AP-R158 PEDESTRIAN AND CYCLIST SAFETY: COMPARISON OF PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE ACCIDENTS IN NEW SOUTH WALES, VICTORIA AND QUEENSLAND A USTROADS

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1 AP-R158 PEDESTRIAN AND CYCLIST SAFETY: COMPARISON OF PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE ACCIDENTS IN NEW SOUTH WALES, VICTORIA AND QUEENSLAND A USTROADS

2 Pedestrian and Cyclist Safety Comparison of Pedestrian and Bicycle Accidents in New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland First Published 2000 Austroads Inc This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without the prior written permission of Austroads. National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication data: Pedestrian and Cyclist Safety Comparison of Pedestrian and Bicycle Accidents in New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland ISBN Austroads Project No. N.RS.9517 Austroads Publication No. AP R158/00 Working Group Peter Cairney, ARRB Transport Research Rob Klein, VicRoads Gordon Lee, Queensland Department of Transport Steven Lovett, Roads and Traffic Authority New South Wales Published by Austroads Incorporated Level 9, Robell House 287 Elizabeth Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia Phone: Fax: Austroads believes this publication to be correct at the time of printing and does not accept responsibility for any consequences arising from the use of information herein. Readers should rely on their own skill and judgement to apply information to particular issues.

3 PEDESTRIAN AND CYCLIST SAFETY COMPARISON OF PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE ACCIDENTS IN NEW SOUTH WALES, VICTORIA AND QUEENSLAND Sydney 2000

4 Austroads Incorporated Austroads is the association of Australian and New Zealand road transport and traffic authorities whose mission is to contribute to development and delivery of the Australasian transport vision by: supporting safe and effective management and use of the road system developing and promoting national practices providing professional advice to member organisations and national and international bodies. Within this ambit, Austroads aims to provide strategic direction for the integrated development, management and operation of the Australian and New Zealand road system through the promotion of national uniformity and harmony, elimination of unnecessary duplication, and the identification and application of world best practice. Austroads is governed by a council consisting of the chief executive (or an alternative senior executive officer) of each of its eleven member organisations. Member organisations! Roads and Traffic Authority New South Wales! Roads Corporation Victoria! Department of Main Roads Queensland! Main Roads Western Australia! Transport South Australia! Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources Tasmania! Department of Transport and Works Northern Territory! Department of Urban Services Australian Capital Territory! Commonwealth Department of Transport and Regional Services! Australian Local Government Association! Transit New Zealand

5 Foreword Austroads Road Safety Program has a goal to develop and promulgate an agreed road safety program aimed at reducing the frequency and severity of crashes on the nations road systems. An Austroads project N.RS.9517 Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety in Australia set out to gain a level of understanding of pedestrian and bicyclist accidents not previously attempted in Australia. The project gave rise to four reports under the title Pedestrian and Cyclist Safety as follows: AP-R155 Pedestrian and Cyclist Safety Recent Developments This study reviewed developments in pedestrian and bicyclist safety with a view to identifying emerging issues and practice, emphasising the effectiveness of different facilities, behavioural processes and emerging technologies. AP-R156 Pedestrian and Cyclist Safety Pedestrian Crashes at Pedestrian Facilities This report undertakes an analysis of crashes at or near pedestrian facilities and identifies factors which may have contributed to accidents. AP-R157 Pedestrian and Cyclist Safety Investigation of Accidents in Different Road Environments Undertaken in Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane, this report presents the results of a comparison of pedestrian and bicycle casualty accident characteristics for different road environments. AP-R158 Pedestrian and Cyclist Safety Comparison of Accidents in New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland This report presents the results of a comparison of mass accident data from NSW, Victoria and Queensland involving pedestrians and cyclists. For the convenience of readers, the Executive Summaries for all four reports are reproduced together at the beginning of each of the four reports. i

