The role of manufacturer s in the quality of PV products

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1 ENERGÍA SOLAR TÉRMICA Y FOTOVOLTAICA: MÓDULOS, PANELES Y COMPONENTES PRINCIPALES The role of manufacturer s in the quality of PV products Aarón Sánchez Juárez ANES Vicepresidente Researcher at: Renewable Energy Institute, UNAM CEMIE-Sol: Proyecto P-29 National Test Laboratory for PV: Modules, Components and Systems Photovoltaic Assistance Unit at IER-UNAM D. Martínez-Escobar; R. L. Santos-Magdaleno; J. Ortega-Cruz; J. C. Percino; A. Reyes-Roldán; P. A. Sánchez-Pérez; Head: Dr. Aarón Sánchez Juárez;

2 Mexico Background Photovoltaic Systems (SFV's) have been the best alternative choice for electrification places far away from the conventional electrical grid. Cost reduction and environmental protection movement have increased the demand for photovoltaic systems in urban areas

3 Estimated Photovoltaic Market Technical and economic capacity With installation costs of 2008** Agricultural sector: MWp Residential sector, high consumption users: MWp Public sector, Street lighting: 1,396.0 MWp Water pumping: 4,47.0 MWp Industrial Sector: 6,624.0 MWp (DR 5% and $ 1.9 / Wp installed) Because of that: Many Mexican industrial Groups have been considered an opportunity to do business in different aspects: import, marketing, sale and installation of PV products. ** Potencial de los sistemas fotovoltaicos en México: Análisis de los sectores residencial, público e industrial por entidad federativa ; Jorge M. Islas Samperio; Aarón Sánchez Juárez, Fabio Manzini Poli, Genice Grande Acosta, Fidel Carrasco González, Eric Zenón Olvera; Organización de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo Industrial (ONUDI), marzo 2013; No. de páginas: 213; Informe Final.

4 Mexican PV industry and the value chain Solartec S.A. de C.V.; Irapuato Gto. Energias Renovables de México S.A. de C.V.; San Andres Tuxtla, Ver. Solarvatio S.A. de C.V.; Oaxaca, Oaxaca. Press Energy S. de RL de C.V.; Jesus Maria, Ags. IUSASOL; Edo de México, other... More than 200 companies and more than 300 individuals grouped in different associations like AMPER, and other SOLMEX Battery manufactures, the metal industry, electricelectronics, electrical conductors and other industries related to parts and components for Photovoltaic Systems

5 PV in Mexico The cumulative installed capacity is estimated around MWp More than 500 projects (less that kw) are in construction. More that 1,000 domestic projects are in construction. PV Plants are under design The growing demand for PV technology has prompted the Mexican government to establish and promote the relevant regulations to ensure that the PV products are manufactured with the best quality. And likewise, the existence of Testing Laboratories and Certification Bodies to evaluate and ensure the quality of PV products.

6 So Mexico market are demanding Quality Quality: PV Manufacturers** The quality of a manufacturer can be measured through its company quality system (Quality Management System) Manufactures must be certificated by ISO 9001:2008 QMS Requirements Some PV QMS key requirements: PV module s design to align the expected lifetime. Product realization that includes appropriate certification, qualification, including both type of approval and safety testing. Product traceability through the entire supply and delivery chain. Special Process control. Power rating tolerance. Resource management. Supplier management. Process auditing. Use Statistical methods, sampling **Overview of the Proposed PV Quality Management System; SPI 2014, Task Group 1- Govind Ramu, SunPower Corp., San Jose Ca.

7 Mexico market are demanding Quality: PV Products Safe, reliable and long life in PV products are characteristics of Quality To ensure that photovoltaic products have such characteristics, they must be tested according with international standards and regulatory procedures. Product quality is measured by the compliance of the manufacturing requirements, electrical performance, electrical safety, and durability under environmental conditions.

