Design Optimization Case Study: Car Structures. Mark Carruth

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Design Optimization Case Study: Car Structures. Mark Carruth"

Transcription

1 Design Optimization Case Study: Car Structures Mark Carruth

2 1. INTRODUCTION Crash structures are used in transport vehicles such as cars and trains to protect the occupants and reduce the risk of serious injury in the event of a collision. The term crash structure typically refers to elements which are added to the main body of a vehicle specifically to provide crash protection, but nowadays the whole vehicle body is likely to play some role in crash performance. Before sale, vehicles (particularly road vehicles) must pass a series of crash tests/certifications, designed to ensure a certain level of protection in the event of different types of impact. Accurate prediction of the performance of a vehicle in a crash test typically requires advanced computer modelling or experiment. These experiments are expensive to perform, and simulations require large amounts of computer time. Without access to either experimental data or sufficient computer resources, what can we learn about the lightweighting of crash structures? Fundamentally, the key requirement of crash protection is to absorb and dissipate energy. In an impact, the crash structure must dissipate the energy of the impact whilst ensuring that the occupants of the vehicle are not subjected to excessive accelerations/forces, and that the survivable zone within the car remains intact (i.e. the crash structure does not ingress too far into the vehicle). This energy dissipation is achieved through plastic work done in deforming the material in the crash structure. Therefore, by comparing the capacity for energy dissipation of different materials, and considering their density, it is possible to assess which materials provide optimal energy dissipation per unit mass specific energy absorption. In this study, which focuses on cars, the comparisons will be based on a set of idealized assumptions about material deformation. Where possible, references will also be made to the literature on the design of crash structures and whole car bodies. The key aim of the study is to compare material performance in energy dissipation applications, the design possibilities for crash structures, and the potential for lightweighting of crash structures through the use of optimal designs and materials. 2. MATERIAL SELECTION FOR ENERGY ABSORPTION Crash structures dissipate energy through plastic work. An ideal material for a crash structure should have high plastic work capacity, whilst being as light as possible. The work done in plastic deformation can be calculated by the integral: where is the effective stress and is the effective strain. However, for some materials, such as foams, this method of calculating plastic work is inappropriate, as it is impossible to calculate the stress/strain state at each point within the material. In these cases, material properties are considered

3 only at a macroscopic level. When subjected to compressive crushing, foams typically exhibit a very flat (i.e. constant stress) stress-strain curve up to a strain known as the densification strain. At higher strains, the stress rapidly increases with very little increase in strain (Ashby, 2006). Therefore, in an idealized model, the energy dissipation per unit volume can be accurately predicted using the formula (Ashby, 2006): Where is the plateau stress, and is the densification strain. In this study, materials are compared using a set of highly idealized assumptions. For a block of material, it is assumed that the material yields perfectly under uniaxial compression (i.e. every point in the block experiences full plastic deformation to the point of failure), and the energy dissipation is calculated by multiplying the compressive strength and the fracture strain. The materials considered are: aluminium foams; ultra high strength steels; wrought aluminium alloy 5454; CFRP; and magnesium. Aluminium Foams Material Relative Density Density Energy Dissipation/ Unit volume (MJ/m 3 ) Energy Dissipation/ Unit mass (MJ/kg) Cymat Foam Alulight Foam Alporas Foam ERG Foam Duracore Foam Ultra high strength steels Aluminium DP DP TRIP CP-W MS-W AA5454-H AA5454-H CFRP Magnesium (EA55RS) Table 2.1. Comparison of energy dissipation of various materials 1 Due to the sensitivity of CFRP to loading conditions and fibre orientations, these numbers are taken from USDTRITA (2008). This value applies to progressive axial crushing the fibre orientation is unknown

4 Figure 2.1: Specific energy absorption during progressive crushing (USDTRITA, 2008) The results of the material comparison are shown in Table 2.1. (The values are compiled from CES material selection software, Ashby et. al (2000), and data sheets from material suppliers). The properties of CFRP are very dependent on fibre orientation and method of loading; the values quoted here are taken from USDTRITA (2008). Table 2.1 shows a good degree of similarity in energy dissipation per unit mass between many of the different examples. Generally, aluminium foams perform slightly better than ultra high strength steels and aluminium alloys, but CFRP and magnesium stand out as being markedly superior to all other materials. Duracore foam, and TRIP800 steel perform particularly well, though still significantly worse than CFRP and magnesium. In Figure 2.1 (USDTRITA, 2008), the results of specific energy dissipation in a longitudinal crushing test are shown for several materials. Generally, these numbers show good agreement with Table 2.1, with the exception of foams, which in Table 2.1 are comparable to aluminium, but in Figure 2.1 are significantly worse. This discrepancy could simply be caused by the use of different foam properties; specific energy absorption of foams is very sensitive to the relative density of the foam. However, Ashby (2006) showed that for this specific type of crushing (progressive axial collapse), hollow steel tubes outperform foams in specific energy absorption, although not by the margin suggested by Figure 2.1, so this is unlikely to be the cause of the discrepancy. High strength steels are routinely used nowadays in automotive crash structures, and the development of these materials over the past decade has been driven partly with this application in mind (projects like ULSAB - Ultra Light Steel Auto Body - demonstrate this). Ongoing development seeks to find further improvements, and the TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) materials are among those under ongoing development.

