Department of Business Management, Islamic Azad University, Iran

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1 Factors Influencing Online Purchase Books By Students and Lecturer of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences Maryam Jabbari Department of Business Management, Islamic Azad University, Iran Abstract The main purpose of this research is identifying factors influencing online purchase books by students and lecturer of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences and prioritization of these factors that according to emerging online purchase in iran, in different areas of mentioned university, it is obviously that investigate factors influencing online purchase can help to identify possible reasons for non-acceptance individuals from this approach. Research method In terms of purpose is applied and in terms of subject is descriptive. Statistical sample in this study has been cluster and consisted of 361 students and lecturer from 4 colleges. In process of hypothesis testing indicated that all hypotheses proposed in research have been approved and result obtained of organizing information communication, information security and privacy policy, reduction of transaction costs, facilitating selection and access confirm theoretical model of research and variables in research hypotheses (organizing information communication, information security and privacy policy, reduction of transaction costs, facilitating selection and access ) obtained mean respectively 2/90,2/84,2/48,1/79 that in confidence level 99% was confirmed. Keywords: E-Commerce, Online Purchase, Consumer Behavior, Organizational Behavior, Communications, Book. 1. INTRODUCTION Nowadays, 1.8 billion internet users are in worldwide that have increased by % compared with With development of information technology in the world and its rapid entering to everyday life, there are new problems and needs and electronic business has replaced traditional methods [4]. Many studies have shown that in today's competitive world, success of companies is associated with preserving, maintaining and communication with customers and electronic business can provide customers' explicit and implicit requirements [3]. Electronic commerce can be useful for several reasons. For example, it provides easy access to products that may not be possible to access it without the internet [7]. In addition, electronic commerce is a simple way to perform transactions and although it is sometimes more vulnerable than the traditional form, but can largely provide the needs and requirements of consumers [1]. Studies show that the use of electronic commerce makes 21 to 70 percent savings on the cost of various activities. Some benefits of electronic commerce that can be referred are reduction of the cost of distribution and sale, eliminating intermediaries, direct contact between buyer and seller, searching priorities and negotiation without intermediaries [2]. Undoubtedly, wise utilization from technology of e-commerce can help to improve the efficiency of different business. On the other hand, a new method of nonphysical retail shopping is online shopping [8]. The rapid growth and increasing use of computer technology, it is possible that retail sellers and buyers through the Internet connect effectively and effectiveness of the exchange process must advance. Thus, online purchase can consider one of the major developments in sales of the world retail [6]. Advanced countries in this field have created infrastructure many years ago and in a logical and comprehensive and continuous motion have been able to effectively use information technology and communication in the business world and can benefit from its advantages [10]. This research to investigate and to identifying the factors influencing on online purchase books in the studied society could be play a valuable role in developing online purchase books. 2 - THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH MODEL: In this research Independent variables include: organizing information communication, Information security and privacy policy, reduction of transaction costs and facilitating selection and access to book and online purchase is the dependent variable of the research. Existence of extensive information on the Internet, reducing the cost of purchasing and facilitating purchase process can easily make a positive impact on online purchase [9]. While information security especially privacy policy can create an adverse effect in online purchase. However, the effect of these variables on online purchase is justified and acceptable. COPY RIGHT 2012 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 654

2 In figure (1) has been identified Theoretical framework and relationship of intended variables that developed based on model of Jafarpour (2009). Feedback Organizing Information Communication Online Purchase Books Information Security and Privacy Policy Reduction of transaction costs Facilitating selection and access Figure 1: Research model (Jafarpour, 2009) 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research method In terms of purpose is applied and In terms of subject is descriptive; In terms of time data collected is survey and in terms of method of data collection is field. In this study to data collection needed to test hypotheses (preliminary information) was used questionnaire and to examine research literature and to determine the theoretical framework and conceptual model (secondary data) were used documentary research. In this research for sampling method is used cluster sampling. First, all Qazvin Medical University colleges are classified into 4 clusters that include Medical, Dentistry, Nursing and Midwifery and Paramedical College then the students and lecturers randomly selected from each college. The statistical population of research is lecturers and students from four colleges in Qazvin Medical University. Available statistics the number of students and lecturers in colleges are presented separately in Table 1 (Administrative Assistant Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, 2012) Table 1 - Statistics of colleges students and lecturers in Qazvin Medical University separately College Medical Dentistry Nursing and Paramedical Total sample Midwifery Lecturer Student The sample size calculated for both groups of lecturers and students in the colleges describe contained in Table 2. COPY RIGHT 2012 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 655

