1 Breast MRI: Imaging and Intervention Jaroslaw Nicholas Tkacz, M. D.
2 Purpose To examine the typical morphologic, enhancement and kinetic features of breast lesions on MR Imaging and determine the role of each in interpretation Identify which lesions are amenable for MRIguided intervention Briefly discuss how to successfully perform and trouble-shoot MR-guided biopsy
3 Brief History of Breast MRI Mid 1980 s Research in Germany and US begins Mid-late 1980 s Faster MRI sequences developed, whole breast dynamic scanning feasible Late 1980 s, early 1990 s Kinetic data promising for evaluation of breast CA Breast MRI used clinically to evaluate silicone implant integrity
4 Brief History of Breast MRI Early-mid 90 s clinical applications for evaluation of breast cancer with dynamic Gd-DTPA Kinetics, morphology or both Spatial or temporal resolution in clinical applications Late 1990 s Breast MRI utilized to evaluate cancer in selected patients
5 Initial approaches CE-MRI was first performed in the mid 1980 s on patients with known Breast CA Heywang and colleagues demonstrated rapid uptake of contrast within the first five minutes in malignant lesions Other investigations show benign lesions can show a similar degree of enhancement Investigators turn to time-course kinetic analysis of breast lesions
6 Early Dynamic Approach Concentrated on the initial, early enhancement characteristic of breast lesions. With faster scanning techniques this early phase diminished from 5min post Gd-DTPA (T1W SE) to 11.5 secs (segmented low fast-angle shot sequence) after aortic enhancement. Gilles and co-workers classified any lesion with early vascular enhancement as malignant, with a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 53%.
7 52 y/o pt. with palpable left breast mass, kinetic data displayed as color overlay. Biopsy revealed invasive DCIS Early, rapid upstroke on first post-contrast sequence followed by type III curve.
8 Early Dynamic Approach However, later investigators found similar early enhancement characteristics with benign lesions, particularly lymph nodes and fibroadenomas. Although benign lesions tended to enhance more gradually, there was overlap between benign and malignant lesions with this approach.
9 Time Intensity Curves In 1999 Kuhl and colleagues analyzed three time points; early, intermediate and late Only lesions that showed 60% increased SI on first post contrast sequence included Found type I benign, type II suggestive of malignancy, type III indicative of malignancy with sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 83%
10 Problems with Exclusive use of Dynamic Approach False positives Fibroadenomas (especially young, vascular lesions) Intramammary lymph nodes What about Non-mass lesions? What about DCIS? Does not show rapid enhancement or present as a mass-like lesion Some investigators found no significant difference in enhancement characteristics between benign and malignant lesions
11 Advancing Technologies, Morphologic Approach Concurrently, investigators were analyzing morphology of breast lesions on MRI. In 1994, Orel and coworkers using high spatial resolution imaging techniques, sacrificing temporal resolution, found architectural features helpful in differentiating between benign and malignant lesions. In 1997, Nunes and colleagues exclusively used morphologic features to distinguish benign from malignant lesions and developed an interpretation model based on lesion architecture.
12 Morphology Using an architectural approach with emphasis on spatial, not temporal, resolution allowed investigators to associate carcinoma with irregular borders and heterogeneous, delayed rim enhancement. Internal non-enhancing septations and lobulated borders were associated with fibroadenomas. Non-mass delayed enhancement was also described and associated with DCIS.