5 This analysis shows very similar performance between most aluminium foams, ultra high strength steels and aluminium, with the exception of the TRIP800 steel and Duracore foam, which are significantly better. This suggests that there may be weight benefit in switching to high performance aluminium foams, or more recently developed UHSS steels. However, switching to a CFRP or magnesium crash structure may, according to Table 2.1, allow significantly higher weight saving. This section has considered an idealized analysis of material selection for energy absorption applications. The next section looks in more detail at the design of the crash structures themselves, which strongly influences crash performance. 3. MATERIAL USE IN CRASH STRUCTURES Careful design of crash structures is vital if they are to provide effective protection during impact. Although the idealized analysis of the previous section is useful from a theoretical standpoint, in reality the design of the crash structure will greatly influence the degree of material deformation which occurs during impact, and hence the energy dissipation. Firstly, the direction of impact must be considered. For frontal impact in the direction of travel, crash structures typically take the form of long members which crush along their length during impact to dissipate energy ( progressive axial collapse ). For side impacts, in addition to the main car structure (e.g. the B-pillar), side intrusion beams are placed across doors, and typically dissipate energy through deformation in bending. Here the design of both front and side impact structures is considered, and alternative designs are compared to those in current practice FRONT IMPACT STRUCTURES Front impact structures absorb energy through progressive longitudinal deformation during impact. Typically thin walled tubes or prismatic sections loaded axially, the crushing force causes a progressive buckling of the walls during deformation, which proceeds down the length of the tube. Ashby (2000) compared the use of foam-filled core tubes with those of regular tubes in terms of specific energy performance (energy absorbed/unit mass). The results show that optimized tubes outperform foam filled tubes by a small but significant margin. Kim (2002) performed an optimization study on extruded aluminium sections to maximize the specific energy absorption by altering the cross-sectional shape. His results show that the specific energy absorption of a squaresection tube can be improved by 1.9 times by optimizing the cross-sectional profile. These results suggest that optimized design can offer large improvements in the specific energy absorption of front impact structures. Furthermore, the results of section 2 suggest that CFRP may be a very promising material for specific energy absorption, particularly for progressive axial crushing. Therefore an optimally designed CFRP crash structure would likely be significantly (perhaps 10x)

6 lighter than a conventional steel structure currently in use. However, CFRP is significantly more expensive, and the majority of car manufacturers do not have manufacturing capabilities for this material. 3.2 SIDE IMPACT BEAMS The behaviour of side impact beams during deformation is markedly different to that of front impact beams. Rather than deforming longitudinally along the axis of the beam, side impact beams, which are typically mounted at the edges of the door frame, deform mainly in bending. Nowadays these beams are typically made of ultra high strength steels, but other materials are also used, including aluminium extrusions and cold-formed steels. As mentioned in section 3.1, foam filled tubes perform worse than hollow tube cylinders during longitudinal deformation, but for oblique impacts such as this, the situation is different. Foams have the advantage that their properties are isotropic, so will perform in the same way regardless of the direction of impact, whereas a steel tube will perform considerably worse in an oblique impact compared to a longitudinal impact. Foam sandwich panels may provide a lighter weight alternative to side intrusion beams. Ashby (2000) describes an aluminium foam system produced by the German company Karmann GmbH. These products use an aluminium foam core, roll bonded to two aluminium face sheets. Karmann claim that these parts are up to ten times stiffer and 50% lighter than equivalent parts made of steel, though no further evidence could be found for these claims. The results of section 2 suggest that foam may have a small advantage over ultra high strength steel; however, these sandwich panels have the added benefit of using the body skin panel as part of the structural system of the car, which is not usually the case, and would provide additional weight saving. This is an example of functional integration, where multiple functionality is integrated into a single component. However, this integration can lead to quality issues, as the bonding of the foam to the body skin panel makes the body panel more susceptible to accidental damage and denting. The use of CFRP in side impact crash structures may be more difficult. As side impact behaviour is dominated by bending, rather than progressive axial crushing, the specific energy absorption is likely to be significantly less than that shown in Figure 2.1. However, the use of CFRP combined with other materials, may still offer a lightweight alternative to side impact beams. 4. POTENTIAL FOR MASS SAVING The analysis of the previous sections suggests that there may be lightweighting potential for crash structures through both optimized design and material substitution. CFRP, in particular, performs extremely well in front impact, though may be less beneficial for side impact structures.

7 This section seeks to estimate the possible mass saving, based on the material analysis from section 2, but also by examining the available literature on lightweight automotive design. 4.1 ESTIMATED MASS SAVINGS FROM MATERIAL DATA Using the idealized material properties from section 2, a theoretical estimate of the mass saving potential of material substitution can be obtained. It is assumed that DP600 is representative of a steel which might be used in a modern crash structure. Mass savings are then measured relative to this material, shown in Table 4.1. Material Aluminium Ultra High Aluminium CFRP (front Magnesium Foam Strength Steels impact) Mass Saving over DP600 Cymat: 24% Alulight: 24% Alporas: -53% ERG: 21% Duracore: 50% DP500: 5% TRIP800: 50% CP-W800: -4% MS-W1200: -28% AA5454-H2: 14% AA5454-H4: 4% 93% 70% Table 4.1: Estimated mass savings from material data relative to DP600 steel (note negative numbers represent a mass increase) As these numbers are based on highly idealized assumptions, it is impossible to make an accurate estimate of the weight saving potential of material substitution in crash structures relative to real world cars. However, the results are sufficiently clear that the following general conclusions can be drawn: Magnesium and CFRP may offer weight savings in crash structures of over 50% compared to the materials which are currently used Modern UHSS steels such as TRIP800, and efficient aluminium foams such as Duracore offer weight improvements relative to older UHSS steels, but are not as good as CFRP or magnesium Given the large additional cost of using and manufacturing CFRP and magnesium components, and the large emissions associated with producing aluminium foams, further developments in UHSS steels may offer the most attractive means of weight saving 4.2 ESTIMATED MASS SAVINGS FROM LITERATURE Less theoretical estimates of weight saving potential can be found in the literature. These estimates are often from car manufacturers or material suppliers, and although they are likely to give a more accurate estimate of possible weight savings over current designs, they are harder to verify, as they rarely contain detailed technical information.

