# Courtesy of Professor Daley, Foothill College Chemistry Dept. 1

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9 4. Calculate the density of the wood block in the calculations section, and record this in the data section. Your instructor will confirm whether your experimental density is reasonable. 5. Return the wooden block to the bin. Written by A. Norick 7

10 Written by A. Norick 8

11 Data: Part A: Density of isopropyl alcohol Mass of small graduated cylinder (g) Volume of alcohol (ml) Mass of cylinder with alcohol (g) Mass of alcohol only (g) Density of alcohol (g/ml) Part B: Density of sulfur Mass of sulfur (g) Volume of water (ml) Volume of water plus sulfur (ml) Volume of sulfur alone (ml) Density of sulfur (g/ml) Theoretical density of sulfur (g/ml) Part C: Density of wood block: Letter Mass of wood block (g) Length (cm) Width (cm) eight (cm) Density of wood block (g/cm 3 ) Calculations: Show calculations and include all units. Circle your final answers, and be sure to record them in the data section above when necessary. 1. Calculated density of isopropyl alcohol: Written by A. Norick 9

12 2. Calculated density of sulfur: 3. Percent error for sulfur density: Shows by what percent your experimental value is off from the accepted (theoretical) value. Ideally, your percent error will be within 5%. A percent error greater than 10% is considered a very large error. Experimental Theoretical x 100 = Theoretical 4. Calculated density of wood block: Concept Question: 1. If another student were to use half the volume of isopropyl alcohol that you used in this experiment, how would their calculated density of isopropyl alcohol differ from yours? a. It would be greater than your calculated density b. It would be less than your calculated density c. It would be about the same as your calculated density Postlab: Your instructor must check your data, calculations and concept question before you leave the lab. Your postlab assignment is due one week after the completion of this lab in Mastering Chemistry, or when specified by your instructor. Written by A. Norick 10

13 Inorganic Nomenclature Being able to name and write proper formulas for elements, ions and compounds is critical to your success in Chemistry 30A. If you do not master this section in Chemistry 30A you will not be able to move on and be successful in upcoming chapters. In this lab session, you will practice naming and writing formulas for elements, ions and compounds. Element names can be found directly from the periodic table. A summary for how to name ions, ionic compounds and molecular compounds is given below. To receive credit for the lab session your group must complete the attached worksheet and get checked off by the instructor before leaving the lab. Note that there are no prelab or postlab assignments in Mastering Chemistry for this lab session. 1. Naming Ions: A. Cations: When a metal loses its valence electrons it becomes a cation, which is an ion with a positive charge. For main group elements the number of valence electrons is easily predicted based on the group number. A cation is named by using the element name followed by the word ion. Some metals can react by losing different numbers of electrons. For example, tin and lead in group 4A can both react by losing two electrons or four electrons. For metals like these, which have multiple possible oxidation states, a roman numeral is needed to specify which oxidation state is appropriate. For example, tin ion should always be expressed as either tin (II) ion or tin (IV) ion, depending on the charge. Examples: 1. Sodium ion = Na + 2. Magnesium ion = Mg 2+ B. Anions: When a nonmetal gains valence electrons it becomes an anion, which is an ion with a negative charge. The number of electrons gained by a nonmetal will be equal to the group number subtracted from 8. For example, the group 7 nonmetals (halogens) will gain one electron. The anion is named by using the stem of the element name with the -ide ending. Examples: 1. Chloride ion = Cl - 2. Oxide ion = O 2- C. Polyatomic Ions: Polyatomic Ions are ions that contain two or more atoms (a group of atoms) with an overall charge. Polyatomic ions are held together by covalent bonds (to be discussed later), but they have an overall charge and are therefore ions. The chart on the next page shows the polyatomic ions that must be memorized for Chem 30A. Written by A. Norick 11

