Parallel worlds Rebuilding the education system in Kosovo

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1 Parallel worlds Rebuilding the education system in Kosovo

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3 Parallel worlds Rebuilding the education system in Kosovo Marc Sommers Peter Buckland International Institute for Educational Planning

4 The choice and the presentation of the facts contained in this book and the opinions expressed therein are not necessarily those of UNESCO-IIEP and do not commit the Organization. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed herein are those of the authors) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Board of Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent.the World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO-IIEP and the World Bank concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Published by: International Institute for Educational Planning 7-9 rue Eugène Delacroix, Paris IIEP web site: Cover design: Corinne Hayworth Cover photo: Marc Sommers Composition: Linéale Production Working document UNESCO 2004 This volume has been printed in IIEP s printshop

5 Contents List of abbreviations 7 Acknowledgements 9 Series preface 11 Executive summary 13 Foreword 17 Map of Kosovo, May Prologue: Forging a new path 19 Chapter 1. Introduction 23 Perceptions and perspectives: four guiding assumptions 23 Coverage 25 Methodology and approach: context, policy and practice 25 Constraints 29 Chapter 2. A social history of education in conflict in Kosovo 31 History in conflict 35 Education as resistance: the parallel system 41 Enter the outsiders 47 Kosovo and education: outlining the current situation 56 Chapter 3. Structuring a system: educational policy in Kosovo 63 A chronology of change 65 Implications for the education system 71 Who is learning? The question of access 79 What are they learning? Curriculum development 86 From whom are they learning? Teachers and teacher development 91 Who decides? School and system governance 98 Final comments 105 Chapter 4. A system in transition: educational practice in Kosovo 107 The push for reform 109 Gender and access: the case of medical high schools 116 The Serbian challenge 119 Handover politics 128 Views from below 136 5

6 Contents Chapter 5. Conclusion: an unfinished odyssey 141 Reviewing the reconstruction legacy 142 Advancing policy 144 Reform in practice: considering the Lead Agency approach 145 Missed opportunities 146 Tough trade-offs 148 Managing expectations 150 Time will tell 150 Bibliography 151 References 151 Supplementary bibliography 156 Appendices 1 Field research question guides Marc Sommers and Hasnije Ilazi) Field research question guides Peter Buckland) 177 6

7 List of abbreviations CIDA DES DESK EMIS FRY FRYOM FSDEK GMP GTZ IAC IBE ICRC JCCE JIAS KEC KEDP KFOR KLA KTC LASH LBD LDK MED MEP Canadian International Development Agency Department of Education and Science Developing the Education System in Kosovo Education Management Information System Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia Finnish Support for the Development of Education in Kosovo Gross Material Product Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit Interim Administrative Council International Bureau for Education International Committee of the Red Cross Joint Civil Commission on Education Joint Interim Administrative Structure Kosovo Education Centre Kosovo Educator Development Programme Kosovo Forces collective name for NATO forces in Kosovo) Kosovo Liberation Army Kosovo Transitional Council League of Albanian Educators United Democratic Front Democratic League of Kosovo Municipal Education Director Ministry Empowerment Project 7

8 Parallel worlds Rebuilding the education system in Kosovo MEST MREB NGO OCHA OECD OSCE PDK PIO PISG PS SEO SRSG UNHCR UNMIK UNSCR VET Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Mitrovica Regional Education Board Non-governmental organization Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Kosovo Democratic Party Principal Education Officer Provisional Institutions of Self-Government Permanent Secretary Senior Education Officer Special Representative for the Secretary General United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo United Nations Security Council Resolution Vocational Education and Training 8

9 Acknowledgements The authors are grateful for the contributions and kind assistance of a number of people. First and foremost, they would like to thank their editor, Christopher Talbot of UNESCO-IIEP, for his patience, challenging insights, and consistent support. Special thanks are also due to their research colleague in Kosovo, Hasnije Ilazi of the University of Pristina and the Kosovar Civil Society Foundation, for her energetic support, dedication, and compassion. They hope that her research findings and analysis are appropriately represented in this text. They would also like to express their gratitude for the contributions of their translators Erol Bince, Ana Milovanovic and Eva Vuka), research assistants Gina Costante and James DiFrancesca), members of their Research Advisory Team which included Angela Vitale, Xhavit Rexhaj and Dukagjin Pupovci), and those providing essential logistical support, especially Angela Vitale, Angela Cady, David Young and, not least, Lorraine Daniel and Erika Boak of UNESCO-IIEP. Finally, they wish to extend their heartfelt thanks to all of the dedicated education professionals, and their students, who made time in their schedules to contribute their insights, reflections, ideas, and aspirations about education in Kosovo. Since their perspectives, concerns, and challenges lie at the core of this endeavour, the authors research, and this case study, could not have been completed without their kind assistance. 9