8 Cheah (2010) summarized examples in the literature where claims are made about possible weight savings, repeated partially in Table 4.2. Concept/Source Main Material Year Car Type Weight Saving 1 Future Steel Vehicle Steel 2009 Compact car 13% 2 Future Steel Vehicle Steel 2009 Midsize Car 15% 3 Lotus study Steel 2010 CUV 21-38% 4 SuperLIGHT-CAR Aluminium 2009 Compact car (201kg) 5 Lotus APX Aluminium 2006 SUV 28% Table 4.2: Examples from the literature of possible weight savings (Cheah, 2010) The numbers in Table 4.2 refer to whole car weight savings rather than specific parts, so it is difficult to generalize these results. However, the results for the Future Steel Vehicle (WorldAutoSteel, 2009) break down the weight saving by different areas of the car, and for the body/crash structure, estimate a saving of 11% compared to a modern (2010) vehicle, by substituting existing materials with higher strength steels. This suggests that the estimates of lightweighting potential made in section 4.2 are too high, most likely because modern vehicles are already using steels superior to DP600, which was assumed as the baseline case in that analysis. However, Lotus (2010) estimate possible weight savings of 21-38% compared to a 2010 Toyota Venza, and show that DP590 steel is used in large parts of the side body structure (which is important for crash performance), which has similar performance to the DP600 steel used as the benchmark in section 4.1. The Lotus study uses two new designs to estimate mass savings, the first of which is based on upgrading to higher strength steels, and the second of which is based on substituting steels with other high performance materials (glass fibre composites, magnesium, and aluminium). In the first case, a mass saving of 15.9% is estimated, and in the second a mass saving of 42.2%. Although these results differ qualitatively from section 4.1, they reinforce the following key points: For steel vehicles, substitution of existing materials with higher strength steels enables a mass saving of ~15% (for aluminium vehicles, using higher strength alloys may offer similar mass savings) Larger savings of ~40% can be achieved by substitution with other high performance materials, such as magnesium and fibre composites (although this is likely to increase cost).

9 4.3 SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE MASS SAVINGS Sections 4.1 and 4.2 made quantitative estimates of the potential for mass saving through material substitution. These are summarized here, combined with other examples mentioned in the literature: Lightweighting Measure Estimated Saving Replace steel with higher strength steels 10-15% Replace steel with other materials (e.g. aluminium, magnesium, composites) 20-40% Optimized design of front impact structures 47% (Kim, 2002) Aluminium Foam Sandwich Panels Up to 50% (Karmann GmbH) Table 4.3: Summary of mass saving possibilities for crash structures 5. CONCLUSIONS The analysis of this working paper leads to the following conclusions: Further developments of high strength steels may enable mass savings of 10-15% for car crash structures Substitution of steels with higher performance materials, such as aluminium, magnesium or CFRP may enable higher weight savings of 20-40% Optimized design, or the use of alternative structures such as foam sandwich panels, may enable weight savings of up to 50% Using both material substitution and optimal design may enable higher weight savings These estimates are in-line with the aims of car manufactures for weight saving, for example Jaguar Land Rover, who are targeting a 30% reduction in door weight 6. REFERENCES Ashby, M.F., Evans, A.G., Fleck, N.A., Gibson, L.J., Hutchinson, J.W., Wadley, H.N.G. (2000), Metal Foams: A Design Guide, Butterworth Heinemann. Ashby, M.F. (2006), The properties of foams and lattices, Philosophical Transactions, Series A, Mathematical, physical and engineering science, 364(1838),

10 Cheah, L.W. (2010), Cars on a Diet: The Material and Energy Impacts of Passenger Vehicle Weight Reduction in the U.S., PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Kim, H. (2002) New extruded multi-cell aluminum profile for maximum crash energy absorption and weight efficiency. Thin-Walled Structures, 40(4), Lotus Engineering Inc. (2010), An Assessment of Mass Reduction Opportunities for a Model Year Vehicle Program, submitted to The International Council on Clean Transportation US Department of Transportation Research and Innovative Technology Administration (USDTRITA) (2008), A Summary of Proceedings for The Safety Characterization of Future Plastic and Composite Intensive Vehicles (PCIVs) WorldAutoSteel (2009), Future Steel Vehicle Phase I Executive Summary. 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Rebecca Lees and Martin Halliwell of Jaguar Land Rover for their useful discussions on this topic.

CRASH ANALYSIS OF AN IMPACT ATTENUATOR FOR RACING CAR IN SANDWICH MATERIAL

CRASH ANALYSIS OF AN IMPACT ATTENUATOR FOR RACING CAR IN SANDWICH MATERIAL F2008-SC-016 CRASH ANALYSIS OF AN IMPACT ATTENUATOR FOR RACING CAR IN SANDWICH MATERIAL Boria, Simonetta *, Forasassi, Giuseppe Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University

More information

Structural Bonding for Lightweight Construction

Structural Bonding for Lightweight Construction Materials Science Forum Vols.618-619(2009) pp 49-56 Online at :http://www.scientific.net (2009)Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland Online available since 2009/Apr/17 Structural Bonding for Lightweight

More information

L I S A - Lightweight Structural Applications Based on Metallic and Organic foams

L I S A - Lightweight Structural Applications Based on Metallic and Organic foams L I S A - Lightweight Structural Applications Based on Metallic and Organic foams Project duration 2/2002-1/2005 European Commission, Fifth Framework Program GROWTH ; G5RD-CT-2001-00484 9 partners 1 LISA

More information

A LIGHTWEIGHT REAR BUMPER WITH CRASH WORTHY COMPARTMENT

A LIGHTWEIGHT REAR BUMPER WITH CRASH WORTHY COMPARTMENT 1 A LIGHTWEIGHT REAR BUMPER WITH CRASH WORTHY COMPARTMENT Background of the Invention Field of the Invention This invention relates to a lightweight rear bumper with crash worthy compartment, and more

More information

Estimation of Work Hardening in Bent Sheet Metal Products at an Early Stage of Virtual Product Development

Estimation of Work Hardening in Bent Sheet Metal Products at an Early Stage of Virtual Product Development Estimation of Work Hardening in Bent Sheet Metal Products at an Early Stage of Virtual Product Development RokneddinAzizi HosseinAmiryousefi Department of Mechanical Engineering Blekinge Institute of Technology

More information

The Development of Virtual Testing Model for Korea High Speed Train

The Development of Virtual Testing Model for Korea High Speed Train The Development of Virtual Testing Model for Korea High Speed Train 1 S.R. Kim, 2 J.S. Koo, 3 T.S. Kwon, 4 H.S. Han Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea 1 ; Seoul National University

More information

Innovative materials and solutions for automotive components

Innovative materials and solutions for automotive components Innovative materials and solutions for automotive components D Aiuto Fabio CRF GML Metals Department ANFIA 28 April, 2016 Index Material overview Material development Twip characterization Fiat Panda front