14 Name Acetate Carbonate ydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate) ydroxide ydronium Nitrate Nitrite Phosphate ydrogen phosphate Dihydrogen phosphate Ammonium Sulfate Sulfite Cyanide Formula C 2 3 O - 2 (C 3 COO - ) 2- CO 3 - CO 3 O - 3 O + - NO 3 - NO 2 3- PO 4 2- PO 4-2 PO 4 + N 4 2- SO 4 2- SO 3 CN - Practice: Write the name or formula for the following ions. SO 3 2- Ca 2+ Oxide ion Iodide ion Cyanide ion Iron (III) ion 2. Naming Ionic Compounds: Ionic compounds are formed when electrons are transferred between atoms to form cations and anions. Although ions are formed, the overall charges balance out and the charge on the compound is neutral. Ionic compounds are held together by electrostatic forces of attraction, and are typically formed when metals react with nonmetals. Below is a summary for naming and writing formulas for binary ionic compounds and ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions. A. Binary Ionic Compounds contain only one type of metal and one type of nonmetal. Converting a Formula to a Name: a. Write the name of the cation (use roman numeral if necessary) b. Write the name of the anion (use the ide ending) Examples: 1. MgO = Magnesium oxide 2. PbCl 2 = Lead (II) chloride Converting a Name to a Formula: a. Determine the charge on the cation Written by A. Norick 12

15 b. Determine the charge on the anion c. Determine the ratio of cations to anions needed to make the compound neutral d. Always express the ratio of cations to anions in the simplest whole number ratio Examples: 1. Calcium chloride = CaCl 2 2. Sodium sulfide = Na 2 S B. Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions: In order to write formulas or names for ionic compounds that contain polyatomic ions, you must be able to recognize and name the polyatomic ion involved. The steps are identical to those outlined above for binary ionic compounds, with the addition of one: when there is more than one polyatomic ion in a formula, you MUST write it in parenthesis and put the subscript indicating the number of polyatomic ions outside the parenthesis. Examples: 1. Magnesium nitrate = Mg(NO 3 ) 2 2. Iron (II) sulfate = FeSO 4 3. Iron (III) sulfate = Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Practice: Write the name or formula for the following ionic compounds. NaCl SrF 2 Sodium iodide Calcium nitrate 3. Naming Molecular Compounds: Molecular compounds form when electrons are shared between atoms in order to achieve octet. The atoms are held together by covalent (molecular) bonds. There are no ions in molecular compounds. Molecular compounds are typically formed between nonmetals only. There are seven elements that exist in nature as diatomic molecules, thus the element name is referring to the diatomic form: 2, F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2, N 2, O 2. You must memorize these. When there are two or more different types of atoms in a molecular compound, we use prefixes to tell how many atoms of each element are present. You must memorize these prefixes, which are from the Greek number system. Number Prefix monoditritetrapenta- Written by A. Norick 13

16 hexaheptaoctanonadeca- Converting a Formula to a Name: a. Write the name of the leftmost nonmetal using the appropriate prefix b. If there is only one of the first element the mono prefix is dropped c. Write the stem of the rightmost nonmetal with the ide ending using the appropriate prefix d. Do not drop the mono prefix on the second element e. NOTE: ao is written as o; oo is written as o; ii is written as ii Examples: 1. SF 6 = sulfur hexafluoride 2. N 2 O 4 = dinitrogen tetroxide 3. CO = carbon monoxide Practice: Write the name or formula for the following molecular compounds. CO 2 SO 3 Carbon tetrabromide Nitrogen triiodide 4. Naming Acids: An acid is a substance that is capable of donating a hydrogen ion (+). You must memorize the following binary and oxyacids for Chem 30A. A. Binary Acids: Binary acids contain and one other element. They always start with the prefix hydro- followed by the stem of the other elements name and the word acid. NOTE: These substances are only named by the acid nomenclature rules if they are aqueous state. Formula F I Cl Br Name ydrofluoric acid ydroiodic acid ydrochloric acid ydrobromic acid B. Oxyacids: Oxyacids contain, O and another element. They NEVER start with the hydroprefix. They are named from the polyatomic ion names. If the polyatomic ion ends in ate, the ending is changed to ic followed by the word acid. If the polyatomic ion ends in ite, the ending is changed to ous followed by the word acid. Written by A. Norick 14

17 Formula 2 SO 4 2 SO 3 NO 3 NO 2 2 CO 3 3 PO 4 C 2 3 O 2 Name Sulfuric acid Sulfurous acid Nitric acid Nitrous acid Carbonic acid Phosphoric acid Acetic acid Practice: Write the name or formula for the following acids. ydrochloric acid Sulfurous acid NO 3 (aq) 2 SO 4 (aq) Written by A. Norick 15