6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report presents the results of a comparison of pedestrian and bicycle accidents in New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. Cross-tabulations were provided by the road authorities in the three States. Variables which were used in the cross tabulations included accident type, age group of pedestrians, bicyclists, and drivers, day and time, light conditions, type of vehicle, accident location and degree of urbanisation. These cross tabulations were aggregated where appropriate, and in some cases rates per 100,000 population were calculated. The principal findings for pedestrian crashes are: 1. The rate of pedestrians killed per 100,000 population is comparable in Victoria and New South Wales, with the rate in Queensland being noticeably higher. Paradoxically, New South Wales has the highest rate of pedestrian accidents per 100,000 population and Queensland the lowest. 2. Victoria had the highest proportion of accidents in the metropolitan rural area, with Queensland having the highest proportion of accidents in other urban and rural areas. 3. All three States showed similar patterns of accidents across the week, with fewer accidents at weekends and more accidents during the week. In all States, the highest number of accidents occurred on Fridays and the lowest on Sundays. 4. Pedestrian accidents in all States were characterised by an almost total absence of a morning peak, with accidents occurring in similar number from 8 am until 3 pm. There was then a marked late afternoon /early evening peak from 3 pm to 6 pm. 5. Data on light condition was only available for Victoria and New South Wales. The pattern was similar for both States, with New South Wales having slightly fewer daytime accidents and slightly more accidents in the twilight and darkness. 6. The rate of pedestrians killed per 100,000 population is highest in all three States amongst the 68 to 98 year age group. 7. The distribution of accident-types was remarkably similar across all three States. The most frequent types of accidents were: Pedestrian - Near side vehicle hit from right (001) Pedestrian - Far side vehicle hit from left (003) Pedestrian - Hit emerging from behind vehicle (002) Pedestrian - Playing, working, standing, lying (004) These four accident-types accounted for between 88 and 91 per cent of pedestrian accidents in each of the three States. 8. In general the distribution of accidents by accident-type is similar in the metropolitan and other urban areas amongst the states. While in the rural areas there are noticeably less near side (001), emerging (002) and far side (003) accidents with increases in the playing, walking standing, lying (004), walking with traffic (005) and walking facing traffic (006) accidents. ii

7 The principal findings for bicycle crashes are: 1. There are considerable differences among the States in the proportions of bicyclists in different injury severity classes; New South Wales has a much lower proportion of killed than other States, and Victoria a much higher proportion of injuries requiring medical treatment and uninjured cyclists. 2. The rate of bicyclists killed per 100,000 population is much lower in New South Wales and the rate admitted to hospital in Queensland is much higher than in the other two States. Otherwise, the rates of killed, hospital admissions and injuries requiring medical treatment are broadly similar. 3. Victoria had the highest proportion of accidents in both the metropolitan and rural areas, with Queensland having the highest proportion of accidents in other urban areas. 4. All three States showed similar patterns of accidents across the week, with fewer accidents at weekends and more accidents during the week; New South Wales had a higher proportion of accidents on a Sunday and slightly lower proportions on weekdays. 5. Bicycle accidents in all States showed a marked morning and evening peak; the morning peak was more pronounced in Victoria and Queensland, and the evening peak slightly more pronounced in Queensland. 6. The 13 to 17 year age group had the highest accident rate in all States, though their overrepresentation was less in New South Wales than other States. The 9 to 12 and 18 to 22 year age groups also had very high accident rates. 7. The distribution of accident-types was remarkably similar across all three States. The most frequent types of accidents were: Adjacent - cross traffic (101) Adjacent-right near (104) Opposing - right through (202) Same direction - rear end (301) iii

8 Executive Summaries from related projects Pedestrian and Cyclist Safety Recent Developments (AP-R155/00) Background Pedestrian and bicycle crashes result in significant human and financial losses. Improving pedestrian and cyclist safety will be important if road casualties are to be reduced or held constant while pedestrian and cyclist activity increases. Walking and cycling are significant elements in the transport system. Walking in particular is essential to connect destinations with other transport modes. Pedestrians contribute to approximately 17% of road fatalities and to at least 12% of roadrelated hospital admissions. Bicyclists contribute to approximately 2% of road fatalities and to at least 5% of road-related hospital admissions. Concern with reducing emissions and congestion is likely to drive strategies to reduce personal vehicle use. Lifestyle changes, including increased participation in walking and cycling as recreational activities and the revitalisation of inner-city areas, create demands for improved pedestrian and bicycle safety. Purpose The purpose of the report is to review developments in pedestrian and cyclist safety, particularly over the last ten years, with a view to identifying emerging issues and practice and describing new insights into pedestrian and cyclist safety. The report identifies significant issues which have yet to be resolved, suggests priorities for future research and development activities, and explores many of the issues confronting walking and cycling. The extent of the pedestrian and cyclist safety problem Under-reporting of pedestrian and bicyclist injuries is a major problem. In Australia, underreporting of pedestrian hospital admissions appears to be at least 30%. Under-reporting of bicyclerelated hospital admissions appears to be between 30% and 70%. For Australia as a whole, the costs of deaths and hospital admissions appears to be about $650 million per year for pedestrians and $ million per year for bicyclists. Exposure data is generally not available for walking and cycling modes. The one comprehensive study shows that in Australia fatality rates per million trips and per million hours are slightly higher for walking than for driving. However, the rates are much higher for walking than for travel as a car driver based on casualties per 10 million kilometres of travel. Bicyclists have lower accident rates per million trips than do car drivers, slightly higher rates per 10 million kilometres of travel and much higher rates per million hours spent travelling. A large proportion of pedestrians killed or injured have been drinking, many of them heavily. Evidence from the UK suggests that people from socially deprived areas have much higher pedestrian casualty rates than those living in areas that are more affluent. The difference in rates between deprived and affluent areas is much greater for men than it is for women. iv