3 Table 2- Sample size of lecturers and students in the colleges College Medical Dentistry Nursing and Midwifery Paramedical Total sample Lecturer Student Content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by faculty and advisors and some expert people. Cronbach's alpha test was used to the reliability of the questionnaire. Since the mean value of the variable Cronbach Alpha were obtained 0/743. Results indicated acceptable reliability of the questionnaire. In order to analyze the data were used from both descriptive and inferential statistics. «t-test» and Binomial Test are used to examine hypotheses. Friedman test is used to prioritize the factors. To determine differences between the groups based on research variables were used t-tests and ANOVA. 4. DATA ANALYSIS In this research from test «t-test» is used to examine hypotheses. But to ensure the accuracy of the results was used from binomial test, while Friedman test was used to examine priority of variables. First hypothesis: H 0: Reduction of transaction costs doesn t have effect online purchase books. H 1 : Reduction of transaction costs has effect online purchase books. Note that the percentage error α= 0/05 and confidence level (1-α) is equal to 0/95 and sample size is 361 people and degrees of freedom equal to 360 (df= n-1). So amount of table in error level α is equal to: t 1/ 96 2 In addition to the calculations performed by SPSS software test statistic by using the formula, was determined as the following. t x s n According to the results obtained from the above calculations, and considering that test statistic (7/203) is more than statistics table in error level 0/05 and degrees of freedom 360 (1/96) (1/96<7/203), so we can say that confirmed. It means that reduction of transaction costs doesn t have effect online purchase books. Second hypothesis: H 0: Information security and privacy policy doesn t have effect online purchase books. H 1 : Information security and privacy policy has effect online purchase books. According to the results obtained from the above calculations, and considering that test statistic (4/727) is more than statistics table in error level 0/05 and degrees of freedom 360 (1/96) (1/96<4/727), so we can say that confirmed. It means that information security and privacy policy has effect online purchase books. COPY RIGHT 2012 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 656

4 Third hypothesis: H 0 : Organizing information communication doesn t have effect online purchase books. H 1 : Organizing information communication has effect online purchase books. According to the results obtained from the above calculations, and considering that test statistic (17/775) is more than statistics table in error level 0/05 and degrees of freedom 360 (1/96) (1/96<17/775), so we can say that confirmed. It means that organizing information communication has effect online purchase books. fourth hypothesis: H 0 : Facilitating selection and access doesn t have effect online purchase books. H 1 : Facilitating selection and access has effect online purchase books. According to the results obtained from the above calculations, and considering that test statistic (14/902) is more than statistics table in error level 0/05 and degrees of freedom 360 (1/96) (1/96<14/902), so we can say that confirmed. It means that facilitating selection and access has effect online purchase books. Also for prioritization effective factors online purchase books was used Friedman test. Prioritization of effective factors online purchase books has been shown in table 4. Table 3 - Summary of hypotheses test Row Hypotheses Result 1 Reduction of transaction costs has effect online purchase books Confirmed 2 Information security and privacy policy has effect online purchase books Confirmed 3 Organizing information communication has effect online purchase books Confirmed 4 Facilitating selection and access has effect online purchase books Confirmed Table 4- Prioritization of effective factors online purchase books Priority Variables mean rank 1 Organizing information communication 2/90 2 Facilitating selection and access 2/84 3 Reduction of transaction costs 2/48 4 Information security and privacy policy 1/79 To determine differences between the groups (lecturers, students, gender, and type of college) based on research variables are used t-tests and ANOVA. That test results in Table 5, is shown as follows. Row TABLE 5- RESULT OF T-TESTS AND ANOVA 1 Lecturers and students have same agreements about reduction of transaction costs 2 There isn t significant difference between lecturer and student about information security. 3 Lecturers have more agreements with organizing information communication online purchase books. 4 Lecturers have More agreements with Facilitating selection and access online purchase books. 5 Men have More agreements with Reduction of transaction costs online purchase books. 6 There isn t significant difference between gender about Information Security and Privacy Policy. 7 There isn t significant difference between genders about Organizing Information Communication. 8 There isn t significant difference between gender about Facilitating selection and access. 9 There isn t significant difference between colleges about Reduction of transaction costs online purchase books. 10 There isn t significant difference between colleges about Information Security and Privacy Policy. 11 There isn t significant difference between colleges about Organizing Information Communication 12 There isn t significant difference between colleges about Facilitating selection and access online purchase books. Result COPY RIGHT 2012 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 657