More information

The new Audi R8. Life Cycle Assessment

The new Audi R8. Life Cycle Assessment The new Audi R8 Life Cycle Assessment Audi R8 the life cycle assessment Audi has compiled a detailed life cycle assessment for the Audi R8 Coupé V10 plus 5.2 FSI quattro 449 kw S tronic** (hereinafter:

More information

Abaqus Technology Brief. Automobile Roof Crush Analysis with Abaqus

Abaqus Technology Brief. Automobile Roof Crush Analysis with Abaqus Abaqus Technology Brief Automobile Roof Crush Analysis with Abaqus TB-06-RCA-1 Revised: April 2007. Summary The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) mandates the use of certain test procedures

More information

Reviewing Lightweighting Strategies for Low Budget Mass-Market Vehicles: What Combinations of Materials Will Deliver the Best Return on Investment

Reviewing Lightweighting Strategies for Low Budget Mass-Market Vehicles: What Combinations of Materials Will Deliver the Best Return on Investment Reviewing Lightweighting Strategies for Low Budget Mass-Market Vehicles: What Combinations of Materials Will Deliver the Best Return on Investment Presented by Jinkui Yang, Chrysler Group LLC Contents

More information

May Newsletter An insight into our Upright design

May Newsletter An insight into our Upright design May Newsletter An insight into our Upright design Mass optimisation of the uprights represents an important area in suspension design, a lighter upright contributes significantly to the weight of the unsprung

More information

A New Impact Scenario for P-V Tram Certification

A New Impact Scenario for P-V Tram Certification A New Impact Scenario for P-V Tram Certification Authors Marco ANGHILERI * Luigi-M L CASTELLETTI * Matteo PIROLA * Fabio PISTOCHINI * and Stefano RAITI ** Affiliations * Politecnico di Milano, Department

More information

Statement before Massachusetts Legislature s Joint Committee on Insurance. Institute Research on Cosmetic Crash Parts. Stephen L. Oesch.

Statement before Massachusetts Legislature s Joint Committee on Insurance. Institute Research on Cosmetic Crash Parts. Stephen L. Oesch. Statement before Massachusetts Legislature s Joint Committee on Insurance Institute Research on Cosmetic Crash Parts Stephen L. Oesch INSURANCE INSTITUTE FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY 1005 N. GLEBE RD. ARLINGTON,

More information

Fundamentals of Extrusion

Fundamentals of Extrusion CHAPTER1 Fundamentals of Extrusion The first chapter of this book discusses the fundamentals of extrusion technology, including extrusion principles, processes, mechanics, and variables and their effects

More information

Influence of Crash Box on Automotive Crashworthiness

Influence of Crash Box on Automotive Crashworthiness Influence of Crash Box on Automotive Crashworthiness MIHAIL DANIEL IOZSA, DAN ALEXANDRU MICU, GHEORGHE FRĂȚILĂ, FLORIN- CRISTIAN ANTONACHE University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest 313 Splaiul Independentei

More information

Numerical analysis of metallic. hollow sphere structures

Numerical analysis of metallic. hollow sphere structures 7. LS-DYNA Anwenderforum, Bamberg 2008 Numerical analysis of metallic hollow sphere structures Matej Vesenjak 1, Thomas Fiedler 2, Andreas Öchsner 3, Zoran Ren 1 1 University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical

More information

Design of Vehicle Structures for Crash Energy Management

Design of Vehicle Structures for Crash Energy Management Design of Vehicle Structures for Crash Energy Management Slide 2 of 80 Introduction The final design was the product of a long evolution guided primarily by testing, supported by simple linear strength

More information

Great Automotive Designs Enabled By Advances in Adhesive Bonding

Great Automotive Designs Enabled By Advances in Adhesive Bonding Great Automotive Designs Enabled By Advances in Adhesive Bonding Mansour Mirdamadi and Greg Korchnak Dow Automotive Presentation Outline Classification of adhesive systems for body structure applications

More information

Predictive Modeling of Composite Materials & Structures: State-of-the-Art Solutions and Future Challenges.

Predictive Modeling of Composite Materials & Structures: State-of-the-Art Solutions and Future Challenges. Predictive Modeling of Composite Materials & Structures: State-of-the-Art Solutions and Future Challenges. Roger A. Assaker Roger.Assaker@e-Xstream.com www.e-xstream.com Short Abstract Computer Aided Engineering

More information

STIFFNESS RELEVANCE AND STRENGTH RELEVANCE IN CRASH OF CAR BODY COMPONENTS

STIFFNESS RELEVANCE AND STRENGTH RELEVANCE IN CRASH OF CAR BODY COMPONENTS STIFFNESS RELEVANCE AND STRENGTH RELEVANCE IN CRASH OF CAR BODY COMPONENTS Public version of official report 83440 by ika May 2010 2 Contents Preamble...4 1 Introduction...5 2 Numerical Analyses...7 2.1

More information

Car Crash Design Lab

Car Crash Design Lab Car Crash Design Lab This activity is designed to utilize your prior knowledge of physics and physical systems in order select critical safety features of a car. In this lab you are asked to select components

More information

Objectives. Experimentally determine the yield strength, tensile strength, and modules of elasticity and ductility of given materials.

Objectives. Experimentally determine the yield strength, tensile strength, and modules of elasticity and ductility of given materials. Lab 3 Tension Test Objectives Concepts Background Experimental Procedure Report Requirements Discussion Objectives Experimentally determine the yield strength, tensile strength, and modules of elasticity

More information

A Study on Manufacturing Processes and Compressive Properties of Zinc-Aluminium Metal Foams

A Study on Manufacturing Processes and Compressive Properties of Zinc-Aluminium Metal Foams American Journal of Materials Science 2015, 5(3C): 38-42 DOI: 10.5923/c.materials.201502.08 A Study on Manufacturing Processes and Compressive Properties of Zinc-Aluminium Metal Foams Sonika Sahu, Mohd.

More information

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF IMPACT LOADS ON BUMPER BEAM AT DIFFERENT OFFSETS

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF IMPACT LOADS ON BUMPER BEAM AT DIFFERENT OFFSETS International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 81 90, Article ID: IJMET_07_02_012 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?jtype=ijmet&vtype=7&itype=2

More information

SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN

SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN CHAPTER Structural Steel Design LRFD Method Third Edition SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part II Structural

More information

SAFE A HEAD. Structural analysis and Finite Element simulation of an innovative ski helmet. Prof. Petrone Nicola Eng.

