ESL Programs and Instruction in the Schenectady City School District

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1 ESL Programs and Instruction in the Schenectady City School District

2 What is ESL? ESL stands for English as a Second Language. ESL students can be referred to as ELLs (English Language Learners) or LEP students (Limited English Proficient). ESL is a program in which non-native native English speakers learn English. ESL instruction is provided by a certified ESL teacher utilizing specific methodologies and instructional materials.

3 Goals of the ESL Program To increase the proficiency level of ELLs in the areas of listening, speaking, reading, and writing To help students function well in their classrooms and meet rigorous academic standards. The sole language of instruction is English with an emphasis on the rapid acquisition of the langauge.. It is not a bilingual program.

4 Identification of ELLs Step 1: Home Language Questionnaire (HLQ) Families fill out the HLQ at Registration Step 2: Interview An interview with the parent and/or child is conducted to determine if a language other than English is spoken Step 3: LAB-R R test Administered by the ESL teacher to determine if the child requires ESL services. If the child requires services, then the Commissioner s s Regulations determine the required ESL instructional time.

5 NYS Regulations for ESL Instructional Time Beginners 360 minutes/week Intermediates 360 minutes/week Advanced students 180 minutes/week Proficient students first year support and monitoring and accommodations on state testing for two years Long-term students services services and support provided more flexibly in accordance with state regs

6 New York State ESL Learning Standards Standard 1: English for information and understanding Standard 2: English for literary response, enjoyment, and expression Standard 3: English for Critical analysis and evaluation Standard 4: English for social interaction and classroom interaction Standard 5: English for cross-cultural cultural knowledge and understanding

7 The Role of the ESL Teacher Teach English Teach American culture and provide content area support to their ELLs Provide social and emotional support for ELLs Foster social growth and acceptance, self- confidence and self worth Act as advocates for their students Act as a liaison between the students and other teachers and staff members Serve as a liaison for ELL families

8 They can converse, but they can t do their class work? There is a difference between Social Language (aka BICS) and Academic Language (aka CALP) Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) takes 1 to 3 years to acquire Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) takes 5 to 10 years to acquire

9 Factors Influencing Second Language Acquisition Age Competence in Native Language (L1) Gender different cultural expectations Culture value of education Family Literacy is is there help at home? Prior Education may not be on grade level Motivation Personality introverts introverts may not be risk-takers

10 What is the Silent Period? The silent period is a period of incubation that lasts from a few days to several months, or sometimes up to one year. It is a period when students have an inability to communicate which is caused by language and cultural differences. During this period the student develops strong listening skills although they may be able to express themselves in English. Children experience a school culture different from that of their home country

11 Four Stages of Acculturation Euphoria a a period of excitement in the new country Culture shock mild irritability to deep psychological panic and crisis Anomic gradual recovery period Assimilation full recovery, acceptance of the new culture and self-confidence in the new person who has developed in this culture

12 Can ELLs be exempt from State Tests? ELLs are exempt from the ELA exam during the first year of attending school in the U.S. ELLs take all other state assessments (math, science, social studies, etc) Accommodations are available to support ELLs on state tests

13 Testing Accommodations for ELLs Use of bilingual glossaries Use of translated editions of the test for certain languages Listening passages read for a third time Extended time Separate location ELLs who became proficient in the last two years are entitled to these accommodations

14 More Information on Testing of ELLs ESL is part of the general education program. ESL is regulated under Part 154 of the Commissioner s s Regulations. It is completely separate from special education. With time, some ESL students may require additional supports through the CSE, in which case the regular process of identification is initiated. Bilingual testing is appropriate in some cases.

15 Cultural Differences Eye contact in some cultures it is disrespectful to look directly at an authority figure or older adult Refrain from speaking some some students may refrain from asking for help or will not volunteer to answer questions. Silence is a sign of respect in some cultures Lack of participation in PE Sense of personal space may be different

16 How can I help ELLs adjust in the classroom? Enunciate clearly, gesture, point, illustrate Pace your speech Avoid idioms and slang List and review instructions step by step Repeat, rephrase, paraphrase Post agendas/routines Supplement lessons with visual stimuli: pictures, maps, and models Provide realia,, manipulative and hands-on experiences Use content area picture dictionaries Keep bilingual dictionaries handy Model, model, model Scaffold Differentiate instruction Use think, pair, share Access prior knowledge

17 Be Patient Research shows that achieving native-like fluency and academic English can take 7 to 10 years.

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