8 Why assess Conformity and Certify compliance? The evaluation process warranty : The PV modules quality: safety, durability and reliability. A growing market, reliable and sustainable PV industry. National and international competitiveness of national companies that manufacture or sells PV modules. Satisfied end users from the technical and economic point of view. These are only possible if PV manufactures ask for testing their products about Conformity Assessment related to: Its construction, Energy performance, Safety and Durability,

9 Performance of the PV technology as a reflection of the quality The only way that PV users can rely on the kindness of the technology is that manufacturers must proof the quality of their products with a declaration of conformity or certificate ; In consequence Manufacturers must submit their products (voluntary), to a series of tests based on national or international standards through which the electrical performance, safety and durability of PV product is verified. These tests should be performed by a third party authorized agency (Testing Laboratory) and the report that they submit must be supported by a Certification Body that ensures the accuracy of the tests.

10 Acreditation of Testing Laboratory The testing laboratories must be supported or recognized under the standard ISO/IEC 1025:1999 by a Certification Body. PV TEST NATIONAL LABORATORY, LANEFV, which is implementing at IER-UNAM within the framework of CEMIE-Sol projects, is filling the current gap that Mexico has for Conformity Assessment of Photovoltaic Modules and provide service for manufacturers, retailers and users of PV technologies.

11 Acreditation of Testing Laboratory The accreditation of a laboratory represents an official recognition that the laboratory has the necessary personnel, physical resources, and quality assurance needed to perform a specific testing activity. The process of accreditation involves the assessment of a laboratory s capability by an authority using criteria that are generally accepted as the essential requirements for a laboratory s performance. This accreditation process helps instill confidence in suppliers, manufacturers, and users that the laboratory s test results are accurate and valid.

12 Certification Body Third-party product certification involves a formal process of licensing a manufacturer to use a certificate of conformity. The certificate can take the form of tag, label, nameplate or document affixed or otherwise directly associate with a product, attesting that the product is in conformity with the referenced standards or specifications. Such labels are often required through government legislation or contractual agreements. The term third-party is used to indicate an organization which issues a certification license to a manufacturer. The certification organization or Certification Body is a third-party in the sense that it is neither a manufacturer nor an end user.

13 Certification bodies To ensure quality, safety, reliability and durability, PV modules must exhibit a quality certificate or declaration of conformity to the relevant regulations on construction, electrical characteristics, performance and corresponding security issued by a Certification Body.

14 Certification meaning A "certified module (declaration of conformity)" is one that has approved specific tests on Safety and Quality. The "certificate" refers to the proven product features and lists the standards under which the tests have been developed. For the buyer, this certificate creates confidence when making decision to purchase the product. With the declaration of conformity (certificate), a buyer no longer depends only on the information provided by the manufacturer: he can trust the judgment of a neutral certification entity. For the manufacturer, it implies that the product has been manufactured with quality components and its production line manufactures reliable, safe and durable products.

15 Quality requirements: construction International and National regulations Manufacturing and marking 1. PV modules should be manufactured in compliance with the relevant standard: IEC ; UL 1703; UNE-EN ; NMX-J-618/1 (2010). 2. The nameplate should have references or information about electric performance (UNE-EN ), security, reliability and durability. 3. The nameplate data should be corroborated by an accredited Testing Laboratory.

16 Which are the Standards related to the construction of PV modules? PV module cross section COMPONENT STANDARD COMPONENT STANDARD NAMEPLATE ENCAPSULANT/ POLYMERS SUPERESTRATE NMX-J-618/1-ANCE-2010 (IEC ); UL 1703; UNE-EN (2003) NMX-J-618/1-ANCE-2010 (IEC ); UL 1703 NMX-J-618/1-ANCE-2010 (IEC ); UL 1703 CONNECTION TERMINAL/OUTPUT LEAD NMX-J-618/1-ANCE-2010 (IEC ); UL 1703 INTERCONNECTION CABLES NMX-J-618/1-ANCE-2010 (IEC ); CABLES CONNECTOR NMX-J-618/1-ANCE-2010 (IEC ); UL 1703; UL-SU 6703; UL746C BYPASS DIODE JUNCTION BOX NMX-J-618/1-ANCE-2010 (IEC

17 Quality requirements: Performance and reliability Testing purpose To determine the electric and thermal characteristics of the module. Determine the ability of the module to withstand environmental change (durability). PV module should be electrically safe. Power reliability.