SAFE A HEAD. Structural analysis and Finite Element simulation of an innovative ski helmet. Prof. Petrone Nicola Eng. SAFE A HEAD Structural analysis and Finite Element simulation of an innovative ski helmet Prof. Petrone Nicola Eng. Cherubina Enrico Goal Development of an innovative ski helmet on the basis of analyses

More information

Handheld Shock Control Design Guide

Handheld Shock Control Design Guide Handheld Shock Control Design Guide Handheld Shock Control Design Guide Cushioning in Handheld Devices: Understanding Impact The Challenge: Protecting Handheld Devices from Cracks The most devastating

More information

Alternative lower rail design to lower injury level of occupant caused by frontal crash

Alternative lower rail design to lower injury level of occupant caused by frontal crash Alternative lower rail design to lower injury level of occupant caused by frontal crash W. Beek (0557959) MT06.20 Internal traineeship Supervisor: Dr. ir. W.J. Witteman Eindhoven University of Technology

More information

INVESTIGATION OF DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF ALUMINIUM FOAM UNDER HIGH-STRAIN RATE LOADING AND COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL ENERGY ABSORBING MATERIAL

INVESTIGATION OF DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF ALUMINIUM FOAM UNDER HIGH-STRAIN RATE LOADING AND COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL ENERGY ABSORBING MATERIAL INVESTIGATION OF DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF ALUMINIUM FOAM UNDER HIGH-STRAIN RATE LOADING AND COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL ENERGY ABSORBING MATERIAL P. Zlámal 1, T. Fíla 2, O. Jiroušek and V. Králík 4 Summary:

More information

Lightweight structures with new car technologies

Lightweight structures with new car technologies Lightweight structures with new car technologies Julian Haspel Application Development, LANXESS Business Unit Semi-Crystalline Products Automotive Days Poland October 27-28, 2011 LANXESS A premium supplier

More information

SuperLIGHT-CAR - the Multi-Material Car Body

SuperLIGHT-CAR - the Multi-Material Car Body SuperLIGHT-CAR - the Multi-Material Car Body Lutz Berger, Micha Lesemann, Christian Sahr Institut für Kraftfahrzeuge - RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany Simon Hart, Richard Taylor ARUP, Solihull,

More information

PLASTIC/METAL HYBRID TECHNOLOGY. Innovative Design Solutions for Structural Performance with Weight and Cost Reduction

PLASTIC/METAL HYBRID TECHNOLOGY. Innovative Design Solutions for Structural Performance with Weight and Cost Reduction PLASTIC/METAL HYBRID TECHNOLOGY Innovative Design Solutions for Structural Performance with Weight and Cost Reduction LANXESS Corporation Unites Plastic and Metal to Help Manufacturers Create Products

More information

Practical application of thermoplastic composites for body-in-white application development: A collaborative approach between DuPont and Renault

Practical application of thermoplastic composites for body-in-white application development: A collaborative approach between DuPont and Renault Practical application of thermoplastic composites for body-in-white application development: A collaborative approach between DuPont and Renault Gérard Liraut, Expert Leader Polymères, Charactérisation

More information

Crash Analysis of Car Cross Member Bumper Beam

Crash Analysis of Car Cross Member Bumper Beam Crash Analysis of Car Cross Member Bumper Beam G.Yedukondalu Asst. Professor K L University Guntur Dt.-522502, India yedukondalu@kluniversity.in Dr. A. Srinath UGC Research Awardee Professor Mechanical

More information

8 EXTRA LIGHT GRC SANDWICH ELEMENTS FOR ROOFING IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS

8 EXTRA LIGHT GRC SANDWICH ELEMENTS FOR ROOFING IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 8 EXTRA LIGHT GRC SANDWICH ELEMENTS FOR ROOFING IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS MARICA DELLA BELLA and DIEGO CIAN Precompressi Centro Nord S.p.A., Italy SUMMARY: Secondary roofing elements, complementary to the

More information

VEHICLE POSTMORTEM AND DATA ANALYSIS OF A PASSENGER RAIL CAR COLLISION TEST

VEHICLE POSTMORTEM AND DATA ANALYSIS OF A PASSENGER RAIL CAR COLLISION TEST Proceedings of: JRC2002 The 2002 ASME/IEEE Joint Rail Conference April 23-25, 2002, Washington D.C. VEHICLE POSTMORTEM AND DATA ANALYSIS OF A PASSENGER RAIL CAR COLLISION TEST Robert A. MacNeill and Steven

More information

Stress Strain Relationships

Stress Strain Relationships Stress Strain Relationships Tensile Testing One basic ingredient in the study of the mechanics of deformable bodies is the resistive properties of materials. These properties relate the stresses to the

More information

Application of Adhesives and Bonded Joint Design in Improving Vehicle Structure Performance

Application of Adhesives and Bonded Joint Design in Improving Vehicle Structure Performance Application of Adhesives and Bonded Joint Design in Improving Vehicle Structure Performance Mansour Mirdamadi Mustafa Ahmed Matt Turpin Alan Robinson Dow Automotive Presentation Outline Structural adhesives

More information

Aluminum Sheet Outlook in Auto. Randall Scheps Alcoa

Aluminum Sheet Outlook in Auto. Randall Scheps Alcoa Aluminum Sheet Outlook in Auto Randall Scheps Alcoa 1.14.2014 1 Cautionary Statement Cautionary Statement Forward-Looking Statements This presentation contains statements that relate to future events and

More information

Assessment of Light-Duty Vehicle Mass-Reduction Costs

Assessment of Light-Duty Vehicle Mass-Reduction Costs Assessment of Light-Duty Vehicle Mass-Reduction Costs Nic Lutsey Postdoctoral Researcher, Univ. of California, Davis ICCT GHG technology workshop Brussels, Belgium February 1, 2012 Outline Mass-reduction

More information

LightCab Technology concept International Panel, SAE Congress 2013, 8 th October 2013. Jörg Ohlsen, CEO EDAG

