1 THE INTEGRATION OF SPIRITUALITY ISSUES IN CACREP COUNSELOR PREPARATION PROGRAMS AND ACCREDITED THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS A Dissertation by JOHN-NELSON B. POPE Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in COUNSELOR EDUCATION Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi Corpus Christi, Texas December 2011
2 THE INTEGRATION OF SPIRITUALITY ISSUES IN CACREP COUNSELOR PREPARATION PROGRAMS AND ACCREDITED THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS A Dissertation By JOHN-NELSON B. POPE This dissertation meets the standards for scope and quality of Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and is hereby approved. Robert L. Smith, PhD, Chair Richard S. Balkin, Ph.D.,Committee Member Mary Fernandez, Ph.D., Committee Member Kaye Nelson, Ed.D., Committee Member Sherrye Garrett, Ed.D., Graduate Faculty Representative Luis Cifuentes, Ph.D. Dean of Graduate Studies December, 2011
4 John-Nelson B. Pope All Rights Reserved December, 2011 iii
5 Dedication Soli Deo Gloria. Ego hunc librum dedicant ut te, uxor mea - mea vita, amor et gaudium. iv
6 Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita Mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, Ché la diritta via era smarrita. -Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy Acknowledgements Midway through life s journey, I found myself in a darkening wood. Something had changed. My vocation, my calling as a Minister of the Word and Sacrament, had become tortuous. No, my ardent love for God had not waned. I had imagined my task similar to a spiritual warrior, armed with Scripture, who willingly, if not always joyfully, fought the good fight. But something had changed. I grew weary preaching Good News that only a handful chose to hear. I dreamt of proclaiming God s love, justice, and mercy that would fork like lightning around the sanctuary. More and more parishioners told me that they would rather I preach about a god rewarding them with health, wealth and prosperity if only they believed hard and long enough. Why couldn t I be more like that young preacher in Houston who had transformed a basketball arena into a megachurch? That s just make-believe, I thought. God in Christ never promised material success or health in life. Rather, He offered an authentic, meaningful existence that burned like the stars and for all eternity. He offered His shalom ( ). Simple, right? No. Jesus never said it was going to be easy. He said that his disciples needed to deny themselves, even take up their cross daily and follow Him (Luke 9:23, version). He then presented the deciding factor: What good is it for someone to gain the whole world, and yet lose or forfeit their very self (Luke 9:25, version)? Peace is not the absence of conflict. Rather, it is choosing to follow God s agenda instead of one s own. v
7 Not enough folk accepted what I preached. They said I expected too much of them. I retorted I was not preaching jeremiads, but grace pure and simple. They said it was time to leave. Thus, I entered a darkening wood, feeling sorry for myself. I had lost my way... One day Lyle Holin, my friend and a counselor at the Vocational Rehabilitation office in Bay City, Texas, told me that he thought I should consider returning to school and earn a doctorate. He said he was completing his first year in the Counselor Education and Supervision Program at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and was thriving there. He urged me to apply to the program for fall 2008, even though the deadline had recently passed. That night, my wife and I prayed about it. The next day, I quickly gathered my transcripts and requisite papers and applied. I was granted an interview, and shortly afterward was accepted. Light returned to the wood and so I began the journey anew, taking a different route. I would never have been able to complete my dissertation without the gentle guidance of my committee members, help from staff, fellow cohort 8 members, friends, and prayers and support from my family and wife. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my advisor and committee chair, Dr. Robert Smith, for his excellent guidance, caring, patience, and providing me with an excellent atmosphere for doing research. Without his steady hand, I would not have been able to devise the survey instrument. His lovely wife, Susan Smith, lifted my spirits with her joyfulness. I would also like to thank Dr. Kaye Nelson, who not only taught me to appreciate qualitative research, but served as a mentor, blessing, and sounding board. Besides providing my doctoral supervision, Dr. Nelson spent hours working with me to vi
8 develop the semi-structured interview rubric. Both Dr. Smith and Dr. Nelson have imbued me with a passion for Counselor Education and they cheerfully husbanded me through this process. I am thankful for Dr. Richard Balkin who clearly and joyfully explicated the why and wherefore of statistics and quantitative research. I am grateful to Dr. Sherrye Dee Garrett who cheerfully corrected my writing and served as my advocate, throughout the dissertation process. My special thanks go to Dr. Mary Alice Fernandez for her prayers and who graciously agreed to join the committee at the last moment. Dr. Richard Ricard brought sparking light and humor in the area of statistics. Mrs. Rachel Perez is an extraordinary asset to the Counseling and Educational Psychology Department and assisted me greatly in my work as clinic co-director. Finally, of those who assisted me with my dissertation, I am grateful to Veronica