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20 Qualification test sequence Mechanical tests Wind load 2400 Pa, static load 5200 Pa Hail test Robustness of terminations Robustness of the junction box Environmental tests Thermal cycling: 50 and 200 Damp heat test: 1000 h Humidity Freeze cycling: 50 UV Preconditioning Hot-spot endurance test Electrical tests Insulation Ground Continuity Accessibility Wet leakage current Bypass diode Fire test

21 Facts on PV Systems Are direct current electricity converters. Potential health risk. They are governed by national and international standards Electrical installations must meet local and national regulations Grid connected PV systems to the National Electric must meet the specifications of CFE and the General Rules for Interconnection

22 Standars for photovoltaic systems (installation) IEC , Electrical installations of buildings - Part 7-712: Requirements for special installations or locations - Solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems. IEC ed1.0, Safety of power converters for use in photovoltaic power systems Part 1: General requirements IEC ed1.0, Safety of power converters for use in photovoltaic power systems Part 2, Particular requirements for inverters. UL 1741, Standard for Inverters, controllers and Interconnection System Equipment for Use with Distributed Energy Sources. IEEE 1547, Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems. IEC 62548: 2013, Photovoltaic PV Arrays- Design requirements NOM 001-SEDE 2012 : Instalaciones Eléctricas (utilización), Art. 690

23 Voluntary Standards in Mexico. NMX-J-643/12-ANCE-2011 (IEC 61836) Dispositivos Fotovoltaicos-Parte 12: Términos, definiciones y simbología. NMX-J-618/1-ANCE-2010 (IEC ) Evaluación de la seguridad en módulos fotovoltaicos (FV)-Parte 1: Requisitos generales para construcción. NMX-J-618/2-ANCE-2012 (IEC ) Evaluación de la seguridad en módulos fotovoltaicos (FV)-Parte 2: Requisitos para pruebas. NMX-J-618/3-ANCE-2012 (IEC 61646) - Evaluación de la seguridad en módulos fotovoltaicos (FV)-Parte 3: Requisitos para módulos fotovoltaicos de película delgada-calificación del diseño. NMX-J-618/4-ANCE-2012 (IEC 61215) - Evaluación de la seguridad en módulos fotovoltaicos (FV)-Parte 4: Requisitos para módulos fotovoltaicos de silicio cristalino-calificación del diseño. NMX-J-655/2-ANCE-2012 (IEC 61683) - Desempeño y eficiencia en sistemas fotovoltaicos (FV)-Parte 2: Acondicionadores de energía-procedimiento para la medición de la eficiencia NMX-J-657/1-ANCE-2012 (IEC ) Sistemas híbridos y de energía renovable Guía para la electrificación rural Parte 1: Introducción general.

24 Mandatory regulation for PV Systems Electric Regulations: NOM 001-SEDE-2012; IEC 62548: 2013, Photovoltaic PV Arrays- Design requirements MANDATORY REGULATIONS Authorities: Verifications units (UVIEs) High performance, Reliability, Security, Long life CFE: Specifications G CRE: General rules for PV interconnection FIRCO-SAGARPA: Specifications, NOM: Minimum safety requirements.. CRE y CFE: Power quality requirements and penetrability. FIRCO-SAGARPA: Technical Specifications: Security requirements, reliability and durability

25 Compliance Standards implies High performance, Reliability, Security, Long life Standard purpose Ensure reliable long-term facilities and to reduce the risk of injury and property damage. Electrical Standard and Specifications are the product of many years of experience in electrical installations. PV Systems that meet the standards or regulations are safe and durable The implementation of regulations impacting system cost and installation

26 Conclusions Quality in the PV products are important to maintain a growing, reliable and sustainable market. To ensure security, reliability and long duration, PV products and PV Systems must meet standards. So PV Manufacturer s must have well define the Quality Management System in order to ensure manufacturing quality products. Best practices in the manufacture process must be observed. PV manufacturer s must certificate their products.

27 Thanks! Unidad de Asistencia Fotovoltaica Se agradece la participación especial de los siguientes colaboradores: R. L. Santos-Magdaleno; D. Martínez-Escobar; J. Ortega-Cruz;; J. C. Percino; A. Reyes-Roldán; P. A. Sánchez-Pérez Responsable: Dr. Aarón Sánchez Juárez;

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