LightCab Technology concept International Panel, SAE Congress 2013, 8 th October 2013. Jörg Ohlsen, CEO EDAG LightCab Technology concept International Panel, SAE Congress 2013, 8 th October 2013 Jörg Ohlsen, CEO EDAG LightCab Technology concept 1 Drivers LightCab Challenges and conceptual formulation 2 Product

More information

METU DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING

METU DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING METU DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING Met E 206 MATERIALS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 1 Prof. Dr. Rıza GÜRBÜZ Res. Assist. Gül ÇEVİK (Room: B-306) INTRODUCTION TENSION TEST Mechanical testing

More information

SEISMIC RETROFITTING TECHNIQUE USING CARBON FIBERS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS

SEISMIC RETROFITTING TECHNIQUE USING CARBON FIBERS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS Fracture Mechanics of Concrete Structures Proceedings FRAMCOS-3 AEDIFICA TIO Publishers, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany SEISMIC RETROFITTING TECHNIQUE USING CARBON FIBERS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS H.

More information

4.461: Building Technology 1 CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS FALL TERM 2004 SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING: MIT

4.461: Building Technology 1 CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS FALL TERM 2004 SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING: MIT 4.461: Building Technology 1 CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS Professor John E. Fernandez FALL TERM 2004 SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING: MIT Concrete and Composites Stadelhofen Station Zurich Santiago Calatrava

More information

MASTER DEGREE PROJECT

MASTER DEGREE PROJECT MASTER DEGREE PROJECT Finite Element Analysis of a Washing Machine Cylinder Thesis in Applied Mechanics one year Master Degree Program Performed : Spring term, 2010 Level Author Supervisor s Examiner :

More information

Automated Strength Analysis Processes for Aircraft Structures

Automated Strength Analysis Processes for Aircraft Structures Automated Strength Analysis Processes for Aircraft Structures Automatisierte Festigkeitsanalyseprozesse für Flugzeugstrukturen Univ.-Prof. Dr. Martin Schagerl Overview Structure Build-Up Structure Design

More information

Research on the meaning of reinforcement ductility for a behavior of double-spans reinforced concrete beam.

Research on the meaning of reinforcement ductility for a behavior of double-spans reinforced concrete beam. Research on the meaning of reinforcement ductility for a behavior of double-spans reinforced concrete beam. Prepared by: Contents list Page 1. Purpose of the research 3 2. Test models and stand description

More information

Adhesive bonding technology. Adhesive bonding in transportation construction. Intelligent solutions for transportation construction

Adhesive bonding technology. Adhesive bonding in transportation construction. Intelligent solutions for transportation construction Adhesive bonding technology Adhesive bonding in transportation construction Intelligent solutions for transportation construction Content New opportunities in 1 transportation construction Reliable bonding

More information

Mechanical Properties of Metals Mechanical Properties refers to the behavior of material when external forces are applied

Mechanical Properties of Metals Mechanical Properties refers to the behavior of material when external forces are applied Mechanical Properties of Metals Mechanical Properties refers to the behavior of material when external forces are applied Stress and strain fracture or engineering point of view: allows to predict the

More information

Course in. Nonlinear FEM

Course in. Nonlinear FEM Course in Introduction Outline Lecture 1 Introduction Lecture 2 Geometric nonlinearity Lecture 3 Material nonlinearity Lecture 4 Material nonlinearity continued Lecture 5 Geometric nonlinearity revisited

More information

Structural Integrity Analysis

Structural Integrity Analysis Structural Integrity Analysis 1. STRESS CONCENTRATION Igor Kokcharov 1.1 STRESSES AND CONCENTRATORS 1.1.1 Stress An applied external force F causes inner forces in the carrying structure. Inner forces

More information

Composite Design Fundamentals. David Richardson

Composite Design Fundamentals. David Richardson Composite Design Fundamentals David Richardson Contents A review of the fundamental characteristics of composites Stiffness and Strength Anisotropic Role of fibre, matrix and interface Composite failure

More information

Innovative Materials and Technologies for Vehicle Construction

Innovative Materials and Technologies for Vehicle Construction Innovative Materials and Technologies for Vehicle Construction Oliver Hoffmann, Hannover, 24.4.2012 ThyssenKrupp Group Structure 7 business areas including Steel Europe ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe Elevator

More information

Section 16: Neutral Axis and Parallel Axis Theorem 16-1

Section 16: Neutral Axis and Parallel Axis Theorem 16-1 Section 16: Neutral Axis and Parallel Axis Theorem 16-1 Geometry of deformation We will consider the deformation of an ideal, isotropic prismatic beam the cross section is symmetric about y-axis All parts

More information

Numerical Analysis of Independent Wire Strand Core (IWSC) Wire Rope

Numerical Analysis of Independent Wire Strand Core (IWSC) Wire Rope Numerical Analysis of Independent Wire Strand Core (IWSC) Wire Rope Rakesh Sidharthan 1 Gnanavel B K 2 Assistant professor Mechanical, Department Professor, Mechanical Department, Gojan engineering college,

More information

Your Partner in High Strength Steel

Your Partner in High Strength Steel Your Partner in High Strength Steel THE CHALLENGE THE CHALLENGE DEVELOPING A LIGHTER CAR IS EASY. DEVELOPING A SAFER AND STIFFER CAR IS EASY. BUT WHAT ABOUT DOING BOTH? IT S A CHALLENGE Today s automotive

More information

Sheet metal operations - Bending and related processes

Sheet metal operations - Bending and related processes Sheet metal operations - Bending and related processes R. Chandramouli Associate Dean-Research SASTRA University, Thanjavur-613 401 Table of Contents 1.Quiz-Key... Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.Bending

More information

Tensile Testing Laboratory

Tensile Testing Laboratory Tensile Testing Laboratory By Stephan Favilla 0723668 ME 354 AC Date of Lab Report Submission: February 11 th 2010 Date of Lab Exercise: January 28 th 2010 1 Executive Summary Tensile tests are fundamental

More information

The Fundamental Principles of Composite Material Stiffness Predictions. David Richardson

The Fundamental Principles of Composite Material Stiffness Predictions. David Richardson The Fundamental Principles of Composite Material Stiffness Predictions David Richardson Contents Description of example material for analysis Prediction of Stiffness using Rule of Mixtures (ROM) ROM with