Miles, my amanuensis, who spent hours listening to eleven interviews and transcribing them. I also deeply appreciate Dr. Marvarene Oliver, who served as the Coordinator of the Training and Counseling Clinic. She taught me how to run the clinic and to expect the very best of my students. I cannot adequately describe the positive influence fellow cohort members had on me during my doctoral studies. Dr. Stephen Lenz, with whom, I worked spurred me to excellence, amazed me with his brilliance, and allowed me the privilege of officiating his marriage to his beloved Rachel. Annelise Vela was an effusive fountain of new ideas for the cohort and hosted cohort members at her home. Dr. Denise Dominguez, with her laughing eyes, contributed her organizational skills and humor during long study hours. Sandra Lopez brought her faith in God and quiet passion to improve the professionalism vii
9 of school counseling. Mary Rangel-Gomez, who had for several years served as the department s administrative assistant added her experience and knowledge, thus assisting cohort members through the Scylla and Charybdis of doctoral studies. Finally, I am thankful for Joy Snook who was my right hand at the Counseling and Training Clinic and who encouraged me greatly throughout the writing of this dissertation. I was privileged to know, befriend and learn from the following people who brought light and joy to my journey these past 3 years: Mr. Tom Callicot, Dr. Manuel Zamarripa. Dr. Joseph Biberstein, Dr. Sherrill Luther, Dr. Fred Capps, Dr. Yvonne Castillo, Dr. Mary Lou Holt-Adams, Shannon Dobesh, R.J. Davis, and my supervisees during my 2 years as clinic director. There have been people whose lives and examples served as lodestones during crisis and opportunity: My grandparents, Mrs. Dakos, Peggy Holman, Dr. Gerald Critoph, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Anderson, Jerry Walter and his wife Karen, Neil Pfefer and his wife Paula, John Merck, Dr. Rives Chalmers, Dr. Don LaGrone, and friends, Dr. Lori Colwell, Dr. Kimberly Buck, and Dr. Nicole Bereolos. I extend my love and gratitude to my parents, Daniel and Ruth Pope, and my daughter Bethany, who also did a gentle edit on the manuscript and her husband Matthew. I am thankful for my middle child Day and youngest daughter Katie and their loved ones, Robert, and Ruth Ann; my brother Dan and his family, my sister Elaine and her family; and especially my cousins Clinton and Molly White. All have been unflagging in their encouragement, love and prayed daily for the wellbeing of my family. Finally, I would like to thank my wife, Joy-Marie Walsh Pope. When I proposed to her nearly thirty years ago, I told her that we would likely never be rich, but our lives viii
10 together would never be boring. I thank God that she accepted my offer of marriage. She will always be my life, love, and joy. Nearly 2 years ago, my friend Lyle Holin grappled with the unexpected death of his beloved Jill Cook. For a season, he too, had entered the darkened wood and his grief overtook him. So, I rejoiced when I learned he had accepted an offer to teach in the graduate counseling program at the University of Great Falls in Montana. This program would provide Lyle with the intellectual challenge and opportunity to teach students counseling. There, he would find his bliss running, cycling, swimming, and snow skiing. As he was preparing to move to Montana, Lyle told me that he had considered applying as faculty at the University of Louisiana at Monroe, but chose to go to Montana instead. He thought the program at ULM would be a good match for me. I quickly gathered my papers and transcripts and applied. I was interviewed, and was offered a faculty position. Three weeks later, I had found my way, left the woods completely and was teaching. ix
11 Table of Contents Page Abstract...xv List of Tables... Error! Bookmark not defined. List of Figures... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER 1: SPIRITUALITY AND RELIGION...1 Origins...1 Importance of Religion and Spirituality...2 Spirituality in Counselor Preparation...3 Theological Education...4 Statement of the Problem...5 Purpose of the Study...5 Limitations...6 Significance of the Study...7 Quantitative Research Questions...8 Qualitative Research Questions...9 Methodology...9 Procedures...13 Data Analysis...14 Definition of Terms...16 Summary...21 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW...22 Origins of Spirituality and Religion...22 x
12 Page Spirituality and Religion in Psychology and Counseling...26 Call for Spiritual Sensitivity within Counseling...28 Course Designs...33 Spirituality and Spiritual Formation in Theological Schools...37 Professional and Spiritual Identity of Pastoral Counselors...40 Infusing Spirituality into the Pastoral Counselor Training...44 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY...45 Research Questions...48 Design...48 Participants...50 Procedures...52 Data Analysis...53 Assumptions and Limitations...54 Research Permission, Informed Consent and Ethical Considerations...55 The Role of the Researcher...57 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS...59 Characteristics of Participants...59 Results for Research Questions...62 Ancillary Analyses...72 Results of Qualitative Interviews...77 Summary...91 xi
13 Page CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION...93 Implications for Future Studies...95 Conclusions References Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G Appendix H Appendix I Appendix J Appendix K Appendix L Appendix M xii