9 Crash Patterns A small number of crash types account for the bulk of pedestrian crashes. Although the picture is more complicated, a small number of bicycle crash types also account for the bulk of the crashes. Nearly all pedestrian and cycle crashes occur in urban areas. Conspicuity is a major factor in pedestrian and bicycle crashes. In the majority of bicycle crashes involving motor vehicles, the cyclist was viewed from the front rather than the rear. Pedestrian accidents generally occur to males at night-time. A substantial proportion involves high levels of intoxication. There is little information available on alcohol-related bicycle crashes. The incidence of such crashes is low, but the risks of injury associated with intoxicated cycling appear to be very high. Safety of different types of facility The risk associated with crossing at signalised intersections is low, but there is no conclusive evidence that installing pedestrian signals reduces pedestrian crashes. United Kingdom data suggests that a higher pedestrian crash rate is associated with crossing at pelican crossings rather than crossing at intersection signals. However, crossing movements made at pelicans on arterial roads have a lower crash rate than crossing movements made away from crossing facilities. A high crash rate was associated with crossing close to a pelican crossing rather than on the crossing itself. NSW data suggests that both pelican crossings and standard pedestrian-operated signals (POS) significantly reduce pedestrian crashes. A number of other treatments were identified as effective in the NSW study, including medians, refuges, kerb extensions and raised platforms. There is conflicting evidence on the safety benefits of zebra crossings. Providing for pedestrians and cyclists There is a need for analytical tools that not only measure the objective quality of walking and cycling, but also take into account pedestrian and cyclist perceptions of the quality of the experience and their feelings of safety and security. A number of different approaches to bicycle Level of Service have been suggested. The most credible approaches for assessing on-road bicycle facilities are based largely on a consideration of kerb lane width and traffic speed, and may take into account other factors such as number of commercial driveways, number of heavy vehicles, and parking turnover. It may also be worth considering the quality of the road surface. There would appear to be considerable scope for retrofitting the urban road network with cycle routes at a very modest cost. This could be achieved by opening up space to bicycles that is currently under-utilised, re-allocating space to bicycles from other functions, and a limited amount of creation of new facilities. Retrofitting the network in the manner proposed leaves the question unresolved of how to cater for cyclists at intersections. There appear to be no obvious solutions to this problem, yet it is essential to improve intersection safety if cycling is to be encouraged without greatly increasing the number of bicycle casualties. v

