Power Efficiency Metrics for the Top500. Shoaib Kamil and John Shalf CRD/NERSC Lawrence Berkeley National Lab

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1 Power Efficiency Metrics for the Top500 Shoaib Kamil and John Shalf CRD/NERSC Lawrence Berkeley National Lab

2 Power for Single Processors

3 HPC Concurrency on the Rise Total # of Processors in Top Processors Jun-93 Dec-93 Jun-94 Dec-94 Jun-95 Dec-95 Jun-96 Dec-96 Jun-97 Dec-97 Jun-98 Dec-98 Jun-99 Dec-99 Jun-00 Dec-00 Jun-01 Dec-01 Jun-02 Dec-02 Jun-03 Dec-03 Jun-04 Dec-04 Jun-05 Dec-05 Jun-06 List

4 HPC Power Draw on the Rise Growth in Power Consumption (Top50) Excluding Cooling System System Power Power (kw) (kw) max pwr Avg. Power Top5 avg pwr Avg. Power Top Jun-00 Jun-00 Sep-00 Sep-00 Dec-00 Dec-00 Mar-01 Mar-01 Jun-01 Jun-01 Sep-01 Sep-01 Dec-01 Dec-01 Mar-02 Mar-02 Jun-02 Jun-02 Sep-02 Sep-02 Dec-02 Dec-02 Mar-03 Mar-03 Jun-03 Jun-03 Sep-03 Sep-03 Dec-03 Dec-03 Mar-04 Mar-04 Jun-04 Jun-04 Sep-04 Sep-04 Dec-04 Dec-04 Mar-05 Mar-05 Jun-05 Jun-05 Sep-05 Sep-05 Dec-05 Dec-05 Mar-06 Mar-06 Jun-06 Jun-06

5 Broad Objective Use Top500 List to track power efficiency trends Raise Community Awareness of HPC System Power Efficiency Push vendors toward more power efficient solutions by providing a venue to compare their power consumption

6 Specific Proposal Require all Top500 sites to report system power consumption under a LINPACK workload Establish rules of engagement to govern fair collection of the data Must establish data collection procedures to make the data collection easy and have little impact on center operations We wish to convince you that this can be done with minimal pain If it cannot, we want to hear your input so that the rules can be drafted in a way that will work for ALL Top500 respondents

7 What do we mean by Easy We will try to prove to you that one can measure from a single node or cabinet and project the power consumption for the overall system At cabinet and node level, You do not have to take your entire system out of service to measure power under LINPACK sample a few representative pieces running proportionally smaller copies of LINPACK and project it to the full system scale Can use simpler/less-expensive power measurement apparatus

8 Many Ways to Measure Power Clamp meters +: easy to use, don t need to disconnect test systems, wide variety of voltages -: very inaccurate for more than one wire Inline meters +: accurate, easy to use, can output over serial -: must disconnect test system, limited voltage, limited current Power panels / PDU panels Unknown accuracy, must stand and read, usually coarse-grained (unable to differentiate power loads) Sometimes the best or only option: can get numbers for an entire HPC system Integrated monitoring in system power supplies (Cray XT) +: accurate, easy to use - : only measures single cabinet. Must know power supply conversion efficiency to project nominal power use at wall socket

9 Testing our Methodology Look at power usage using variety of synthetic and real benchmarks Memory intensive : STREAM CPU intensive: HPL/Linpack IO intensive: IOZone, MADbench Simulated workloads: NAS PB, NERSC SSP Compare single node vs cabinet/cluster vs entire system Is power consumed when running LINPACK similar to that of a real workload? Does power consumed by LINPACK change with concurrency? Can we predict full system power from cabinet/node power?

10 Single Node Tests: AMD Opteron Highest power usage is 2x NAS FT and LU

11 Similar Results when Testing Other CPU Architectures Core Duo AMD Opteron IBM PPC970/G5 Power consumption far less than manufacturer estimated nameplate power Idle power much lower than active power Power consumption when running LINPACK is very close to power consumed when running other compute intensive applications

12 Full System Test Entire System Power Usage Kilowatts STREAM HPL Throughput No idle() Idle() loop Catamount CNL Time--> Tests run across all 19,353 compute cores Throughput: NERSC realistic workload composed of full applications idle() loop allows powersave on unused processors; (generally more efficient)

13 Single Rack Tests Single Cabinet Power Usage Amps 52 VDC) STREAM GTC FT.D LU.D CG.D paratec pmemd HPL 50 0 Time --> Administrative utility gives rack DC amps & voltage HPL & Paratec are highest power usage

14 Modeling the Entire System: AC to DC Conversion Commodity desktop machines are ~75% efficient Google uses new, 90% efficient power supplies Our test system has has ~90% efficient power supplies

15 Modeling the Entire System Actual, Watts AC Full System Power Usage, Model Using Actual vs. Single Rack x Num Racks 1.40E+06 90% Eff 80% Eff 1.20E+06 Model, with FS (est. 50 MW) 1.00E E+05 Watts 6.00E E E E+00 idle STREAM HPL Error factor is 0.05 if we assume 90% efficiency

16 Conclusions Power utilization under an HPL/Linpack load is a good estimator for power usage under mixed workloads for single nodes, cabinets / clusters, and large scale systems Idle power is not Nameplate and CPU power are not LINPACK running on one node or rack consumes approxmimately same power as the node would consume if it were part of full-sys parallel LINPACK job We can estimate overall power usage using a subset of the entire HPC system and extrapolating to total number of nodes using a variety of power measurement techniques And the estimates mostly agree with one-another! Disk subsystem is a small fraction of overall power (50-60KW vs 1,200 KW) Disk power dominated by spindles and power supplies Idle power for disks not significantly different from active power

17 Top500 Power Data Collection Measure System Power when running LINPACK If measured on circuit for full system (eg. PDU or Panel), then run LINPACK on full system If cannot differentiate system from other devices sharing same circuit, then isolate components using line meter or inductive clamp meter (can borrow from local Power Co.) If measured from line meter or clamp meter, then just run on one rack, measure representative components comprising system and extrapolate to entire system If measured from integral power supply, account for power supply losses in projections Target of projections is RMS AC wall-socket power consumed by HPC system Must convert measurements of DC power consumption accordingly

18 Top500 Power Data Collection What to include All components comprising delivered HPC system aside from external disk subsystem (eg. SAN) Can extrapolate from measurement of said components while under a LINPACK load (even if load is local) What to exclude Exclude cooling Exclude PDU and other power conversion infrastructure losses that are not part of the deliverd HPC system Exclude disk subsystem (if not integral): should discuss this further

19 Complementary Efforts Our Effort creates a metric for compute-intensive parallel scientific workloads Metrics for I/O intensive workloads: JouleSort by HP Labs Metrics for transactional workloads: EPA EnergyStar Server Metrics Re-ranking of Top500 for Power Efficiency:

20 Single Node Tests: IO Highly variable, less than compute-only Very difficult to assess power draw for I/O

21 Modeling the Entire System: Disks Must take into account disk subsystem Drive model matters Deskstar 9.6W idle, 13.6W under load Tonka 7.4W idle, 12.6W under load Using DDN-provided numbers, estimated power draw for model disk subsystem is 50KW idle, 60KW active Observed using PDU panel: ~48KW idle

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