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11 Series preface UNESCO is increasingly requested to provide an educational response in emergency and reconstruction settings. The organization is in the process of developing expertise in this field in order to be able to provide prompt and relevant assistance. It will offer guidance, practical tools and specific training for education policy-makers, officials and planners. The fifth of the eleven objectives adopted by the Dakar World Education Forum in 2000 explicitly focuses on the rights of children in emergencies. It stresses the importance of meeting the needs of education systems affected by conflict, natural calamities and instability and conduct[ing] educational programmes in ways that promote mutual understanding, peace and tolerance, and that help to prevent violence and conflict. The Dakar Framework for Action World Education Forum, 2000: 9) calls for national Education for All plans to include provision for education in emergency situations. Governments, particularly education ministries, have an important role to play in an area that has often been dominated by the actions of NGOs and United Nations agencies. Moreover, the field of educational planning in emergencies and reconstruction is still young. It has to be organized into a manageable discipline, through further documentation and analysis, before training programmes can be designed. Accumulated institutional memories and knowledge in governments, agencies and NGOs on education in emergencies, are in danger of being lost due both to the dispersion and disappearance of documents, and to high staff turnover in both national and international contexts. Most of the expertise is still in the heads of practitioners and needs to be collected, since memories fade fast. Diverse experiences of educational reconstruction must now be more thoroughly documented and analyzed before they disappear. This task includes the publication in this series of seven countryspecific analyses being conducted on the planning and management of education in emergencies and reconstruction. They concern the efforts currently being made to restore and transform education systems in 11

12 Parallel worlds Rebuilding the education system in Kosovo countries as diverse as Burundi, Kosovo, Palestine, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan and Timor-Leste. They have been initiated and sponsored by IIEP, in close collaboration with the Division of Educational Policies and Strategies in UNESCO Headquarters. This particular volume on Kosovo, Parallel worlds, has been researched and written in partnership with the World Bank Human Development Network-Education. The objectives of the case studies are: to contribute to the process of developing knowledge in the discipline of education in emergencies; to provide focused input for future IIEP training programmes targeting government officials and others in education in emergencies; to identify and collect dispersed documentation on the management of education in the seven countries; and to capture some of the undocumented memories of practitioners; to analyze response in seven very different situations to educational provision in times of crisis; to increase dissemination of information and analysis on education in emergencies. IIEP s larger programme on education in emergencies and reconstruction involves not only these case studies, but also a series of global, thematic, policy-related studies. In addition, IIEP is producing a handbook for education authority officials and the agencies assisting them, and developing training materials for a similar audience. Through this programme, IIEP will make a modest but significant contribution to the discipline of education in emergencies and reconstruction. Its hope is to enrich the quality of the planning processes applied in this crucial field. Gudmund Hernes Director, IIEP 12

13 Executive summary The objective of this case study is to identify lessons that might be learned from the planning and management of education in Kosovo from June 1999 until the present, focusing on social and political issues. Perceptions and perspectives: four guiding assumptions In examining education in Kosovo within a contested and politically charged environment, four general assumptions have been employed to guide the analysis. First, perceptions of what has taken place in the education sector matter at least as much as the reality. What also matters, is how different groups view and respond to changes in their education system. Different perspectives of the education system, both between and among Albanians, Serbs and international educationalists working in Kosovo, are a featured component of the descriptions in this case study. A second, related assumption involves educationalists at different levels of the education system in Kosovo. It concerns the reforms introduced at the education centre in the capital which look entirely different at municipal or school levels. Revealing these perspectives constitutes an important component of the case study s narrative and analysis. Third, there is an attempt to illuminate any common points between groups that surface in the course of analysis. When differences between groups take centre stage, as they so often have in Kosovo, issues which they share in common tend to be overlooked. Here, light is shed on any significant issues that link the viewpoints of Kosovar Albanians and Kosovac Serbs, or, indeed, the views of internationals with either or both indigenous groups. Finally, the context of educational reconstruction and change was exceedingly significant. Repression, resistance, rebellion, and eventually open conflict engulfed the population of Kosovo for at least a decade before NATO s bombing campaign in United Nations officials 13

14 Parallel worlds Rebuilding the education system in Kosovo arriving during the initial reconstruction months following the entrance of NATO forces into Kosovo in June 1999 attempted to support the establishment of a new education system. At the same time, they cooperated with Albanian and Serbian education officials who were re-starting and managing schools on their own, using the networks, resources and institutions that had sustained the separate systems throughout the previous decade. The approach taken in this case study regarding education in Kosovo incorporates descriptions and analyses of key technical issues, while investigating the processes and impact as viewed by different education system members. The case study should thus be considered complementary to other reports and articles that have already been produced about education in Kosovo e.g., Crighton et al., 2001; Davies, 1999; Paci et al., 2001; Pupovci et al., 2001). Coverage As the above assumptions suggest, this case study will take a careful look at issues of ownership and change from a variety of viewpoints. A specific set of themes will be investigated: i. the influence and relevance of history, tradition, and politics on postwar education work; ii. iii. iv. the tension between the need to resume schooling using existing resources, institutions and curricula, and the urge to reform and modernize the education system to avoid reproducing the shortcomings of the past; the ambiguity regarding authority when an outside entity, in this case, UNMIK, assumes the leadership role in education, moves boldly to institute reforms, and then hands over the education system control to local officials, in this case, Kosovars; the gap between the policies, plans and strategies developed at the central level and their impact on change at the school and community level. 14

15 Executive summary v. the way the above four themes are manifested in: school and system governance, including decentralization and information management; educational access, particularly those issues relating to tensions between educational exclusion and inclusion, ethnicity, gender, and disabled children; the policies and processes of curriculum development and reform; the concerns, needs and development of Kosovo s teacher corps and, to a lesser extent, its school directors. 15