10 Less attention appears to have been paid to developing pedestrian plans for urban centres than has been given to bicycle plans. A pedestrian safety strategy developed to complement a pedestrian strategy for the City of Melbourne identified a range of low cost measures that would be likely to improve safety for pedestrians. Patterns of pedestrian and cyclist injury The kinematics of pedestrian crashes and the relationship between trajectory, vehicle speed, vehicle design and pedestrian stature are now well documented. The mechanism of pedestrian injury tends to change with increasing speed, contact with the ground predominating at very low speeds, supplanted by contact with the vehicle at moderate to high speeds. Changes to vehicle design in recent years have reduced the potential for injury to pedestrians in the case of a collision. There do not appear to be published analyses of the kinematics of bicycle crashes equivalent to those published for pedestrians. Consideration of first principles suggests that a cyclist s higher centre of gravity, greater height from the ground and higher impact speed would contribute to crash outcomes more severe than for pedestrians. Bicycle-only incidents account for a high proportion of bicycle-related injuries, although this is not reflected in road-authority accident databases. Injuries to the head and upper limbs are the most common amongst cyclists. There is little difference in the injury patterns for bicycle-only crashes and those involving another vehicle. Small reductions in the impact speed in pedestrian crashes make a large difference to the outcome. Impact speed depends, amongst other things, on the original travel speed of the vehicle. Small reductions in travel speed would result in a large increase in the proportion of pedestrians surviving a crash, and a substantial proportion of pedestrian crashes being avoided altogether. Lower speed limits would be likely to lower the frequency and severity of pedestrian and bicycle crashes, although it is not possible to say by how much as it is not possible to predict what effect a lower speed limit would have on traffic speeds. New technologies for pedestrian and cyclist protection Developments in ITS are likely to increase traffic flow and increase traffic speeds over much of the road network, making crossing the road even more difficult for pedestrians and cyclists. The various ITS programs seem to offer little to improve pedestrian and cyclist safety. Reliable detection of pedestrians and cyclists is a key to making the benefits of ITS available to them. There are a number of promising developments. Pedestrians and cyclists appear to have few problems using the new Puffin, Toucan and Advance Stop Lines crossings. However, some concerns remain regarding the safety implications of the large number of vehicles intruding into the cyclist reservoir at Advance Stop Line crossings. The conspicuity of pedestrians, cyclists and motor vehicles remains a major issue. As far as cyclists are concerned, the main problem is not the quality of lights and reflective materials, but cyclists willingness to use and maintain them. Flashing tail-lights are highly effective. Observers have difficulty in seeing bicycle headlights, partly because they had difficulty in identifying them as bicycle lights. The Australian Standard on bicycle lighting should be revised to allow appropriate flashing taillights, as should any regulations blocking their use. Action should be taken to ensure reflectors comply with the relevant Australian Standard. vi

11 Two options which may be appropriate in Australia and which should be investigated further are earlier lighting up times and also smart running lights that come on once ambient light reaches a threshold level. Delivering safety to pedestrians and cyclists The Safe Routes to School program has been well accepted and widely adopted. However, there is no evidence to show that it is effective in reducing crashes. The Walk with Care program targeted at the elderly has also been well received although less widely adopted. There is no evidence to demonstrate that it is effective in reducing crashes involving elderly pedestrians. Resources to support the teaching of safe pedestrian and cycling behaviour have been developed for use in Australian schools. The main impediments to wider implementation of traffic safety education would appear to be the demands of other parts of the school curriculum and a lack of trained staff. Enforcement of pedestrian and bicycle regulations have a low priority for police, and there appears to be very little literature on this topic. Pedestrian safety audits appear to have great potential for eliminating potential safety problems, especially in the stages before a facility is opened for public use. The audit process can be extended to cover issues of comfort and convenience and personal security as well as road safety. Safety audit principles are equally applicable to cycling, and bicyclists should be amongst the road users considered in any general audit process. Although a consideration of first principles suggests that LATM should tend to make walking and cycling on local streets safer, there appear to be no studies demonstrating accident reductions. Such benefits are difficult to detect as the number of reported pedestrian and cyclist crashes in any area treated with LATM is likely to be small. Controversial issues There are health benefits associated with the exercise obtained through cycling, but it is not clear that they outweigh the risks associated with cycling. Creating safer conditions for cyclists would tip the balance in favour of the health benefits of cycling outweighing the risks. There is no evidence to support the contention that pedestrian fatality in Australia increased following the introduction of compulsory seat belt laws, as some advocates of risk compensation theory maintain. Compulsory helmet-wearing laws have reduced head injury to cyclists, although it is not certain to what extent a reduction in cycling contributed to this. Cycling on the footpath appears to be safer than riding on the road, but there are unresolved issues in terms of the safety of crossing roads, driveways, bicycle-only crashes, and interactions with pedestrians. vii