More information

Pedestrian protection - Pedestrian in collision with personal car

Pedestrian protection - Pedestrian in collision with personal car Pedestrian protection - Pedestrian in collision with personal car Authors: Jiří Svoboda, Ing; Zdeněk Šolc, Ing. Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Automotive

More information

The new Audi TT Coupé. Life Cycle Assessment

The new Audi TT Coupé. Life Cycle Assessment The new Audi TT Coupé Life Cycle Assessment Content Foreword Life cycle assessment what s involved Life cycle assessment the boundaries Life cycle assessment the effect categories Lightweight construction

More information

APE T CFRP Aslan 500

APE T CFRP Aslan 500 Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Tape is used for structural strengthening of concrete, masonry or timber elements using the technique known as Near Surface Mount or NSM strengthening. Use of CFRP

More information

CARBON/DYNEEMA INTRALAMINAR HYBRIDS: NEW STRATEGY TO INCREASE IMPACT RESISTANCE OR DECREASE MASS OF CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES

CARBON/DYNEEMA INTRALAMINAR HYBRIDS: NEW STRATEGY TO INCREASE IMPACT RESISTANCE OR DECREASE MASS OF CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES 26 TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AERONAUTICAL SCIENCES CARBON/DYNEEMA INTRALAMINAR HYBRIDS: NEW STRATEGY TO INCREASE IMPACT RESISTANCE OR DECREASE MASS OF CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES J. G. H. Bouwmeester*,

More information

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar. Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar. Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges 7.7 Truss bridges Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges Truss Girders, lattice girders or open web girders are efficient and economical structural systems, since the members experience

More information

Higher Technical School of Agricultural Engineering UPCT. Agroindustrial Constructions

Higher Technical School of Agricultural Engineering UPCT. Agroindustrial Constructions Higher Technical School of Agricultural Engineering UPCT Agroindustrial Constructions Qualification: Degree Agri-food Engineering and Biological Systems Course 2015/2016 1. Subject information Name Agroindustrial

More information

The importance of normalisation when comparing tablet properties

The importance of normalisation when comparing tablet properties The importance of normalisation when comparing tablet properties Tablet quality definition The properties of a tablet, both during manufacturing and in vivo, are determined by the properties of the materials

More information

Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Cold-formed Steel Tubular Sections with Recycled Aggregate Concrete Infill

Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Cold-formed Steel Tubular Sections with Recycled Aggregate Concrete Infill Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Cold-formed Steel Tubular Sections with Recycled Aggregate Concrete Infill N.Umamaheswari 1, S. Arul Jayachandran 2 1 Associate Professor/Civil, SRM University, Kattankulathur,

More information

Foam Injection Molding:

Foam Injection Molding: Foam Injection Molding: Unique Process Solutions for Light Weighting Automotive Plastic Parts Steve Braig President & CEO Trexel, Inc. AGENDA Technology Overview > Chemical Foaming > Physical Foaming Foamed

More information

ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF SPRING BACK EFFECTS IN A TYPICAL COLD ROLLED SHEET

ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF SPRING BACK EFFECTS IN A TYPICAL COLD ROLLED SHEET International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016, pp. 119-130, Article ID: IJMET_07_01_013 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?jtype=ijmet&vtype=7&itype=1

More information

Introduction to Mechanical Behavior of Biological Materials

Introduction to Mechanical Behavior of Biological Materials Introduction to Mechanical Behavior of Biological Materials Ozkaya and Nordin Chapter 7, pages 127-151 Chapter 8, pages 173-194 Outline Modes of loading Internal forces and moments Stiffness of a structure

More information

Carbon Fibre in Mass Automotive Applications Challenges and Drivers for composites

Carbon Fibre in Mass Automotive Applications Challenges and Drivers for composites Carbon Fibre in Mass Automotive Applications Challenges and Drivers for composites Robert Crow CEng MIMM Materials Innovation Manager Franco-British Symposium on Composite Materials 28 th April Agenda

More information

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 1 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 1.1 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Different materials possess different properties in varying degree and therefore behave in different ways under given conditions. These properties

More information

The Synergy TM Door A New Approach to Lightweight Steel Doors

The Synergy TM Door A New Approach to Lightweight Steel Doors The Synergy TM Door A New Approach to Lightweight Steel Doors Paul Schurter, Tim Lim, ArcelorMittal Mansour Mirdamadi, Dow Automotive Outline Background Approach Structural Performance Targets Synergy

More information

Local buckling of plates made of high strength steel

Local buckling of plates made of high strength steel Local buckling of plates made of high strength steel Tapani Halmea, Lauri Huusko b,a, Gary Marquis a, Timo Björk a a Lappeenranta University of Technology, Faculty of Technology Engineering, Lappeenranta,

More information

COMPUTATIONAL ENGINEERING OF FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION USING ABAQUS

COMPUTATIONAL ENGINEERING OF FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION USING ABAQUS International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 30 52, Article ID: IJARET_07_02_004 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijaret/issues.asp?jtype=ijaret&vtype=7&itype=2

More information

Optiffuser. High-performance, high bandwidth lightweight 1D diffuser.

Optiffuser. High-performance, high bandwidth lightweight 1D diffuser. Optiffuser High-performance, high bandwidth lightweight 1D diffuser. General product information The Optiffuser comes in packs of four panels. Two positives and two negatives (see page 5) per package.

More information

Development of a High Strain-Rate Dependent Vehicle Model

Development of a High Strain-Rate Dependent Vehicle Model 4. LS-DYNA Anwenderforum, Bamberg 25 Crash III Development of a High Strain-Rate Dependent Vehicle Model Michael Dietenberger (1), Murat Buyuk (2), Cing-Dao (Steve) Kan (2) (1) University of Stuttgart,

More information

Optimising plate girder design

Optimising plate girder design Optimising plate girder design NSCC29 R. Abspoel 1 1 Division of structural engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands ABSTRACT: In the design of steel plate girders a high degree

More information

Bending, Forming and Flexing Printed Circuits

Bending, Forming and Flexing Printed Circuits Bending, Forming and Flexing Printed Circuits John Coonrod Rogers Corporation Introduction: In the printed circuit board industry there are generally two main types of circuit boards; there are rigid printed

More information

MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING

MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING HAPTER Reinforced oncrete Design Fifth Edition MATERIALS AND MEHANIS OF BENDING A. J. lark School of Engineering Department of ivil and Environmental Engineering Part I oncrete Design and Analysis b FALL

More information

bi directional loading). Prototype ten story

bi directional loading). Prototype ten story NEESR SG: Behavior, Analysis and Design of Complex Wall Systems The laboratory testing presented here was conducted as part of a larger effort that employed laboratory testing and numerical simulation

More information

INSURANCE INSTITUTE FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY 1005 NORTH GLEBE ROAD ARLINGTON, VA 22201 PHONE 703/247-1500 FAX 703/247-1678 http://www.highwaysafety.