14 List of Tables Page Table 1. Sample Demographic Characteristics...60 Table 2. Institution Characteristics...62 Table 3. Interest in Infusing Spirituality Concepts into the Curriculum...64 Table 4. Degree of Infusing Spirituality Concepts into the Curriculum...65 Table 5. Method of Infusing Spirituality Concepts into the Curriculum...66 Table 6. Significant Differences Between ATS Programs (n = 46) and CACREP Programs (n = 45)...68 Table 7. Opinions Regarding Infusion of Spirituality Concepts...70 Table 8. Infusion of Spirituality Concepts as a Function of Accreditation Type...76 Table 9. Participants Understanding of Spirituality Concepts...80 Table 10. Personal Experience of Integrating Spirituality Concepts into Curriculum...84 Table 11. Challenges and Successes Integrating Spirituality Concepts into Curriculum. 89 xiii
15 List of Figures Page Figure 1. Visual Model for Mixed Methods Procedures...48 xiv
16 Abstract The study utilized a sequential, mixed methods design comparing how the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) accredited counselor preparation programs and the Association of Theological Schools (ATS) accredited institutions understand, interpret, and implement spirituality concepts within their programs. There were 511 invitations sent to faculty/department heads to participate in the online survey in both CACREP (n = 250) and ATS (n = 261) graduate programs. Ninety-nine completed the survey. Eleven participants, selected from the survey, agreed to be interviewed during the qualitative phase of the study. Chi square test for independence was conducted to determine if there was a relationship between institution accreditation (ATS vs. CACREP) and incorporating training in spirituality into the curriculum. Results of this analysis revealed a significant relationship between the two. Cross tabulation analysis revealed that more ATS accredited programs (93.2%) were prepared to teach/train students in spirituality than CACREP (68.2%) accredited programs. There was strong agreement among respondents from both CACREP and ATS accredited institutions that spirituality concepts should be infused throughout the course of study, M = 4.15, SD =1.14. To a lesser degree, there was agreement among the respondents that spirituality concepts should be taught through infusion and specific courses in the counselor training process, (M = 3.97, SD = 1.16). Interviewed participants described the infusion of spirituality competencies into their teaching, either in terms of their own theoretical orientation, practice, and personhood or as a curriculum requirement, that is, in accreditation standards. Respondents from theological schools reported that they prepared themselves to teach xv
17 spirituality through theological reflection and experiences within ecclesiastical settings and were supported by their departments. Respondents from secular programs reported they did not experience that same level of support, although they did not encounter hindrances. When asked about what most hindered their successful teaching of spirituality concepts, respondents stated their students were reluctant to examine their beliefs. Conversely, respondents stated that their greatest success of teaching spirituality concepts occurred when their students became more open and accepting of others belief systems and who deepened their ability to reflect about spiritual issues. The majority of accredited programs incorporate training in spirituality into the curriculum. Faculty are trained properly regarding spirituality concepts and the common methods they use in the classroom, and had no plans to increase their coverage of such concepts in the near future. The religious and spiritual beliefs and religious affiliation of respondents who participated in the survey and interviews corresponded with the general population of the United States. xvi
18 1 CHAPTER 1: SPIRITUALITY AND RELIGION Origins Early humans, living during the Upper Paleolithic (40,000 to 10,000 BCE), expressed their spiritual inclinations through making tools and weapons, burial of the dead, and later through rock and cave art (Eliade, 1978). It was during the latter period, that shamans began organizing the realm of the spiritual into religion (Whitley, 2009). Sophisticated religions developed alongside the rise of civilizations and have sometimes survived the decline of those same civilizations because, at the core, they express something powerful beyond words or description that visits meaning, purpose, and mystery upon their adherents. They offer, what Rudolf Otto (1957), called a sensus numinis a sense of awe. Otto (1957) also described humans universal ability to experience and join in mysterium tremendum, literally terrifying mystery whereupon the worshiper is filled with dread of the Holy. Despite humans sophisticated mastery of technology and ever improving living conditions, they still seek to encounter and be transformed by something far greater than themselves. They still seek it within themselves, in others, in churches, synagogues, temples, and mosques. As Western civilization has become increasingly secularized, traditionally religious people have begun to seek assistance from counselors and other mental health providers to assist them in their quest to encounter the thing holy in the heart (Otto, p. 14). It is the aim of this study to examine and to compare how counselor preparation graduate programs and pastoral care programs at theological institutions are preparing counselors to be cognizant of their clients spiritual and religious ideas.