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17 Foreword Since education remains at or near the centre of the conflict between Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo, telling the story of education in post-war Kosovo is bound to attract controversy. More controversy surrounds education issues in Kosovo, in fact, than any other post-conflict situation either of the authors has ever encountered. Nonetheless, controversy is not the intention of the authors. On the contrary, the focus is, as accurately as is possible, and relying on the tools of social science research, to explain how and why the education system unfolded as it has since the end of the NATO bombing campaign in June All researchers enter a subject area with a set of experiences and perspectives that help direct and focus their work, and this case study is no exception. Prior experience of the two authors early in the post-war period in Kosovo represents both an important asset in support of this effort and a perspective from which the education system can be described. Marc Sommers arrived in Kosovo late in July 1999, as the first field researcher of a team that investigated NATO s role in humanitarian action in Kosovo. 1 While examining the education sector was not central to his work, it formed a component of his field research and analysis. Peter Buckland s experience with education in Kosovo was much more direct. Arriving on the heels of NATO s advance in mid-june 1999 on secondment from UNICEF, he was among a handful of United Nations officials tasked with re-starting the education system in Kosovo. Until the end of July, while the UNMIK 2 interim administration was being established, he was the only United Nations official in UNMIK responsible for education. He returned in September and October to work as part of the small United Nations education team established in UNMIK. 1 The subsequent monograph that surfaced from this work was entitled NATO and humanitarian action in the Kosovo crisis by Larry Minear, Ted Van Baarda and Marc Sommers Providence: Humanitarianism and War Project, Brown University, Occasional Paper No. 36, 2000). 2 UNMIK: The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. For details of its establishment and functioning, see Chapter 1, below. 17