12 Pedestrian and Cyclist Safety Pedestrian Crashes at Pedestrian Facilities (AP-R156/00) Background Pedestrian crossing facilities are extremely important in enabling safe and equitable access for pedestrians and are likely to be used more extensively as traffic flows increase. It is therefore important that the devices be made as safe as possible. Purpose The purpose of the present investigation was to explore the factors contributing to pedestrian crashes at or near pedestrian facilities with a view to assessing the safety of their operation and identifying countermeasures that may be effective in reducing these problems. The focus of the present report is to diagnose the problems characteristic of different types of crossing, rather than to determine whether one type of facility is safer than another. Method Two types of data analysis have been explored in the present study: All pedestrian crashes in the NSW and Victorian databases for the years have been analysed to give an overall picture of pedestrian crashes in each State. Secondly, a sample of crashes at each of the principal types of pedestrian facility has been drawn from the crash data set and examined in more detail. Detailed information was also sought about a sample of crashes occurring at particular types of pedestrian facility in each State. It was intended to examine 100 crashes at each type of facility by accessing the information available on the original crash report, including the narrative and the diagram of the site and events. A sample of 150 crashes was randomly selected from the database, the excess number being to allow for cases where the facility or crash type had been wrongly coded. As the New South Wales data does not discriminate between pedestrian-operated signals (POS) and Pedestrian Crossings, a sample of 300 crashes classed as occurring at pedestrian crossings was selected. In the event, this produced approximately three times as many Pedestrian Crossing crashes as POS crashes. Only the years were sampled for the Victorian data, these being the years for which the accident report could be accessed through a CD-ROM, a medium which greatly reduces the time and effort required to access crash data. Findings 1. The Sydney and Melbourne metropolitan areas have similar rates of pedestrian crashes on a population basis. These are approximately per 100,000 people per year. 2. The patterns of pedestrian crashes in both cities are very similar in terms of the times of day and light conditions when crashes occur and in terms of the geometric features of the road system where they occur. 3. There are, however, differences in the proportions of crashes occurring at different classes of device. While both cities have approximately the same proportion of crashes occurring at intersection signals (19% and 17%), Sydney has a higher proportion of crashes at pedestrian crossings and correspondingly fewer crashes at locations with no control than does Melbourne. viii

13 4. There are clear similarities between the patterns of behaviour contributing to the crashes occurring in the two cities. 5. Crashes at POS tend to be more severe than crashes at intersection signals. 6. At intersection signals, crashes tended to occur in the entry or departure zones rather than on the crossing itself, involved a high proportion of turning drivers, and were characterised by low levels of driver disobedience of red signals, but high levels of pedestrian disobedience of signals. 7. At POS, crashes occurred almost exclusively on the crossing itself, involved through drivers, and were characterised by high levels of disobedience of red signals by both pedestrians and drivers. 8. Very few accidents were recorded as involving a pedestrian crossing with the flashing red pedestrian signal displayed, although this may be due to problems with recording this signal phase accurately. 9. Possible countermeasures indicated by the present study include longer yellow or all-red times, changes to pedestrian signal displays and auditory messages, strengthening the perceptual cues to indicate the pedestrian crosswalk area at intersection signals, and use of double-cycled Pelican crossing arrangements as an alternative to conventional POS. 10.Other countermeasures which would possibly be effective include improved skid resistance to improve drivers stopping ability, education of both drivers and pedestrians about the risks associated with disregarding signals at pedestrian crossings, and enforcement, particularly targeted at pedestrian signal violations. 11. Education and publicity could be given a much sharper focus by incorporating some of the findings of the present study. Materials directed at pedestrians could emphasis the risks associated with crossing against the pedestrian signals and the risks associated with turning vehicles at intersections. Materials directed at drivers could emphasise the risks of striking a pedestrian associated with travelling through a POS against the vehicle signal, or making a turning movement at an intersection. ix