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19 Nomenclature Worksheet Name: Group #: 1. Ions: Write the formula (including charge) for the following ions. Calcium ion Nitride ion Sodium ion Nitrite ion Carbonate ion Nitrate ion Ammonium ion Sulfite ion Magnesium ion Sulfide ion Tin (II) ion Sulfate ion Copper (I) ion ydroxide ion 2. Ionic Compounds A. Complete the table below by writing the formula for the ionic compound formed from the cation in the left column and the anion in the top row. See the examples for further clarification. Ions F - S 2- N 3-2- SO 3 Li + LiF Ca 2+ Al 3+ + N 4 (N 4 ) 2SO 3 B. Write the names for the following ionic compounds. MgS KNO 3 LiBr Al 2 O 3 PbI 2 SnO Written by A. Norick 17

20 C. Write the formulas for the following ionic compounds. Sodium nitrite Potassium sulfide Barium chloride Lead (II) sulfate Copper (II) nitrate Copper (I) oxide Ammonium hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide 3. Molecular Compounds A. Name the following molecular compounds. PCl 5 NI 3 ICl 7 N 2 O 4 B. Write formulas for the following molecular compounds. Nitrogen dioxide Silicon tetrachloride Phosphorus triiodide Written by A. Norick 18

21 4. Acids: A. Write formulas for the following acids. Sulfuric acid Nitric acid Acetic acid B. Write names for the following acids. I (aq) 3 PO 4 (aq) NO 2 (aq) 2 CO 3 (aq) 5. Write formulas for the following ions, elements or compounds. ydrobromic acid Oxygen Lithium carbonate Cesium ion Tetrasulfur tetranitride Lead (II) sulfide Phosphorus trifluoride Copper (II) sulfate Written by A. Norick 19

22 6. Write names for the following compounds. INT: It will help to first identify the substance as an ionic compound, molecular compound or acid. LiCl Na 2 SO 3 NO 2 (aq) K 2 CO 3 KI Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 N 4 Cl BaCl 2 Written by A. Norick 20

23 Name: Date: Section #: Partner: Experiment 2: Separation of a Sand/Salt Mixture Objectives: To gain more experience using common lab equipment including top loading balances, graduated cylinders, beakers and Bunsen burners. To practice making measurements and reporting them correctly. To learn several useful lab techniques including: extraction, gravity filtration, and evaporation. You will use these techniques in future labs! Prelab: Read chapter 1 from McMurry s Fundamentals of GOB Chemistry. Complete the online prelab assignment for Separation of a Mixture in Mastering Chemistry BEFORE the start of the lab session. NOTE: Students who do not complete the online prelab assignment will receive zero credit for this lab and the postlab. You will work in pairs for this experiment. Discussion: A compound is a pure substance that is composed or two or more elements in a fixed ratio. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is an example of a compound. Note that the composition of a compound is fixed. That is, sodium chloride is made up of one sodium cation per chloride anion. There is no other ratio of cations to anions that will make up sodium chloride. A compound can be separated into the elements which make it up by CEMICAL methods only. This means that a chemical reaction is needed to separate sodium from chlorine in the compound sodium chloride. We show chemical reactions through balanced equations: 2NaCl (s) 2Na (s) + Cl 2 (g) A mixture results when two or more pure substances are combined. Note that the composition of a mixture can vary. For example, we could have a sand/salt mixture that is 80% sand and 20% salt by mass, a mixture that is 40% sand and 60% salt by mass, or numerous other possible compositions. A mixture can be separated by PYSICAL methods. This means that our sand/salt mixture can be separated into sand and salt without chemically altering the salt (NaCl) and sand (SiO 2 ) components. We use differences in physical properties of the two substances to separate them by physical methods. For example, salt is soluble in water but sand is not. Thus, the difference in the physical property of solubility can be used to separate these two substances by a technique known as extraction. A very common example of a physical property being used to separate components of a mixture is in the distillation of alcohol. To achieve higher concentrations of alcohol in liquor the brew is heated so that the lower boiling component (the alcohol) separates from the higher boiling component (the water). The result is up to 180 proof (90%) alcohol! In this lab, you will make a sand/salt mixture, and then use extraction, decantation, filtration and evaporation to separate the mixture back into the two individual components. Key terms are defined on the next page. Written by A. Norick 21

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