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Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M itrovice) M 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Crepulja Crepulja Crepulja Brnjak Brnjak Brnjak Brnjak Brnjak Brnjak Brnjak Brnjak Brnjak Vucitrn Vucitrn Vucitrn Vucitrn Vucitrn Vucitrn Vucitrn Vucitrn Vucitrn Kosova Polje Kosova Polje Kosova Polje Kosova Polje Kosova Polje Kosova Polje Kosova Polje Kosova Polje Kosova Polje Boksic Boksic Boksic Boksic Boksic Boksic Boksic Boksic Boksic Stimlje Stimlje Stimlje Stimlje Stimlje Stimlje Stimlje Stimlje Stimlje Janjevo Janjevo Janjevo Janjevo Janjevo Janjevo Janjevo Janjevo Janjevo Lipljan Lipljan Lipljan Lipljan Lipljan Lipljan Lipljan Lipljan Lipljan D ubovac D ubovac D ubovac D ubovac D ubovac D ubovac D ubovac D ubovac D ubovac Alagina Reka Alagina Reka Alagina Reka Alagina Reka Alagina Reka Alagina Reka Alagina Reka Alagina Reka Alagina Reka Batahire Batahire Batahire Batahire Batahire Batahire Batahire Batahire Batahire BanjskiSuviDo BanjskiSuviDo BanjskiSuviDo BanjskiSuviDo BanjskiSuviDo BanjskiSuviDo BanjskiSuviDo BanjskiSuviDo BanjskiSuviDo Dracevo Dracevo Dracevo Dracevo Dracevo Dracevo Dracevo Dracevo Dracevo Shkodër Shkodër Shkodër Shkodër Shkodër Shkodër Shkodër Shkodër Shkodër Karma Karma Karma Karma Karma Karma Karma Karma Karma M aha la Vilës M aha la Vilës M aha la Vilës M aha la Vilës M aha la Vilës M aha la Vilës M aha la Vilës M aha la Vilës M aha la Vilës Boriç imath Boriç imath Boriç imath Boriç imath Boriç imath Boriç imath Boriç imath Boriç imath Boriç imath Adzovici Adzovici Adzovici Adzovici Adzovici Adzovici Adzovici Adzovici Adzovici Kumanovo Kumanovo Kumanovo Kumanovo Kumanovo Kumanovo Kumanovo Kumanovo Kumanovo Tetovo Tetovo Tetovo Tetovo Tetovo Tetovo Tetovo Tetovo Tetovo Djakovica Djakovica Djakovica Djakovica Djakovica Djakovica Djakovica Djakovica Djakovica Urosevac Urosevac Urosevac Urosevac Urosevac Urosevac Urosevac Urosevac Urosevac Gnjilane Gnjilane Gnjilane Gnjilane Gnjilane Gnjilane Gnjilane Gnjilane Gnjilane Sjenica Sjenica Sjenica Sjenica Sjenica Sjenica Sjenica Sjenica Sjenica Bijelo Polje Bijelo Polje Bijelo Polje Bijelo Polje Bijelo Polje Bijelo Polje Bijelo Polje Bijelo Polje Bijelo Polje Mojkovac Mojkovac Mojkovac Mojkovac Mojkovac Mojkovac Mojkovac Mojkovac Mojkovac Ivangrad Ivangrad Ivangrad Ivangrad Ivangrad Ivangrad Ivangrad Ivangrad Ivangrad Andrijevic Andrijevic Andrijevic Andrijevic Andrijevic Andrijevic Andrijevic Andrijevic Andrijevic Plav Plav Plav Plav Plav Plav Plav Plav Plav Gusinje Gusinje Gusinje Gusinje Gusinje Gusinje Gusinje Gusinje Gusinje M ahala M ahala M ahala M ahala M ahala M ahala M ahala M ahala M ahala Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Raska Raska Raska Raska Raska Raska Raska Raska Raska D uga Poljana D uga Poljana D uga Poljana D uga Poljana D uga Poljana D uga Poljana D uga Poljana D uga Poljana D uga Poljana Prokuplje Prokuplje Prokuplje Prokuplje Prokuplje Prokuplje Prokuplje Prokuplje Prokuplje NoviPazar NoviPazar NoviPazar NoviPazar NoviPazar NoviPazar NoviPazar NoviPazar NoviPazar Kursum lija Kursum lija Kursum lija Kursum lija Kursum lija Kursum lija Kursum lija Kursum lija Kursum lija Lebane Lebane Lebane Lebane Lebane Lebane Lebane Lebane Lebane Kisela Banja Kisela Banja Kisela Banja Kisela Banja Kisela Banja Kisela Banja Kisela Banja Kisela Banja Kisela Banja Istok Istok Istok Istok Istok Istok Istok Istok Istok Savine Vode Savine Vode Savine Vode Savine Vode Savine Vode Savine Vode Savine Vode Savine Vode Savine Vode V Junik Junik Junik Junik Junik Junik Junik Junik Junik Bujanovac Bujanovac Bujanovac Bujanovac Bujanovac Bujanovac Bujanovac Bujanovac Bujanovac Orahovac Orahovac Orahovac Orahovac Orahovac Orahovac Orahovac Orahovac Orahovac Suva Reka Suva Reka Suva Reka Suva Reka Suva Reka Suva Reka Suva Reka Suva Reka Suva Reka Presevo Presevo Presevo Presevo Presevo Presevo Presevo Presevo Presevo Kacanik Kacanik Kacanik Kacanik Kacanik Kacanik Kacanik Kacanik Kacanik Orizare Orizare Orizare Orizare Orizare Orizare Orizare Orizare Orizare Zur Zur Zur Zur Zur Zur Zur Zur Zur R zanicani R zanicani R zanicani R zanicani R zanicani R zanicani R zanicani R zanicani R zanicani Pirok Pirok Pirok Pirok Pirok Pirok Pirok Pirok Pirok Stence Stence Stence Stence Stence Stence Stence Stence Stence Podujevo Podujevo Podujevo Podujevo Podujevo Podujevo Podujevo Podujevo Podujevo Rijeka Crnojevica Rijeka Crnojevica Rijeka Crnojevica Rijeka Crnojevica Rijeka Crnojevica Rijeka Crnojevica Rijeka Crnojevica Rijeka Crnojevica Rijeka Crnojevica Petrovac Petrovac Petrovac Petrovac Petrovac Petrovac Petrovac Petrovac Petrovac Brodarevo Brodarevo Brodarevo Brodarevo Brodarevo Brodarevo Brodarevo Brodarevo Brodarevo Gvozd Gvozd Gvozd Gvozd Gvozd Gvozd Gvozd Gvozd Gvozd Matesevo Matesevo Matesevo Matesevo Matesevo Matesevo Matesevo Matesevo Matesevo Morakovo Morakovo Morakovo Morakovo Morakovo Morakovo Morakovo Morakovo Morakovo D anilovgrad D anilovgrad D anilovgrad D anilovgrad D anilovgrad D anilovgrad D anilovgrad D anilovgrad D anilovgrad Koplik Koplik Koplik Koplik Koplik Koplik Koplik Koplik Koplik Pukë Pukë Pukë Pukë Pukë Pukë Pukë Pukë Pukë Vau idejës Vau idejës Vau idejës Vau idejës Vau idejës Vau idejës Vau idejës Vau idejës Vau idejës Bushat Bushat Bushat Bushat Bushat Bushat Bushat Bushat Bushat Beloljin Beloljin Beloljin Beloljin Beloljin Beloljin Beloljin Beloljin Beloljin Doljevac Doljevac Doljevac Doljevac Doljevac Doljevac Doljevac Doljevac Doljevac Zitoradja Zitoradja Zitoradja Zitoradja Zitoradja Zitoradja Zitoradja Zitoradja Zitoradja Brestova Brestova Brestova Brestov Brestov Brestov Brestov Brestov Brestov Bosnjace Bosnjace Bosnjace Bosnjace Bosnjace Bosnjace Bosnjace Bosnjace Bosnjace Tulare Tulare Tulare Tulare Tulare Tulare Tulare Tulare Tulare R udnik R udnik R udnik R udnik R udnik R udnik R udnik R udnik R udnik Djurakovac Djurakovac Djurakovac Djurakovac Djurakovac Djurakovac Djurakovac Djurakovac Djurakovac Obilic Obilic Obilic Obilic Obilic Obilic Obilic Obilic Obilic O goste O goste O goste O goste O goste O goste O goste O goste O goste Shënm ëri Shënm ëri Shënm ëri Shënm ëri Shënm ëri Shënm ëri Shënm ëri Shënm