14 Pedestrian and Cycle Safety Investigation of Accidents in Different Road Environments (AP-R157/00) Background This report presents the results of a comparison of pedestrian and bicycle casualty accident characteristics for different road environment in and around Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. The study has focused on the capital cities as casualty accidents involving these road user groups represent the majority of accidents involving these groups in Australia. Earlier studies have revealed that the characteristics of pedestrian and cyclist casualty accidents in Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane were similar. Consequently it expected that in general the characteristics of pedestrian and cyclist accidents in these three states will be similar to the other major Australian capital cities. The investigations have involved an examination of relevant literature, analyses of recent mass accident data for the three Cities and the site investigation of locations experiencing relatively high numbers of pedestrian or bicyclist casualty accidents. Purpose The study sought to identify the characteristics of differing road environments that may have contributed to the occurrence or severity of pedestrian bicycle casualty accidents. The unique road environments within the capital cities and surrounding areas identified for detailed investigation were the Central Business Districts (CBD), industrial areas, and inner and outer metropolitan areas. Increasing the knowledge of pedestrian and cyclist accidents, and identifying accident causal factors provide the opportunity to develop accident remedial treatments that may be applied to improve the safety for these road user groups in differing road environments. Preliminary Investigation Examination of the ranking of high casualty accident pedestrian and cyclist locations failed to identify industrial areas or locations with high accident frequencies involving these road user groups. Subsequent investigation of industrial areas near city areas further revealed that these areas generated relatively little on-road pedestrian or cyclist activity. Customers, suppliers and employees were often provided with off-street parking facilities, and for industrial areas in the outer areas or in newly developed industrial precincts off street parking facilities was generally provided (thereby minimising on road pedestrian and cyclist activity). As a consequence of the preliminary investigation into pedestrian and cyclist activity and safety in industrial areas the detailed study confined itself to the CBD, inner metropolitan and outer metropolitan areas. Methods Two complementary approaches were used in the study. Cross-tabulation of accident data was used to identify crash patterns and to locate high crash locations. High accident locations in the CBD, inner suburbs and outer suburbs in each city, and the general characteristics of each site recorded. Mass Data Analysis Pedestrians Analysis of the mass data accident data base for pedestrian casualty accidents provided the following key findings: There were strong similarities in the characteristics of pedestrian accidents between the accidents in and around the Cities, particularly at the more disaggregated levels. x

15 The region classified as inner metropolitan accounts for around half of the pedestrian accidents in each of the Cities. The accident rate by area and population for each of the three Cities and for all levels of severity is at its greatest in the CBD, reduces in the rest of city region, further reduces in the inner metropolitan region and is at its lowest in the outer metropolitan region. Having been involved in a pedestrian accident, the possibility of being fatally injured in the outer metropolitan region is two to five times that of the CBD. The proportion of pedestrian accidents by accident type follows a similar pattern among the Cities, with pedestrian near side hit from right, pedestrian far side hit from left and pedestrian hit emerging behind vehicle accounting for between 80 to 90 per cent of all reported pedestrian accidents. Across all regions and the three Cities there are distinct patterns in the proportion of pedestrians involved in accidents by pedestrian age group. The CBD and rest of city regions of each City predominantly consist of working aged pedestrians (17 to 60 years). Inner metropolitan regions have a fairly even distribution of pedestrians of all ages, notably with increased numbers of younger (up to 16 years) and elderly (60 plus year) pedestrians. The outer metropolitan regions are characterised by a large amount of young pedestrian accidents (up to 16 years). The trend in day of week accidents from the CBD, through the rest of city and inner metropolitan regions to the outer metropolitan region indicated proportionately fewer weekday accidents and proportionately more weekend accidents. Bicyclists For bicyclists the major findings from the analysis of the mass accident data base were: The rate of bicyclist accidents between the Cities per 100,000 population and per square kilometre were reasonably similar. For all Cities, both the rate of accidents per square kilometre and accidents per 100,000 head of population are greatest in the CBD, reduce in the rest of city region, further reduce in the inner metropolitan region and is lowest in the outer metropolitan region. The accident rate by area and population for each of the three Cities, for serious and other injury accidents is greatest in the central business district, reduces in the rest of city region, further reduces in the inner metropolitan region and is at its lowest in the outer metropolitan region. In each of the three Cities at least 80 per cent of bicyclists accidents involved a second vehicle. For each city the proportion of multiple vehicle accidents was lowest in the CBD, increased across the rest of city and inner metropolitan regions and peaked in the outer metropolitan region. xi

