Mobile Cloud Computing: Paradigms and Challenges 移 动 云 计 算 : 模 式 与 挑 战

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1 Mobile Cloud Computing: Paradigms and Challenges 移 动 云 计 算 : 模 式 与 挑 战 Jiannong Cao Internet & Mobile Computing Lab Department of Computing Hong Kong Polytechnic University 1

2 Outline Mobile cloud computing (MCC) Mobile computing + Cloud computing? 3 Approaches to MCC Mobile access Cloud on the move Moving from Mobile to Cloud Challenges and open issues 2

3 Cloud Computing The 3 rd wave of reform in IT important transition and paradigm shift in IT services delivery Mainframe PC Client/Server IDC Grid Cloud The next great disruption of business enterprises 3

4 Cloud Computing: Models & Characteristics Hybrid Clouds Deployment Models Private Cloud Community Cloud Public Cloud Service Models Software as a Service (SaaS) Platform as a Service (PaaS) Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Essential Characteristics On Demand Self-Service Broad Network Access Rapid Elasticity Resource Pooling Measured Service Common Characteristics Massive Scale Homogeneity Virtualization Low Cost Software Resilient Computing Geographic Distribution Service Orientation Advanced Security 4

5 Mobile Cloud Computing MCC: availability of cloud computing services in a mobile ecosystem. Mobile computing has become integrated into the fabric of our every day life. stand-alone and/or access to remote mobile applications on mobile devices MCC offers great opportunities for mobile service industry, allowing mobile devices to utilize the elastic resources offered by the cloud. 5

6 Mobile Computing Mobile Internet is the major drive. Increasing Internet penetration: 25% of world population access to Internet 6

7 Mobile Computing Applications Corporation applications M-office (job dispatch, calendar, , workflow) M-commerce (logistics, inventory control) Consumer applications Mobile web access / mobile / SMS M-commerce (shopping, banking, payment, etc) Mobile entertainment (gaming, TV, Music, P2P file sharing) Government / Public service / Military appl. M-Government M-healthcare (emergency with in-time patient condition information) Transportation Tourism (navigation with maps, location-aware travel hints) Intelligent home Environment monitoring Battle field communications They can be put on the Cloud! There are many new Cloud services! 7

8 Mobile Cloud Computing MCC = Cloud Computing + Mobile Computing? Union? Intersection? All of the above, and more? 8

9 3 Approaches to MCC 1. Mobile cloud access Extending access to cloud services using mobile devices 2. Micro cloud Having cloud computing on the move 3. Cloud-augmented mobile Offloading computing and storage resources required by mobile applications running on mobile devices to cloud 9

10 1. Mobile access to the Cloud Using mobile devices to access software / applications as services offered by cloud Mobile search GMail Google Map Backup The mobile cloud is most often viewed as SaaS cloud Computation & data handling are all on the cloud 10 10

11 Intelligent Access to Cloud Need an intelligent access management scheme (University of Kaiserslautern) Providing on on-demand network connectivity via heterogeneous access with a wide range of wireless access technologies GPRS, WCDMA/HSPA, LTE, WIMAX, CDMA2000, WLAN, etc. Use context of terminals, network nodes, or sensors deployed in the user s environment, to significantly reduce wasting scarce radio resources and to efficiently manage wireless access

12 2. Micro Cloud Extending cloud computing by mobility with an ad-hoc network environment based only on mobile devices making use of resources at individual devices to provide a virtual mobile cloud - a micro-cloud Micro-Cloud Providing mobile users data storage and processing services without the access to the Internet cloud. hardware consists partly or totally of mobile devices 12

13 A Small Cloud on Mobile Devices CMU Android smartphones Apache Hadoop ported MapReduce g AP & a PC JobTracker, NameNode Video storage and sharing Smartphone application with distributed data and comp. Lack of generality No management of storage and computing resource. No optimization on data storage and access. 13

14 3. Cloud-augmented Mobile Using cloud to store and process data for applications running on mobile devices, overcoming their limitations Majority of today s mobile applications still do most of the data storage and processing on mobile devices themselves Cloud-augmented way: offloading some of the data storage and processing outside the mobile device The mobile cloud is most often considered as an IaaS or PaaS cloud 14 14