19 2 Importance of Religion and Spirituality According to the Gallup (2008) poll, a majority of Americans identify themselves as being religious or spiritual: 78% believe in God, 15% believe in a universal spirit, 6% do not believing in either, and 1% have no opinion. Gerontologist Harold Koenig (2008), director of the Center for Spirituality, Theology, and Health at Duke University, defined and described religion as possessing: 1. A system of beliefs and practices of those within a community, with rituals designed to acknowledge, worship, communicate with, and come closer to the Sacred, Divine or ultimate Truth or Reality (i.e., God) 2. A set of scriptures or teachings that describe the meaning and purpose of the world, the individual s place in it, the responsibilities of individuals to one another, and the life after death 3. A moral code of conduct that is agreed upon by members of the community, who attempted to adhere to that code. (p. 6) Koenig (2008) stated, Religion is a unique construct or domain separate from positive psychology and distinct from secular humanism that can be measured, quantified, and examined in relationship to health outcomes (p. 6). Defining, describing, or quantifying spirituality presents challenges. Unlike religion, which is a social institution, spirituality as a construct is less tangible. It can exist within or apart from religions and religious experiences (Teasdale, 2001, p ). Cashwell, Bentley, and Bigbee (2007, p. 66) understood spirituality through the lens of counseling psychology:
20 3 We define spirituality as a developmental process that is both active and passive wherein beliefs, disciplined practice, and experiences are grounded and integrated to result in increased mindfulness (nonjudgmental awareness of present experiences), heartfulness (experience of compassion and love), and soulfulness (connections beyond ourselves). (p. 67) It is this latter understanding of spirituality, which will be employed throughout this study. In 2009, the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) adopted standards stressing the importance of spirituality in counselor preparation programs. Yet, should this spirituality be infused within the delivered curriculum through specific courses, integration throughout the educational process, or a combination of both? Perhaps, counselor educators and theological educators can find fundamental methods to infuse spirituality in the curriculum. Spirituality in Counselor Preparation Perhaps with the decline of American denominations, people are seeking counseling regarding spiritual issues, once regarded the purview of clergy. Many counselors have been ill prepared to provide appropriate spirituality-sensitive counseling (Briggs & Rayle, 2005; Kelly, 1995). Burke et al. (1999, p. 77) asserted that the topics of spirituality and religion in counselor preparation have received modest to mixed attention despite the standards set forth by CACREP. The authors recommended that a balanced view of religious and spiritual issues be included or infused throughout appropriate aspects in counselor preparation, according to CACREP standards (1999).