16 Across all regions and the three Cities there are distinct patterns in the proportion of bicyclists involved in accidents by cyclist age group. The CBD and rest of city regions of each City predominantly consist of cyclist in the 17 to 39 years age range. Inner metropolitan regions have a fairly even distribution of pedestrians of all ages, but with peak occurrence being for young cyclists (5 to 16 years). The outer metropolitan regions are characterised by a large amount of young pedestrian accidents (5 to 16 years), with this age group constituting anywhere from a third of all accident involved cyclists to over a half of all accident involved cyclist for the region. As we move from CBD, through rest of city and inner metropolitan regions to the outer metropolitan region we note that there are proportionately less weekday accidents and proportionately more weekend accidents. Site Investigations The key finding of the site investigations conducted as part of the study was that significant differences between the road environments were observed at high crash sites located in CBD, inner metropolitan and outer metropolitan areas of the capital cities. The key differences were that: for the CBD, the high density commercial developments generated high pedestrian and cyclist activity, high levels of public transport movements involving a large range of transport modes (ie. buses, trains, taxis and for Melbourne trams). inner metropolitan areas were characterised by the presence of shops, hotels or strip shopping centres located within well established residential areas; outer metropolitan areas often had a major shopping centre located nearby, or other major sources of pedestrian or cyclist generators (eg. tertiary institutions, sporting complexes, etc) situated in the vicinity of locations hazardous to pedestrians and cyclists; Site investigations also identified a number of environmental accident contributing factors that we common between the differing road environments being examined. These factors included: poor or uneven road surfaces; adverse vertical road alignment; the presences of hotels (and therefore the role of alcohol in pedestrian accidents) near high pedestrian accident location, particularly in the inner and outer metropolitan areas; although the study focussed on the environmental factors associated with pedestrian and cyclists accidents, poor compliance of pedestrian signals controls were observed, particularly in the CBD and the inner metropolitan areas; inadequate kerb side lane width (for cyclists), particularly in the CBD and inner metropolitan areas; poor visibility / conspicuity of cyclists, particularly in the CBD and inner metropolitan areas, and at signalised intersections when executing manoeuvres. xii

17 Following the examination of the mass accident data base, site investigations and consideration of previous relevant recent studies a number of traffic and road design safety treatments were identified. The treatments proposed focused on safety measures for specific road environments (ie. CBD, inner metropolitan and outer metropolitan areas). These measures included: introduction of a lower 40 km/h speed limit for the CBD area; reduction in the traffic signal cycle times in the CBD and inner metropolitan areas. This measure should reduce the time pedestrians spend waiting, thereby reducing the level of non compliance of signal displays; develop traffic management strategies to reduce the volume of non-city traffic travelling through the CBD; convert minor streets or laneways within the CBD to shared with vehicle zone (speed limited to 20 km/h), or to pedestrian malls (during business hours or on a full time basis); increase the width of pedestrian walk lines at signalised crossings across major roads within the CBD to at minimum of 5m; for Melbourne s CBD area, widen tram safety zones and install shelters. The majority of tram safety zones are too narrow to safely accommodate patrons; for inner metropolitan areas implement a traffic signal coordination strategy that creates traffic free zones on roads through strip shopping centres or where there are clusters of shops; for inner and outer metropolitan areas provide either or both kerb extensions and pedestrian refuges. While these measure will assist pedestrians to cross more safely the capacity of the road should not be markedly reduced. Imposing lengthy delays to motorists may redirect non local traffic through residential precincts, thereby reducing safety and amenity in these areas; to increase the safety for cyclists maximise where possible the width of the kerb side parking / travelling lane, particularly in the CBD and within inner metropolitan areas; install bicycle crossing facilities at signalised intersections within the CBD and the inner metropolitan areas where the intersections form part of a bike network or where high numbers of bicycle accidents have been experienced; on a priority basis, improve the skid resistant properties of road surfaces. All roads within the CBD, for inner metropolitan areas the section of road past shops, clusters of shops, schools, hotels or through strip shopping centres. For outer metropolitan areas roads, the road network surrounding major shopping centres, and other major pedestrian cyclist generating facilities (eg. tertiary institutions, sporting complexes). For inner and outer metropolitan areas upgrade street lighting in the vicinity of hotels and prohibit or minimise parking along the roads that bound the hotel. These measures should assist in increasing the visibility and conspicuity of hotel patrons who have been drinking. Within the CBD and at locations in the vicinity of shops within the inner metropolitan areas, erect pedestrian barriers on the approaches and departures at signalised intersections and pedestrian signals. This measure should encourage pedestrians to use the pedestrian facilities provided. ensure regular maintenance of vehicle stop line markings and pedestrian walk lines within the CBD, inner metropolitan areas of high pedestrian and bicycle activity (shops, strip shopping centres, schools and hotels), and outer metropolitan areas in the vicinity of shopping centres, schools, sporting facilities of other major generators of pedestrian and bicycle traffic. xiii