ëri Shënm ëri Cegrane Cegrane C egrane Cegrane C egrane C egrane C egrane C egrane Cegrane Kryezi Kryezi Kryezi Kryezi Kryezi Kryezi Kryezi Kryezi Kryezi Bigor Bigor Bigor Bigor Bigor Bigor Bigor Bigor Bigor Bistrica Bistrica Bistrica Bistrica Bistrica Bistrica Bistrica Bistrica Bistrica D onja Bukovica D onja Bukovica D onja Bukovica D onja Bukovica D onja Bukovica D onja Bukovica D onja Bukovica D onja Bukovica D onja Bukovica Krute Krute Krute Krute Krute Krute Krute Krute Krute Velje D uboko Velje D uboko Velje D uboko Velje D uboko Velje D uboko Velje D uboko Velje D uboko Velje D uboko Velje D uboko Barbatovac Barbatovac Barbatovac Barbatovac Barbatovac Barbatovac Barbatovac Barbatovac Barbatovac Belo Brdo Belo Brdo Belo Brdo Belo Brdo Belo Brdo Belo Brdo Belo Brdo Belo Brdo Belo Brdo Brod Brod Brod Brod Brod Brod Brod Brod Brod Crkvine Crkvine Crkvine Crkvine Crkvine Crkvine Crkvine Crkvine Crkvine Zegra Zegra Zegra Zegra Zegra Zegra Zegra Zegra Zegra Praga Praga Praga Praga Praga Praga Praga Praga Praga M anasti-moracki M anasti-moracki M anasti-moracki M anasti-moracki M anasti-moracki M anasti-moracki M anasti-moracki M anasti-moracki M anasti-moracki StariBar StariBar StariBar StariBar StariBar StariBar StariBar StariBar StariBar Baba Baba Baba Baba Baba Baba Baba Baba Baba Balicevac Balicevac Balicevac Balicevac Balicevac Balicevac Balicevac Balicevac Balicevac Kosancic Kosancic Kosancic Kosancic Kosancic Kosancic Kosancic Kosancic Kosancic Pridvorica Pridvorica Pridvorica Pridvorica Pridvorica Pridvorica Pridvorica Pridvorica Pridvorica Prekopce Prekopce Prekopce Prekopce Prekopce Prekopce Prekopce Prekopce Prekopce Kalica Kalica Kalica Kalica Kalica Kalica Kalica Kalica Kalica ZapadniMojstir ZapadniMojstir ZapadniMojstir ZapadniMojstir ZapadniMojstir ZapadniMojstir ZapadniMojstir ZapadniMojstir ZapadniMojstir Shashani Shashani Shashani Shashani Shashani Shashani Shashani Shashani Shashani Jazince Jazince Jazince Jazince Jazince Jazince Jazince Jazince Jazince R om anovac R om anovac R om anovac R om anovac R om anovac R om anovac R om anovac R om anovac R om anovac Novo Selo Novo Selo Novo Selo Novo Selo Novo Selo Novo Selo Novo Selo Novo Selo Novo Selo Adzarlar Adzarlar Adzarlar Adzarlar Adzarlar Adzarlar Adzarlar Adzarlar Adzarlar Shkavec Shkavec Shkavec Shkavec Shkavec Shkavec Shkavec Shkavec Shkavec N egotin N egotin N egotin N egotin N egotin N egotin N egotin N egotin N egotin Salarevo Salarevo Salarevo Salarevo Salarevo Salarevo Salarevo Salarevo Salarevo Abat Abat Abat Abat Abat Abat Abat Abat Abat Apripa Apripa Apripa Apripa Apripa Apripa Apripa Apripa Apripa Apripa e Keqe Apripa e Keqe Apripa e Keqe Apripa e Keqe Apripa e Keqe Apripa e Keqe Apripa e Keqe Apripa e Keqe Apripa e Keqe Aranëm ole Lur Aranëm ole Lur Aranëm ole Lur Aranëm ole Lur Aranëm ole Lur Aranëm ole Lur Aranëm ole Lur Aranëm ole Lur Aranëm ole Lur Arëzë Arëzë Arëzë Arëzë Arëzë Arëzë Arëzë Arëzë Arëzë Arrë Telum e Arrë Telum e Arrë Telum e Arrë Telum e Arrë Telum e Arrë Telum e Arrë Telum e Arrë Telum e Arrë Telum e Babat Babat Babat Babat Babat Babat Babat Babat Babat Bajraku ithethit Bajraku ithethit Bajraku ithethit Bajraku ithethit Bajraku ithethit Bajraku ithethit Bajraku ithethit Bajraku ithethit Bajraku ithethit Berisha Berisha Berisha Berisha Berisha Berisha Berisha Berisha Berisha Berzeta Berzeta Berzeta Berzeta Berzeta Berzeta Berzeta Berzeta Berzeta Boga Boga Boga Boga Boga Boga Boga Boga Boga BoksiiRi BoksiiRi BoksiiRi BoksiiRi BoksiiRi BoksiiRi BoksiiRi BoksiiRi BoksiiRi Borj Borj Borj Borj Borj Borj Borj Borj Borj Brahog Brahog Brahog Brahog Brahog Brahog Brahog Brahog Brahog Bruçaj Bruçaj Bruçaj Bruçaj Bruçaj Bruçaj Bruçaj Bruçaj Bruçaj ë ië ë ië ë ië Ç abani Ç abani Ç abani Ç abani Ç abani Ç abani Ç abani Ç abani Ç abani Caj Caj Caj Caj Caj Caj Caj Caj Caj Car Car Car Car Car Car Car Car Car Çerem Çerem Çerem Çerem Çerem Çerem Çerem Çerem Çerem Dardhe Dardhe Dardhe Dardhe Dardhe Dardhe Dardhe Dardhe Dardhe Dinaj Dinaj Dinaj Dinaj Dinaj Dinaj Dinaj Dinaj Dinaj D obërdol D obërdol D obërdol D obërdol D obërdol D obërdol D obërdol D obërdol D obërdol Gryka Gryka Gryka Gryka Gryka Gryka Gryka Gryka Gryka Kimesë Kimesë Kimesë Kimesë Kimesë Kimesë Kimesë Kimesë Kimesë Lëkurtaj Lëkurtaj Lëkurtaj Lëkurtaj Lëkurtaj Lëkurtaj Lëkurtaj Lëkurtaj Lëkurtaj Lepush Lepush Lepush Lepush Lepush Lepush Lepush Lepush Lepush N egovan N egovan N egovan N egovan N egovan N egovan N egovan N egovan N egovan Qereç Qereç Qereç Qereç Qereç Qereç Qereç Qereç Qereç Seferaj Seferaj Seferaj Seferaj Seferaj Seferaj Seferaj Seferaj Seferaj Selca Selca Selca Selca Selca Selca Selca Selca Selca Kolijevka Kolijevka Kolijevka Kolijevka Kolijevka Kolijevka Kolijevka Kolijevka Kolijevka Alak Alak Alak Alak Alak Alak Alak Alak Alak Algunja Algunja Algunja Algunja Algunja Algunja Algunja Algunja Algunja Arnacija Arnacija Arnacija Arnacija Arnacija Arnacija Arnacija Arnacija Arnacija Banajni Banajni Banajni Banajni Banajni Banajni Banajni Banajni Banajni Bezovec Bezovec Bezovec Bezovec Bezovec Bezovec Bezovec Bezovec Bezovec Brest Brest Brest Brest Brest Brest Brest Brest Brest Brezica Brezica Brezica Brezica Brezica Brezica Brezica Brezica Brezica Bulacane Bulacane Bulacane Bulacane Bulacane Bulacane Bulacane Bulacane Bulacane Cerova Cerova Cerova Cerova Cerova Cerova Cerova Cerova Cerova D'lga D'lga D'lga D'lga D'lga D'lga D'lga D'lga D'lga Babaici Babaici Babaici Babaici Babaici Babaici Babaici Babaici Babaici Bare Bare Bare Bare Bare Bare Bare Bare Bare Barice Barice Barice Barice Barice Barice Barice Barice Barice Berova Berova Berova Berova Berova Berova Berova Berova Berova Blizna Blizna Blizna Blizna Blizna Blizna Blizna Blizna Blizna Bobovista Bobovista Bobovista Bobovista Bobovista Bobovista Bobovista Bobovista Bobovista Bolesestra Bolesestra Bolesestra Bolesestra Bolesestra Bolesestra Bolesestra Bolesestra Bolesestra Boljevici Boljevici Boljevici Boljevici Boljevici Boljevici Boljevici Boljevici Boljevici Borisici Borisici Borisici Borisici Borisici Borisici Borisici Borisici Borisici Bukovica Bukovica Bukovica Bukovica Bukovica Bukovica Bukovica Bukovica Bukovica Crnca Crnca Crnca Crnca Crnca Crnca Crnca Crnca Crnca