1 E-DISTRIBUTION Dr. Jaume Gené Albesa Universitat Rovira i Virgili Reus (Spain)
2 Agenda Overview Place and Internet edistribution and product Intermediary Models Online Retailing Multichannel Environment
3 Agenda Overview Place and Internet edistribution and product Intermediary Models Online Retailing Multichannel Environment
4 Distribution Channel Overview A distribution channel is a group of interdependent firms that transfer product and information from the supplier to the consumer. Producers Intermediaries Buyers The structure of the channel can make or impede opportunities for marketing on the internet.
5 Distribution Channel Producer Wholesalers Retailer Consumer
6 Communication and Information Technologies affect every aspect of business, every aspect of marketing and every aspect of the marketing mix. Dave Chaffey and Paul Smith (EMarketing Excellence)
7 Online Channel Intermediaries Wholesalers buy products from the manufacturer and resell them to retailers. Retailers buy products from manufacturers or wholesalers. Brokers facilitate transactions between buyers and sellers. Agents may represent either the buyer or seller. Manufacturers agents represent the seller. Purchasing agents represent the buyer.
8 Agenda Overview Place and Internet edistribution and product Intermediary Models Online Retailing Multichannel Environment
9 Place and Internet Different possibilities: selling direct from the web site, from a marketplace o from middleman webs. new situations: Disintermediation. Remove middleman (it can create conflict) Reintermediation. New types of middleman. Infomediation. Middleman hold data or information to benefit customers and suppliers. Affiliation. Communication-distribution instrument. P2P
10 Disintermediation and Reintermediation
11 Infomediary Model An infomediary aggregates and distributes information. Market research firms are examples of infomediaries. Some infomediaries compensate consumers for sharing demographic and psychographic information and receiving ads targeted to their interests. Companies using an infomediary model also might provide unbiased information to consumers about different businesses on the Internet. (www.pricescan.com)
12 Agenda Overview Place and Internet edistribution and product Intermediary Models Online Retailing Multichannel Environment
13 edistribution and product DIGITALIZABLE PRODUCTS Text, graphics, audio, video. Ej. newspapers, reviews, radio, music, software. CAN BE DISTRIBUTERD BY INTERNET OTHERWISE: - RECORD - PACK - SEND COST
14 Physic merchandise disappear Music, videos, etc... Downloading, content streaming Books, newspapers E-Books Tickets easyjet, ATM, etc... Software Software as a service ASP (application service provider)
15 edistribution and product NO DIGITALIZABLE PRODUCTS (wine, flowers, etc.) Buy online and delivery by transport. When a channel is required (contact with product or middleman services): Information about sales points of product. Improve middleman coordination. (promotions) Get information on Internet and buy offline.
16 Agenda Overview Place and Internet edistribution and product Intermediary Models Online Retailing Multichannel Environment
17 Intermediary Models Three intermediary models are in common use on the internet: Brokerage models Agent models for sellers and buyers Online retailing models
18 Brokerage Models The Broker creates a market in which buyers and sellers negotiate and complete transactions. E*Trade, Schwab and Ameritrade allow customers to place trades online. The B2B market has also spawned brokerages. Global wine and Spirits Online auctions are available in the B2B, B2C, and C2C markets. ebay, ubid
19 Online Electronic Stock Trading
20 Brokerage Models The Broker creates a market in which buyers and sellers negotiate and complete transactions. E*Trade, Schwab and Ameritrade allow customers to place trades online. The B2B market has also spawned brokerages. Global wine and Spirits Online auctions are available in the B2B, B2C, and C2C markets. ebay, ubid
21 Agent Models May represent sellers or buyers. Agent models that represent sellers include: Affiliate programs (Amazon Associates) Manufacturer s agents (Travel Agents) Other (Virtual malls, The Knot) Agents that represent buyers include: Shopping agents BizRate.com Reverse auctions Priceline Buyer Cooperatives (buyer aggregator) pool many buyers together to drive down the price.
