington Office of Highway Safety Planning February 14, 2011. Background

Charlotte A. Kilvington Office of Highway Safety Planning February 14, 2011. Background Data Trends after the Repeal of Mandatory Motorcycle Helmet Laws in US and Estimated Socioeconomic Effects of Repealing Michigan s Universal Helmet Law Charlotte A. Kilvington Office of Highway Safety

More information

SUMMARY PRELIMINARY CRITICAL INJURIES ON WESTERN AUSTRALIAN ROADS ORS 585-03-15 ISSN 2204-7875

SUMMARY PRELIMINARY CRITICAL INJURIES ON WESTERN AUSTRALIAN ROADS ORS 585-03-15 ISSN 2204-7875 204 SUMMARY PRELIMINARY FATAL AND CRITICAL INJURIES ON WESTERN AUSTRALIAN ROADS ORS 585-03-5 ISSN 2204-7875 2 Foreword There have been encouraging signs that Western Australians may be heeding life-saving

More information

Drunk Driving Accident Statistics

Drunk Driving Accident Statistics Drunk Driving Accident Statistics Drunk Driving Legal Resources Drunk Driving Laws by State Video - Rights of Injured Drivers Defective Car Products & Parts Steps to Take After a Car Crash Auto Accident

More information

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 FIGURE 1 VEHICLES, DRIVERS AND FATALITY RATE, 1966-2010 ---------------------------------------------------

More information