13 Is There a Happy Medium? Kinetics Morphology Temporal resolution Spatial resolution Early Phase Enhancement Late Phase Enhancement
14 Combination In 2000 Kinkel et al established the concept of the three time point technique with a high spatial/temporal resolution 3D T1W FS GRE sequence for dynamic data and morphologic analysis S1 time point within 2min 30 sec S2 time point at 7 min 30 sec
15 Combination Enhancement kinetics were analyzed visually and defined as washout, plateau and progressive Morphologic parameters included lesion type (mass vs. non-mass), mass margin (smooth vs. irregular/spiculated). Combination of kinetic and morphologic parameters resulted in sensitivity and PPV of 97% and specificity and NPV of 96%
16 Features of Breast Lesions on MRI Category Lesion Type Mass Margin Shape Enhancement Nonmass Type If linear/ductal Otherwise Visual Kinetics Final Assessment Focus, Mass, Nonmass Term Smooth, Irregular, Spiculated Round, Oval, Lobular, Irregular Homogeneous, Heterogeneous, Rim, Dark internal septations, Enhancing internal septations, Central enhancement Linear/Ductal, Linear/Nonspecific, Segmental, Regional, Multiple, Diffuse Smooth, Clumped, Irregular Homogeneous, Heterogeneous, Stippled, Clumped, Septal/Dendritic Progressive, Plateau, Washout Benign, Probably Benign, Suspicious, Highly suggestive of malignancy Liberman et al, AJR: 179 7/2002
17 MRI of Breast Lesions Mass Nonmass Lesion Type Spiculated Margin Rim Enhancement Irregular Shape Segmental Enhancement Clumped Linear and Ductal Liberman et al, AJR: 179 7/2002 PPV 80% 40% 32% 67% 31% Features with highest PPV were Morphologic, architecture features of mass lesions Enhancement, dynamic features of non-mass lesions
18 MRI of Breast Lesions Visually Assessed Kinetic Patterns Descriptor No. of Lesions No. of CA Washout 24(31) 8 Plateau 50(64) 12 Progressive 4(5) 1 All 78(100) 21 Liberman et al, AJR: 179 7/2002 Most cancers had washout or plateau kinetics But 54 benign lesions shared washout and plateau kinetics Therefore a combined analysis of both morphologic and kinetic data is needed to create an interpretation algorithm We use BI-RADS Breast MRI lexicon to describe findings and issue recommendations
19 Algorithm for interpretation Morphology Suspicious Probably benign Benign Biopsy Kinetics Type II or III curve Biopsy Type I curve Short term follow-up
20 MR Imaging of the Breast: Clinical Indications Assessing silicone implant integrity Determining disease extent Searching for the breast primary Differentiating scar from recurrence Evaluating suspicious mammographic finding Screening high-risk women Monitoring response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy *
21 MR Lexicon Apply BIRADS to describe lesion morphology and enhancement kinetics Classify findings into one of six assessment categories Incomplete assessment Negative Benign finding Probable benign finding, short interval follow up Suspicious abnormality, biopsy should be considered Highly suggestive of malignancy Biopsy proven malignancy
23 Lesion also demonstrates early enhancement. Palpable mass, LOQ. MRI spiculated lesion with rim enhancement on delayed high resolution 3D T1W THRIVE sequence BI-RADS V
24 Pt with post-op seroma from lumpectomy for invasive ductal CA Abnormal delayed enhancement surrounding portions of seroma.?scar tissue formation or residual tumor.
25 Early phase subtraction image with kinetic overlay. Abnormal peripheral enhancement demonstrated. Type I curve, nonspecific initial uptake of contrast BI-RADS IV Pathology results: positive tumor margins
26 Pt. with strong family history of breast CA. T2 hyperintense lobulated lesion with hypointense internal septation Uniform, homogeneous delayed enhancement with non-enhancing internal septation.
27 BI-RADS II or III, pt. elected to have lesion biopsied, proven fibroadenoma Rapid initial uptake with type I curve
28 Pt with strong family history of breast cancer, s/p mastectomy for invasive DCIS. Segmental, linear region of delayed enhancement LIQ. No mass identified. Corresponds to region of microcalcs on mammogram. No associated T2 signal abnormality.
29 Early phase subtracted image with kinetic overlay demonstrates region of clumped, abnormal enhancement more clearly. Type III curves with rapid initial uptake, steep slope. Needle loc biopsy DCIS. BI-RADS IV, suspicious finding, biopsy recommended, proven DCIS
30 Patient with mammographically occult, palpable lesion in LUOQ. Smoothly marginated mass, difficult to see on T2W sequence.
31 Early phase subtracted image with kinetic overlay, mass demonstrated abnormal enhancement. Type I time-course curve with rapid initial uptake. Biopsy invasive ductal CA.
32 Recommendation? We base our recommendation on the most suspicious feature, in this case morphology. BIRADS IV, biopsy was recommended. Time-course data demonstrates type I curve with shallow initial slope.
33 Patient with remote history of left lumpectomy for invasive ductal CA and small new density in right breast on mammogram Intermediate phase dynamic image demonstrates small mass lesion, RIOQ with homogeneous enhancement
34 Kinetic overlay demonstrates abnormal, uniform enhancement of lesion Type III curve with rapid initial uptake of contrast
35 T1W image demonstrates fatty hilum; BI-RADS II, benign finding T1W sequences aid in the detection of benign intramammary lymph nodes
36 Patient with palpable abnormality, right breast Intermediate phase dynamic image with segmental region of abnormal enhancement, dendritic appearance.