22 Agenda Overview Place and Internet edistribution and product Intermediary Models Online Retailing Multichannel Environment
23 Online Retailing Online retailing is one of the most visible e- business models. Online merchants set up storefronts online that can sell a greater assortment of products than offline. Shopping cart abandonment during the purchasing process is one of online retailing s biggest problems. The manufacturer sells directly to the customer in the direct distribution model.
24 eretailing seller advantages Localization are not important. Company size are less important. Savings in salaries and licences. Great audience. Achieve people with high purchasing power. Open 24/7.
25 eretailing seller disadvantages Lack of know-how and technology. Investments and costs of start up. Difficulty to sell products selected by taste or smell. Logistics and fulfillment more complex. Lower impulse purchase. Pressure on margins and prices. Difficulty in postpurchase service.
26 eretailing buyer advantages Total cost of purchase Price. Purchase travel (time, park, cost). Offer range Product Information. Easy comparison (prices, features) BotShop Convenience 24/7 Lack of salesmen pressure. Time to gather information. Entertaining purchase. Speed. No need to carry products. Products difficult to find or sold out. Useful to give long-distance gifts. Personalization.
27 Internet Marketing and Electronic Retailing What Sells Well on the Internet? Computer hardware and software Consumer electronics Office supplies Sporting goods Books and music Toys Health and beauty Apparel and clothing Jewelry Cars Services Others
28 E-Retailing Business Models Classification by Distribution Channel 1. Mail-order retailers that go online 2. Direct marketing from manufacturers 3. Pure-play e-tailers 4. Click-and-mortar retailers 5. Internet (online) malls
29 E-Retailing Business Models direct marketing Broadly, marketing that takes place without intermediaries between manufacturers and buyers; marketing done online between any seller and buyer.
30 E-Retailing Business Models Direct Sales by Manufacturers Sellers can understand their markets better because of the direct connection to consumers Consumers gain greater information about the products through their direct connection to the manufacturers
31 E-Retailing Business Models virtual (pure-play) e-tailers Firms that sell directly to consumers over the Internet without maintaining a physical sales channel brick-and-mortar retailers Retailers who do business in the non-internet, physical world in traditional brick-and-mortar stores
32 E-Retailing Business Models click-and-mortar retailers Brick-and-mortar retailers that offer a transactional Web site from which to conduct business multichannel business model A business model where a company sells in multiple marketing channels simultaneously (e.g., both physical and online stores)
33 Agenda Overview Place and Internet edistribution and product Intermediary Models Online Retailing Multichannel Environment
34 Multichannel Environment Web & Call Center Data Warehouse Clients Sales Force Back Office ERP Partnership Other sources
35 Multichannel Environment Task Channel Physical Virtual Prepurchase Purchase Postpurchase A0 B0 C0 A1 B1 C1 Charles Steinfield, Harry Bouwman, and Thomas Adelaar(2002): The Dynamics of Click-and- Mortar Electronic Commerce: Opportunities and Management Strategies. International Journal of Electronic Commerce. Fall 2002, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp
36 Synergies customer - Gather information on-line and reserve an item on-line pay for and pick up the product in the physical outlet. - Inspecting a product in a store and and then order them electronically, especially interesting for products that need physical experience. - Actively cross-promote between channels. Promotions from the web to the store. (traffic to the store), Promotions from the store to the web. (traffic to the web site) - Returns of goods purchased on-line to physical shops. - Make offers to some targets that in the shop are not profitable.
37 Synergies company - Lower costs. - Improved Trust. - Differentiation Through Value-Added Services. - Geographic and Product Market Extension. - In-store staff can carry out web site maintenance.
38 E-Retailing Business Models Retailing in Online Malls Referring Directories Malls with Shared Services Representative B2C Services Postal Services Services and Products for Adults Wedding Channels Gift Registries
Online Selling Channel Distribution Channel Overview Distribution determines how the customer receives a product or service = determines brand image. Distribution channel = group of interdependent firms
1.Because e-commerce is ubiquitous it reduces A. marketspace. B. transaction costs. C. dynamic pricing. D. price discrimination. 2. The ability of consumers to use the Internet to discover the actual costs
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