5 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Results showed that there is significant difference between views of two group students and lecturers in two hypotheses, organizing information communication and facilitating selection and access to book, as in these two hypotheses, lecturers more than students believe that mentioned variables has effect online purchase books. This shows that lecturers have higher sensitivity online purchase books, it is suggested that this issue be considered in formulating strategies of online book sale. Results showed that there is significant difference between genders about reduction of transaction costs. It means that men have more agreement with reduction of transaction costs online purchase books. Thus it is suggested that online sale strategies be developed according to Sensitivity of males towards reduction of transaction costs. Necessary to reduce transaction costs by using online purchase books between male genders understand for reasons such as travel costs, time, traffic, etc. It is suggested that this need taking advantage for other types of goods and services and should be taken to expand the online sale on other merchandise items. As well as the lack of understanding reduce transaction costs by using online purchase books by female respondents can be major obstacle in development online sales of a book. It is suggested that by reducing the goods in online purchase create related need. Research results has shown that in two medical and nursing colleges about two hypotheses, organizing information communication and facilitating selection process and access to the book, there are significant differences. Thus it is suggested that this issue in strategy formulation of online sales and providing distribution channels of convenient and fast must be considered. Also In among all the variables, the variable of organizing information communication, with a mean score of 2/90 acquired the highest score. This indicates the importance of this variable is very high. Thus, according to effective indicator on this variable for the development of online purchase book, it is important. Thus it is suggested that book online purchase development strategies, with a focus on the development of this variable. In whole online purchase book is easy and convenient that by offering discounts and convenience send and with trusteeship can provide for students and faculty. It is suggested that by designing and providing secure communication channels with offering appropriate incentives develop more and more online purchase book in University. COPY RIGHT 2012 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 658

6 References [1] Byramjee, Faramarz. (2007). "The influence of consumer, perspectives of transaction costs in business-to consumer markets, their risk-bearing propensity, and the categories of goods purchased on consumers preference of shipping medium". A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the Barry Kaye College of business of Florida Atlantic University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of doctor of philosophy. [2] Chen, Liqiang. (2000). "online consumer behavior : an empirical study based an theory of planed behavior". A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the Graduate College at the University of Nebraska in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of doctor of philosophy. [3] Crespo, Angel Herrero. Del Bosque, Ignacio Rodriguez. (2008). "The effect of innovativeness on the adoption of B2C e-commerce: A model based an theory of planed behavior".journal of Computers in Human Behavior.24.pp [4] Didier G.R. Soopramanien, Alastair Robertson(2006):"Adoption and Usage of Online shopping: An Empirical Analysis of the Characteristics of,buyers,,browsers, and Non-Internet shoppers,". Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Paper Availableat : Com /locate/jretconser. [5] Girard, Tulay. (2005). "Validating the search, experience and credence product classification framework in model of patronage intentions". A dissertationsubmitted to the College of business administration of florida Atlantic University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of doctor of philosophy. [6] Jafarpour. (2009). The book presents a conceptual model from Online Purchase and evaluation at country's universities, Journal of Business Research, No 52. [7] Kunz,Michelle B.(1997).''On-line customers: identifying Store, product and consumer attributes which influence shopping on the internet". A dissertation submitted to university of Tennessee, Knoxville in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of doctor of philosophy. [8] Lian, Jiunn-Woe. Lin,Tzu Ming.(2008). "Effects of consumer characteristic on their acceptance of online shopping: Comparisons among different product types ". Journal of Computers in Human Behavior.24pp [9] Miyazaki, Anthony D. Fernandez, Ana.(2001). "Consumer perceptions of privacy and security risks for online shopping". The Journal of consumer Affairs: Summer: 35, 1:ABI/INFORM Global p.22. O Cass, Aron. Fenech, Tino. (2003). "Web retailing adoption: exploring the nature of internet users Web retailing behavior". Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services.10.pp [10] Yoon,Miri.(2007)."An experimental study of consumers attitudes Toward the web : cross cultural analysis of cultural values and online consumer behavior". A thesis presented to the Faculty of the graduate School at the University of Missouri-Columbia in Partial university of Missouri-Columbia in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Scien. COPY RIGHT 2012 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 659

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