Dragasi Dragasi Dragasi Dragasi Dragasi Dragasi Dragasi Dragasi Dragasi Drijenak Drijenak Drijenak Drijenak Drijenak Drijenak Drijenak Drijenak Drijenak Jasovici Jasovici Jasovici Jasovici Jasovici Jasovici Jasovici Jasovici Jasovici Kozica Kozica Kozica Kozica Kozica Kozica Kozica Kozica Kozica Kurikuce Kurikuce Kurikuce Kurikuce Kurikuce Kurikuce Kurikuce Kurikuce Kurikuce Lazovici Lazovici Lazovici Lazovici Lazovici Lazovici Lazovici Lazovici Lazovici MokriDo MokriDo MokriDo MokriDo MokriDo MokriDo MokriDo MokriDo MokriDo Pridvorica Pridvorica Pridvorica Pridvorica Pridvorica Pridvorica Pridvorica Pridvorica Pridvorica Svrke Svrke Svrke Svrke Svrke Svrke Svrke Svrke Svrke Verusa Verusa Verusa Verusa Verusa Verusa Verusa Verusa Verusa Zm inica Zm inica Zm inica Zm inica Zm inica Zm inica Zm inica Zm inica Zm inica Arapovice Arapovice Arapovice Arapovice Arapovice Arapovice Arapovice Arapovice Arapovice Arbanaska Arbanaska Arbanaska Arbanaska Arbanaska Arbanaska Arbanaska Arbanaska Arbanaska Atm ada Atm ada Atm ada Atm ada Atm ada Atm ada Atm ada Atm ada Atm ada Babica Babica Babica Babica Babica Babica Babica Babica Babica Bajcina Bajcina Bajcina Bajcina Bajcina Bajcina Bajcina Bajcina Bajcina Balaban Balaban Balaban Balaban Balaban Balaban Balaban Balaban Balaban Balance Balance Balance Balance Balance Balance Balance Balance Balance Balince Balince Balince Balince Balince Balince Balince Balince Balince Banja Banja Banja Banja Banja Banja Banja Banja Banja Banjica Banjica Banjica Banjica Banjica Banjica Banjica Banjica Banjica Barje Barje Barje Barje Barje Barje Barje Barje Barje Batote Batote Batote Batote Batote Batote Batote Batote Batote Begunce Begunce Begunce Begunce Begunce Begunce Begunce Begunce Begunce Bekova Bekova Bekova Bekova Bekova Bekova Bekova Bekova Bekova Berevce Berevce Berevce Berevce Berevce Berevce Berevce Berevce Berevce Bica Bica Bica Bica Bica Bica Bica Bica Bica Bilinca Bilinca Bilinca Bilinca Bilinca Bilinca Bilinca Bilinca Bilinca Boljevce Boljevce Boljevce Boljevce Boljevce Boljevce Boljevce Boljevce Boljevce Borostica Borostica Borostica Borostica Borostica Borostica Borostica Borostica Borostica Bozevce Bozevce Bozevce Bozevce Bozevce Bozevce Bozevce Bozevce Bozevce Bralic Bralic Bralic Bralic Bralic Bralic Bralic Bralic Bralic Brdane Brdane Brdane Brdane Brdane Brdane Brdane Brdane Brdane Breca Breca Breca Breca Breca Breca Breca Breca Breca Bregovina Bregovina Bregovina Bregovina Bregovina Bregovina Bregovina Bregovina Bregovina Bublje Bublje Bublje Bublje Bublje Bublje Bublje Bublje Bublje Budevo Budevo Budevo Budevo Budevo Budevo Budevo Budevo Budevo Caricina Caricina Caricina Caricina Caricina Caricina Caricina Caricina Caricina Ciflak Ciflak Ciflak Ciflak Ciflak Ciflak Ciflak Ciflak Ciflak Cikatovo Cikatovo Cikatovo Cikatovo Cikatovo Cikatovo Cikatovo Cikatovo Cikatovo Crnilo Crnilo Crnilo Crnilo Crnilo Crnilo Crnilo Crnilo Crnilo D abinovac D abinovac D abinovac D abinovac D abinovac D abinovac D abinovac D abinovac D abinovac Dake Dake Dake Dake Dake Dake Dake Dake Dake Damjane Damjane Damjane Damjane Damjane Damjane Damjane Damjane Damjane D egrmen D egrmen D egrmen D egrmen D egrmen D egrmen D egrmen D egrmen D egrmen Delovce Delovce Delovce Delovce Delovce Delovce Delovce Delovce Delovce D obra Voda D obra Voda D obra Voda D obra Voda D obra Voda D obra Voda D obra Voda D obra Voda D obra Voda Dojinovice Dojinovice Dojinovice Dojinovice Dojinovice Dojinovice Dojinovice Dojinovice Dojinovice D onje Ljubinje D onje Ljubinje D onje Ljubinje D onje Ljubinje D onje Ljubinje D onje Ljubinje D onje Ljubinje D onje Ljubinje D onje Ljubinje D onje Novo Selo D onje Novo Selo D onje Novo Selo D onje Novo Selo D onje Novo Selo D onje Novo Selo D onje Novo Selo D onje Novo Selo D onje Novo Selo D onjigajtan D onjigajtan D onjigajtan D onjigajtan D onjigajtan D onjigajtan D onjigajtan D onjigajtan D onjigajtan D onjikrnjin D onjikrnjin D onjikrnjin D onjikrnjin D onjikrnjin D onjikrnjin D onjikrnjin D onjikrnjin D onjikrnjin Dordevac Dordevac Dordevac Dordevac Dordevac Dordevac Dordevac Dordevac Dordevac Dragobuzde Dragobuzde Dragobuzde Dragobuzde Dragobuzde Dragobuzde Dragobuzde Dragobuzde Dragobuzde Gornja Grlica Gornja Grlica Gornja Grlica Gornja Grlica Gornja Grlica Gornja Grlica Gornja Grlica Gornja Grlica Gornja Grlica Igriste Igriste Igriste Igriste Igriste Igriste Igriste Igriste Igriste Jelakce Jelakce Jelakce Jelakce Jelakce Jelakce Jelakce Jelakce Jelakce Marina Marina Marina Marina Marina Marina Marina Marina Marina Plajnik Plajnik Plajnik Plajnik Plajnik Plajnik Plajnik Plajnik Plajnik Popovac Popovac Popovac Popovac Popovac Popovac Popovac Popovac Popovac Sem etes Sem etes Sem etes Sem etes Sem etes Sem etes Sem etes Sem etes Sem etes Tu Tu Tu Tu Tu Tu Tu Tu Tu Vesenice Vesenice Vesenice Vesenice Vesenice Vesenice Vesenice Vesenice Vesenice SKOPJE SKOPJE SKOPJE SKOPJE SKOPJE SKOPJE SKOPJE SKOPJE SKOPJE Kukes Kukes Kukes Kukes Kukes Kukes Kukes Kukes Kukes Podgorica Podgorica Podgorica Podgorica Podgorica Podgorica Podgorica Podgorica Podgorica Pristina Pristina Pristina Pristina Pristina Pristina Pristina Pristina Pristina Mitrovica Mitrovica Mitrovica Mitrovica Mitrovica Mitrovica Mitrovica Mitrovica Mitrovica Pec Pec Pec Pec Pec Pec Pec Pec Pec Prizren Prizren Prizren Prizren Prizren Prizren Prizren Prizren Prizren Rozaje Rozaje Rozaje Rozaje Rozaje Rozaje Rozaje Rozaje Rozaje Ulcinj Ulcinj Ulcinj Ulcinj Ulcinj Ulcinj Ulcinj Ulcinj Ulcinj KOSOVO_AREAOFRESP_A3LC The boundaries and nam es show n and the designations used on this m ap do notimply officialendorsem entoracceptance by the United Nations. UNHCR Office C apital Town orvilage LEG END Internationalboundary Adm inistrative boundary R epublic boundary Serbian nam e Albanian nam e Name 1 Name 2) Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO M ONTENEGRO ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake ShkodërLake Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea Adriatic Sea SOURCES:UNHCR,EUROPA TECHNOLOGIES. UNHCR M apping Unit SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA SERBIA A rea ofresponsability Djakovica Gnjilane Mitrovica Pec Pristina Prizren Urosevac