15 Cloud-augmented Mobile Mobile computing seamlessly augments users cognitive abilities via intensive capabilities speech recognition, natural language processing, computer vision and graphics, machine learning, planning, and decision making. However, storage and processing power of mobile devices are not adequate, also battery life is short

16 Cloud-augmented Mobile E.g. viewpoint real-time monitoring on mobile devices A framework of 3D image transmission system based on cloud through mobile devices as viewpoints Mobile devices capture pictures from different viewpoints which are passed to cloud after encoding Cloud performs the storing, decoding and 3D rendering, and passes result to the display device as 3D video

17 Cloud-augmented Mobile How to reduce latency in accessing cloud services? One way is to let a mobile user exploit VM technology to rapidly instantiate customized service software on a nearby cloudlet (VM-based A cloudlet is a trusted, resource-rich computer or cluster of computers that is well-connected to the Internet and available for use by nearby mobile devices. That service is then used over a wireless LAN

18 Cloudlets Cloud Low-latency high-bandwidth wireless networks Distant Cloud on Internet Coffee Shop Cloudlets Cloudlet Cloud State Only soft state Hard and soft state Management Environment Ownership Selfmanagement Data center in a box Decentralized ownership by local business Network LAN Latency / Bandwidth Sharing Few user at a time Professional Real data center Centralized Ownership by Internet latency / bandwidth Huge users at a time 18 18

19 Challenges in Mobile Cloud Where do the challenges come from? Mobile computing challenges Cloud computing challenges Added complexity 19

20 Challenges in Mobile Cloud Elastic applications How to divide functionalities and data between cloud platform and local devices? Balance the tradeoff between offloading and side effects like privacy, security, reliability, latency. How to enable mobile devices seamlessly switch between local and cloud recourses wherever needed? Secure data migration 20

21 Challenges in Mobile Cloud Cloud service discovery and handoff Mobile devices accessing cloud service may move away from Cloudlets or service provider in a micro cloud How to discover and seamlessly handoff / migrate the service to the next provider? Fault tolerance 21

22 Challenges Mobile Cloud Remote access & delivery solutions How to provide remote connection and access, overcoming the following Short battery life time Variation in wireless bandwidth Interaction latency Intermittent disconnections How to aggregate the data and presenting it in the small form factor of mobile device? 22

23 Challenges in Mobile Cloud Resource management Mobile devices are constrained in storage and computing capacity. How to efficiently manage limited resources (e.g., storage) in mobile cloud computing? On Cloud side, how to make use of elastic resources to achieve scalability when serving large number of mobile users. 23

24 Challenges in Mobile Cloud Security & Privacy Mobile devices have higher privacy and security risks. Mutual trust between cloud providers and mobile users Ensuring security while reserving privacy in roaming over multiple networks Standards on how to protect mobile access of cloud computing should be proposed. 24

25 Challenges in Mobile Cloud Platform standardization and interoperability So many kinds of mobile devices Android, Symbian, ios, Windows phone, and MeeGo Is it possible to provide a general access platform for mobile cloud computing on top of various platforms? How about reliability, consistency and uniformity of data & app. access 25

26 Challenges in Mobile Cloud Service standardization Mobile devices are much different from PCs in terms of network connection, energy, display and computing. Services in mobile cloud computing should be standardized to consider these factors. UI, local storage & disconnected op, synchronization, etc How to avoid service provider lock-in? Absence of portability and interoperability makes it impossible to transfer data and application among service providers 26

27 Summaries MCC will take off in the following years due to huge demands - It is predicted that MCC services will be the platforms of choice of IT industry for the next 20 years and generate huge revenue. A disruptive force in the mobile world, eventually becoming the dominant way in which mobile applications operate. By 2014, mobile cloud computing will become the predominant application development strategy. By 2015, > 240 million business customers will leverage cloud computing services through mobile devices, driving revenues of $5.2 billion There will be trillions of cloud-ready devices Tools, building blocks, solutions, and best practices for MCC are evolving 27

28 Summaries Cloud-augmented mobile applications sets the near future trend and represents the major effort in research. poses some completely new challenging issues. New programming models, mechanisms and algorithms are urgently desired. 28

29 Summaries Mobile social networks Social networks on mobiles devices People moving while sharing interests and activities or exploring the interests and activities of others integration with other services and sensor data to open up new classes of applications Integration of mobile Internet / MCC services Billion dollar industry 29

30 30 THANK YOU

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