21 4 Using eight CACREP core curricula standards the authors offered recommendations how they might be applied to counselor preparation pedagogy. Even though the ACA s Code of Ethics contains a spirituality/religious component and that CACREP addresses the same issues in their foundations sections, few graduate programs (25%) in counselor preparation have implemented specific academic courses in spirituality in their curricula (Briggs & Rayle, 2005, p. 252). Briggs and Rayle asserted that CACREP has offered few suggestions on how spirituality and religious concerns may be included in core curricula, resulting in counselor competency. Because there is a paucity of literature concerning spirituality in counselor education and supervision, further research is warranted. Da Silva (2007) determined that a minority of authors advocated that spirituality competencies be infused throughout all content areas of the CACREP standards. In his study graduating counselors who were exposed to content regarding spirituality and religion, throughout their educational process would, therefore, be more thoroughly prepared to apply issues regarding spirituality and religion as constructs in their counseling practices. Theological Education Since the Enlightenment and continuing to the present, there has been tension between theology and spirituality in seminaries and schools of divinity. From about 1830 to 1880, theological educators, under the influence of their Germanic counterparts, embraced science, perceiving theology in objective terms: critiqued, measured, quantified, and analyzed (O Conner & Meakes, 2008, p. 499). It was assumed that students were already spiritually formed (Choung, 2006, p. 2). Also schooled in historical
22 5 criticism, theological educators found it difficult to understand the concept of spirituality (Mudge & Poling, 1987, p. xvii). The accrediting body for postgraduate theological institutions is the Association of Theological Schools (ATS). According to ATS, theological institutions experienced a crisis of faith because of the continued decline in the promotion of spirituality (Calian, 2002, p. 92). Many students were historically and theologically illiterate about their faith and faith traditions. They struggled with the ethical, moral, and spiritual standards expected of those preparing for the ministry and for ordination (2002). As a result in 1996, ATS began adding spirituality components to its accreditation requirements (Calian, 2002, p. 92; Aleshire, 1999; Appendices G & H). Statement of the Problem Only a handful of surveys, (Young, Wiggins-Frame, & Cashwell, 2007, p. 47) have been conducted regarding how counselor preparation and programs are meeting the spirituality standards of CACREP. Survey research on the spirituality competencies related to 2009 CACREP standards and the methods of implementing them have been lacking. Concomitantly, similar research on spirituality competences related to accredited theological schools and the methods of implementing them have been lacking. Purpose of the Study This sequential mixed-methods study will seek to compare how CACREP accredited counselor preparation programs and ATS accredited institutions understood, interpreted, and implemented spirituality concepts. This study, in its quantitative phase, obtained data from CACREP and ATS accredited institutions in (a) the level of interest in infusing spirituality concepts, (b) the degree to which programs infuse spirituality
23 6 concepts, and (c) the methods used to infuse spirituality concepts within their curricula. Finally, this study, in its qualitative phase, attempted to gain insight on (a) faculty members views of infusing spiritual competencies into their teaching and (b) their suggestions regarding increasing their knowledge in this area. Statistical quantitative data were obtained from respondents, who were department heads or designated agents of CACREP accredited programs and their counterparts of ATS accredited institutions, using an online survey. Additionally, 11 tenure-track faculty interested in integrating spirituality concepts into their curriculum were purposefully sampled from CACREP and ATS accredited institutions throughout the United States and Canada, They were interviewed to gain more in-depth information. Semi-structured interviews were used. This data was obtained from tenure track faculty in counselor preparation programs and theological education programs during their respective national conferences and by interviewing them by phone at their schools. Limitations To conduct the quantitative phase of this study, a survey was sent to department heads or their agents of CACREP accredited counselor preparation programs and their counterparts in ATS accredited pastoral counseling/care programs. They were asked to relay this survey to faculty whose interests and task related to integrating spirituality concepts within their counselor preparation program. This study excluded department heads and agents whose programs were not accredited by CACREP or by ATS. Participants were identified and recruited using CACREP and directories. Although every reasonable effort was made to ensure that the department heads or their agents were contacted by , it is likely that some did not receive an invitation to participate.