19 Prologue: Forging a new path In the land of Kosovo, conflict begins with the name itself. For the majority Albanians, their homeland is called Kosova, while for the minority Serbs, it is known as Kosovo and Metohija. An Albanian from Kosova is called a Kosovar, while a Serb is a Kosovac. On the maps produced by KFOR Kosovo Forces, the collective name for the NATO forces stationed there), diplomacy and compromise are sought: each town in Kosovo has two names: one in Albanian, another in Serbian. Kosovo s capital is listed both as Prishtinë Albanian) and Priština Serbian). Not all of the town names match so closely, however. On some maps, for example, the town of Leposavic Serbian) is listed not as Leposaviq, the Albanian equivalent, but as Albanik, which translates as Albanian. Located in the far north of Kosovo and close to Serbian borders on three sides, Leposavic / Leposaviq / Albanik has historically been an area of Serbian settlement. The politics surrounding Albanik is only one example of the multitude of ways that conflict between Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo continues after the war has passed. 3 A word on terminology Since basic terminology in Kosovo is so contested, a word on decisions made for this case study is necessary. 4 The authors will refer to the territory where the case study takes place as Kosovo, and not Kosova, Kosovo and Metohija, or Kosovo/a, simply because Kosovo is the most common and widely used term in English. Likewise, the conventional English language spelling for all place names in Kosovo will be used here as well. Similarly, the people of Kosovo will be referred to as Kosovars because it is the most commonly accepted word used to describe Kosovo s residents. At the same time, explicit reference to Kosovo s Serbs will be made by applying the term Kosovac Serbs, while Kosovo s Albanians will be called Kosovar Albanians, in recognition of the appropriate terminology in Serbian and Albanian, respectively. Using these place names should not be interpreted, in any way, as a display of favouritism for any side involved in Kosovo s conflicted political situation. 3 One Kosovar related how Serbs had carried out a similar renaming effort when the Serbs took over the town of Gornje Vakuf in Bosnia. Even though the city was mostly non-serb, he said, the town was renamed Serbobran, or Serb defended. 4 The need to clarify this issue led Tim Judah to open his Author s Note for Kosovo: War and revenge with, Don t look for biases in place names. There are none 2000: xi). 19