18 Contents 1. INTRODUCTION Background Method Data qualifiers MASS DATA ANALYSES: - PEDESTRIAN ACCIDENTS The number of pedestrian crashes in the study period Number of accidents by severity Outcomes of pedestrian accidents per 100,000 population by severity Pedestrian accidents by urbanisation Pedestrian accident per 100,000 population in area by urbanisation Pedestrian accident by day of week Pedestrian accident by time of day Pedestrian accidents by light condition Number of pedestrian accidents by pedestrian age group b Rate of pedestrian accident Involvement by Pedestrian Age group Accidents by pedestrian age group and severity b Rates of pedestrian accident involvement by pedestrian age group and accident severity Number of accidents by location type b Number of accidents by location type and degree of urbanisation Pedestrian accidents by accident-type code Pedestrian accidents by accident type and casualty class b Proportion of pedestrian accidents by accident type and casualty class Accident-type by urbanisation Number of pedestrian accidents by vehicle type Incidence of accidents with different vehicle types Accidents involvement by driver age group Accidents involvement rates by driver age group Number of accidents by pedestrian age group and time of day b Proportion of accidents by pedestrian age group and time of day DISCUSSION: - PEDESTRIAN ACCIDENTS CONCLUSIONS: - PEDESTRIAN ACCIDENTS...27 xiv

19 Contents 5. MASS DATA ANALYSES: - BICYCLIST ACCIDENTS The number of bicycle accidents in the study period The number of bicycle accidents by severity Bicycle accidents per 100,000 population by severity Bicycle accidents by degree of urbanisation Bicycle accidents per 100,000 population in region by urbanisation Bicycle accidents by day of week Bicycle accidents by time of day Bicycle accidents by light condition Bicycle accidents by bicyclist age group Bicycle accidents per 100,000 population in bicyclist age group Bicyclist injury level by bicyclist age group Bicyclist injury level per 100,000 population in bicyclist age group Number of bicycle accidents by location type Number of bicycle accidents by accident-type Bicycle accidents by accident-type - 15 most frequent Numbers of the most frequent bicycle accident-types by degree of urbanisation b Proportions of the most frequent bicycle accident-types by degree of urbanisation Bicycle accidents by age group of cyclist and light condition b Proportion of Bicycle Accidents by Age Group of Cyclist and Light Condition Bicycle accidents by age group of cyclist and time of day b Proportion of Bicycle Accidents by Age Group of Cyclist and Time of Day DISCUSSION: - BICYCLIST ACCIDENTS CONCLUSIONS: - BICYCLISTS ACCIDENTS...53 REFERENCES...55 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This project was initiated by Dr David Andreassen before his retirement from ARRB Transport Research and his contribution to the work is gratefully acknowledged. xv

20 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background The objectives of this study were to gain an understanding of pedestrian and bicyclist accidents that had not previously been attempted in Australia. Although a great deal of data exists, little has been done to disaggregate it into fine detail or to compare multiple levels of variables. The use of data from three States has enabled the confirmation of common factors as well as the identification of differences in the accident characteristics. This better understanding of factors effecting pedestrian and cyclist accident causation will assist in the process of countermeasure development. An explanation of pedestrian and bicyclist accident data in all States over the decade to 1990 showed that pedestrian accidents had no trend either up or down and that bicycle accidents increased in all States except the Northern Territory, which had remained relatively constant. In pedestrian accidents, the age group 0 to 16 years appears to account for the greatest number of casualties. The age group 60+ years features highly in pedestrian deaths, and with an ageing population it might be expected that this will become even more prevalent. In bicyclist accidents, the age group 12 to 17 years appears to be the one with the greatest number of casualties, but there is wide variation amongst the States in the number of young and old who are admitted to hospital. Death and serious injury to young people affects the future of the country as a whole. The proportion of older persons involved in accidents will probably increase with the changing age structure of the population. Both groups impose significant costs on the community. The data used for this analyses consisted of a set of cross tabulations provided to ARRB by each of the State Road Authorities (SRA s). (These data are referred to as the source cross tabulations or source tables in this report). The pedestrian accident data was analysed for the years 1991 and In a similar fashion, the bicycle accident data was analysed for these two years, except for Victoria where 1989 and 1990 data were used as these are the last two complete years for which property damage only accidents were recorded. 1.2 Method The task involved the analysis of two years of data from New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. Pedestrian accidents were studied with the key variable being accident-type. Bicycle accidents however, due to the nature of the data and the numerous accident-types available, have generally been analysed at a more aggregated level. Variables that have been examined for both pedestrian and bicycle accidents include: Accident-type (Road User Movement {RUM} and Definitions for Classifying Accidents {DCA}); 1

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