37 High resolution delayed sagittal image demonstrates segmental/regional distribution of abnormal enhancement with dendritic morphology
38 Kinetic overlay with intermediate phase subtraction image demonstrates heterogeneous, abnormal enhancement corresponding to tumor vascularity; BI-RADS V Type III, IIa and IIb time-course curves with rapid initial uptake. Biopsy Infiltrative lobular CA
39 Lesions > 5mm with: suspicious morphology Irregular shape Ill-defined, microlobulated, or spiculated margins AND/OR suspicious enhancement Early rapid uptake of contrast with plateau (type II) Early rapid uptake of contrast with delayed washout (type III) Biopsy Criteria
40 Breast Intervention: General Principles Use the modality which best visualizes the target to guide the biopsy Potential complications of core biopsy: Bleeding Infection Non-diagnostic biopsy Radiologic-pathologic concordance ADH, radial scar, LCIS, ALH, and atypical papilloma warrant surgical excision Goal: positive biopsy rate 20-40%
41 Breast Biopsy Equipment A A. Spring loaded B B. Suros vacuum assisted C. Bard Vacora vacuum assisted C D. SenoRx vacuum assisted D
42 Is the lesion amenable to MR biopsy? Considerations What equipment is available for use? What is the position of the lesion relative to the posterior border of the compression grid? What is the position of the lesion relative to the skin surface (medial and/or lateral)?
43 MR-guided Core Biopsy: Overview Biopsy timed to menstrual cycle (day 5-15) Patient prone with breast of interest mildly compressed in biopsy grid IV gadolinium injected to identify target Needle positioned and biopsy performed Clip deployed to mark biopsy bed Unilateral mammogram prior to discharge Procedure time: minutes total
44 MR-guided Vacuum- Assisted Breast Biopsy: Equipment
45 Vacuum-Assisted MR Core Biopsy Patient prone with pendent breast mildly compressed in the biopsy grid
46 MR Core Biopsy Planning Using Confirma software
47 1. Set rubber stopper on introducer to correct depth 4. Insert needle guide into compression grid 5. Insert trocar with twisting motion to desired depth 2. Insert trocar into introducer sheath 3. Sterile preparation of skin and administer local anesthesia
48 6. Replace trocar with localizing obturator and image patient to confirm needle position fiducial 7. Tip of obturator corresponds to center of bowl needle entry 8. Adjust depth as needed
49 9. Remove obturator and insert ATEC device. Rotate device to sample all quadrants or focus sampling to area of interest. Device acquires up to 16 samples/minute. 10. After sampling, replace device with obturator. Image courtesy of SurosSurgical, IN 11. Image patient post biopsy to ensure adequate sampling.
50 12. Deploy clip through the introducer prior to its removal. 13. Remove compression grid and apply compression to breast to achieve hemostasis.
51 Pearls Confirm target prior to biopsy with dynamic scanning, including the plane in which lesion is best visualized Time the biopsy to day 5-20 of the menstrual cycle if patient is premenopausal Day 7 Day 25
52 Pearls Two lesions in the same breast can be sampled simultaneously Superficial lesions and small breasts (as small as 22 mm compressed thickness) can be successfully sampled using the petite needle (12 mm bowl) STANDARD PETITE
53 Post Biopsy Procedures Unilateral mammography to demonstrate clip position on day of biopsy Discharge patient to home with standard post biopsy instructions Correlate pathology to the MR finding to determine concordance or discordance
54 Conclusions Two different concepts evolved to improve the specificity of breast MRI Morphology with high spatial resolution imaging Kinetics with high temporal resolution imaging Implementation of high temporal and spatial resolution sequences allow integration of both kinetic and morphologic features for improved sensitivity and specificity
55 Conclusions In combination, morphologic and dynamic data increase the sensitivity and specificity of breast MRI. An algorithm can be established for interpretation. We always base recommendations on the most suspicious feature - architecture, enhancement or kinetics.
56 Conclusions When percutaneous biopsy is contemplated, the image guidance ideally should use the modality that best visualizes the target. Lesions amenable to MR biopsy include those with suspicious morphology and/or enhancement.
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