20 Parallel worlds Rebuilding the education system in Kosovo Education remains one of the chief settings where tensions and conflicts among and between Albanians and Serbs play themselves out. Although NATO s bombing campaign in Kosovo and Serbia) ended in June 1999, education policies and practices in Kosovo are still heavily influenced by the heated, corrosive, and unresolved political stalemate that Albanians and Serbs are locked into and the United Nations seeks to defuse. The charged situation, forever on the precipice of violence, inspired the early waves of international educationists tasked with reconstructing Kosovo s education system to move forward slowly and cautiously. This approach changed, however, when Michael Daxner became the Principal International Officer PIO) of the Department of Education and Science for the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo UNMIK) in April Across the next two critical post-war years until June 2002), Daxner led a movement towards rapid educational reform which continues to influence Kosovo s education system. During the period when Michael Daxner served as PIO, the United Nations task of restarting education in Kosovo was staked out as nothing less than reinvention. Little from Kosovo s educational heritage was considered worthy of mere alteration. Dramatic reform, even renewal, became the order of the day. Daxner inspired an impressive level of donor funding for education in Kosovo, obtained, in his own view and that of others, a near-free hand from United Nations superiors to assert his vision on to the education system, recruited a largely hand-picked team of international educationists, and assigned established international agencies core tasks within the education system. Veteran Serbian and especially Albanian education leaders, meanwhile, rested on the back burner, often supportive of educational changes but increasingly aware of their own marginalization from the process. Daxner s approach to reform contained a level of vigour and frankness that became a kind of trademark. It was clearly present in his farewell speech, delivered to an OECD-sponsored conference in Pristina, on 9 June One observer interviewed characterized it as a blistering indictment of the deficiencies of Kosovo education which blasted the system s methodological backwardness, fixation on using education to maintain ethnic identity, ingrained sexism, rampant corruption, and the belief that paying lip service to European standards would somehow bring them to pass in Kosovo. The observer also noted that Daxner lashed into international donors for decreasing funding for Kosovo education at the moment when investments called for reinforcement. 20

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