24 7 As with all self-report data, it is possible that the respondents were influenced to give socially desired responses. In a pilot survey, this investigator learned that many department chairs or program directors did not respond, resulting in a small sample (Pope, 2009). Missing data items was also a limitation. Due to the voluntary nature of survey research, not all survey questions were answered and a few potential respondents were unable or reluctant to go online. Finally, it was difficult to reduce spirituality to measurable units (Koenig, 2008; Hamilton & Jackson, 1998, p. 242). This necessitated incorporating qualitative procedures in the study. Tenure-track faculty were recruited from (a) counselor preparation programs and (b) pastoral counseling/care programs. A select few were interviewed. After coding and identifying themes, faculty responses added richness to the study. Significance of the Study Saunders, Miller, and Bright (2010) reported burgeoning of research positively associating measures of spiritual and religious beliefs and practices (SRBP) and measures of medical and psychological health. Findings indicated that individuals with positive SRBP demonstrated decreased levels of anxiety, depression, suicide, substance abuse, and psychological distress and, significantly, increased hope, well-being, optimism, and resiliency (Saunders et al., 2010). These studies have suggested that spirituality is relevant to psychological care and that clients often desire to discuss spirituality-related issues with their therapists. It is therefore incumbent for therapists to recognize that spirituality and religion are linchpins of individual and cultural diversity (Saunders et al., 2010). However, some prospective clients are reluctant to seek therapy out of fear that their SRBP will not be respected. Most clients prefer to be treated by therapists who hold
25 8 spiritual values and beliefs, and they are even more likely to engage therapists who are able to integrate their personal values and beliefs into counseling (Hage, 2006). A nationwide appended poll of 1000 likely voters, conducted on behalf of the American Association of Pastoral Counselors (AAPC, 2000) and the Samaritan Institute, found that: 1. Eighty-three percent believed that their spirituality and religious practices were inextricably bound to their emotional health. 2. Seventy-five percent said that it was important to see professional counselors who are able to incorporate their values and beliefs into the counseling process. 3. Sixty-nine percent preferred to see a professional counselor who represented spiritual values and beliefs if they had a serious problem requiring counseling. Despite these statistics, many professional counselors do not address their clients SRBD because they did not receive adequate preparation and training in this area (Young, Cashwell, Wiggins-Frame, & Belaire, 2002). Quantitative Research Questions 1. What is the level of interest of counselor educators and instructors of pastoral care training programs in infusing spirituality competencies within their curriculum? 2. To what degree are counselor educators and instructors of pastoral care training programs infusing spirituality in their curriculum? 3. What methods are used to infuse spirituality concepts within the curriculum?
26 9 4. What is the relationship between the infusion of spirituality concepts in CACREP accredited counselor preparation programs and ATS accredited programs on their understanding, interpreting, and implementation of spirituality concepts within their curriculum? Qualitative Research Questions 1. What are faculty experiences of CACREP and ATS schools that have integrated spirituality in their curriculum? 2. What suggestions do faculty have regarding increasing their knowledge of spirituality and infusing this construct in their curriculum? Methodology It is arguable whether qualitative research is the antipode to quantitative. Social scientist Donald Campbell once said, All research ultimately has a qualitative grounding (as cited in Sokolowski & Banks, 2009, p. 29). Behavioral scientist Fred Kerlinger, on the other hand, famously observed, There is no such thing as qualitative data; everything is either 1 or 0 (as cited in Sokolowski & Banks, 2009, p. 29). Qualitative research is grounded in a process in which an investigator gains understanding of a complex, holistic picture, analyzes words, reports detailed views of informants, and conducts the study in a natural setting (Creswell, 2009, p. 15). Data is gathered from those immersed in everyday life of the setting in which the study is framed (Ivankova, p. 44). Data is analyzed based on the values the participants perceive to be true for their world. As a result, the researcher understands the problem within multiple layers of context.
27 10 Quantitative research is deductive in that a given topic of interest is identified and narrowed down so more specific questions may be answered or hypotheses may be tested using numerical data (Mertler & Charles, 2008). The aim of research is to pursue and explore reality even though it is something that can never be reached or fully understood (Trochim, 2006). The post-positivist researcher separates variables and causally relates them to determine the magnitude and frequency of relationships (Ivankova, 2004). By choosing which variables to investigate and instruments to employ, the researcher could garner reliable and valid scores from the data (Ivankova, 2002). If it is true that quantitative research and qualitative research are antipodal, then mixed methods research is equatorial, sharing characteristics of both. Mixed methods research is pragmatic a technique for collecting, analyzing, and mixing qualitative and quantitative data (Creswell, 2007; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003). Creswell, Plano-Clark, Gutmann, & Hanson (2003) defined this mixed methods approach as involving: the collection or analysis of both quantitative and/or qualitative data in a single study in which the data are collected concurrently or sequentially, are given a priority, and involve the integration of the data at one or more stages in the process of research. (p. 212) Tashakkori and Teddlie (1998) held that the term mixed model is more appropriate than mixed method, because mixing entails more than an eclectic mixing of methodologies applied at various stages throughout the research within the broader quantitative or qualitative approach (Bazeley, 2004). This integration of qualitative and quantitative methods and paradigmatic influences occurred throughout the research
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