INSURANCE INSTITUTE FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY 1005 NORTH GLEBE ROAD ARLINGTON, VA 22201 PHONE 703/247-1500 FAX 703/247-1678 http://www.highwaysafety. Statement before the Committee on Energy and Commerce U.S. House of Representatives Approaches to achieving vehicle safety improvements Brian O Neill INSURANCE INSTITUTE FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY 1005 NORTH GLEBE

More information

European New Car Assessment Program (EuroNCAP) and Crash Test Ratings of New Vehicles

European New Car Assessment Program (EuroNCAP) and Crash Test Ratings of New Vehicles European New Car Assessment Program (EuroNCAP) and Crash Test Ratings of New Vehicles Car safety is now an important issue that many people consider when buying a new car. There are crash test standards

More information

A Systematic Approach for Improving Occupant Protection in Rollover Crashes

A Systematic Approach for Improving Occupant Protection in Rollover Crashes SAE 2011 Government / Industry Meeting A Systematic Approach for Improving Occupant Protection in Rollover Crashes Jingwen Hu, PhD University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute King H. Yang,

More information

Material Deformations. Academic Resource Center

Material Deformations. Academic Resource Center Material Deformations Academic Resource Center Agenda Origin of deformations Deformations & dislocations Dislocation motion Slip systems Stresses involved with deformation Deformation by twinning Origin

More information

EVALUATION OF SEISMIC RESPONSE - FACULTY OF LAND RECLAMATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -BUCHAREST

EVALUATION OF SEISMIC RESPONSE - FACULTY OF LAND RECLAMATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -BUCHAREST EVALUATION OF SEISMIC RESPONSE - FACULTY OF LAND RECLAMATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -BUCHAREST Abstract Camelia SLAVE University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Marasti

More information

Uniaxial Tension and Compression Testing of Materials. Nikita Khlystov Daniel Lizardo Keisuke Matsushita Jennie Zheng

Uniaxial Tension and Compression Testing of Materials. Nikita Khlystov Daniel Lizardo Keisuke Matsushita Jennie Zheng Uniaxial Tension and Compression Testing of Materials Nikita Khlystov Daniel Lizardo Keisuke Matsushita Jennie Zheng 3.032 Lab Report September 25, 2013 I. Introduction Understanding material mechanics

More information

4 SENSORS. Example. A force of 1 N is exerted on a PZT5A disc of diameter 10 mm and thickness 1 mm. The resulting mechanical stress is:

4 SENSORS. Example. A force of 1 N is exerted on a PZT5A disc of diameter 10 mm and thickness 1 mm. The resulting mechanical stress is: 4 SENSORS The modern technical world demands the availability of sensors to measure and convert a variety of physical quantities into electrical signals. These signals can then be fed into data processing

More information

THE COMPOSITE DISC - A NEW JOINT FOR HIGH POWER DRIVESHAFTS

THE COMPOSITE DISC - A NEW JOINT FOR HIGH POWER DRIVESHAFTS THE COMPOSITE DISC - A NEW JOINT FOR HIGH POWER DRIVESHAFTS Dr Andrew Pollard Principal Engineer GKN Technology UK INTRODUCTION There is a wide choice of flexible couplings for power transmission applications,

More information

Analysis of Steel Moment Frames subjected to Vehicle Impact

Analysis of Steel Moment Frames subjected to Vehicle Impact APCOM & ISCM 11-14 th December, 2013, Singapore Analysis of Steel Moment Frames subjected to Vehicle Impact Hyungoo Kang¹, Jeongil Shin 1, Jinkoo Kim 2 * 1 Graduate Student, Department of Civil-Architectural

More information

Lightweighting and steel technologies in the all-new 2016 Chevrolet Malibu 2017 Buick LaCrosse

Lightweighting and steel technologies in the all-new 2016 Chevrolet Malibu 2017 Buick LaCrosse Lightweighting and steel technologies in the all-new 2016 Chevrolet Malibu 2017 Buick LaCrosse v2 Terry A. Swartzell Underbody System Architect General Motors Company May 11, 2016 AGENDA The new sedans

More information

Chapter Outline. Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads?

Chapter Outline. Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Stress and Strain Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Plastic Deformation Yield Strength Tensile Strength Ductility

More information

Understanding patent claims (d) Double pipe

Understanding patent claims (d) Double pipe Understanding patent claims (d) Double pipe The invention The invention relates to a double pipe and a method of manufacturing it. The double pipe is preferably employed in a vehicle air conditioner for

More information

IS THAT LINER THICK ENOUGH?

IS THAT LINER THICK ENOUGH? IS THAT LINER THICK ENOUGH? Philip McFarlane, Opus International Consultants Ltd ABSTRACT The amount of pipeline rehabilitation being undertaken in New Zealand is increasing each year. Larger diameter

More information

Aluminium. Dieter J. Braun Sector President, Automotive. Automotive sector

Aluminium. Dieter J. Braun Sector President, Automotive. Automotive sector Aluminium Dieter J. Braun Sector President, Automotive Automotive sector 51145_3 H ydro M edia 08.2004 2 A broad product range Precision tubing Structures Castings Aluminium & magnesium alloys Rolled products

More information

MODIFICATION OF FLD EVALUATION FOR ULTRA HIGH-STRENGTH STEELS AS A RESULT OF USING CONTACT-LESS SYSTEMS FOR MEASURING DEFORMATION

MODIFICATION OF FLD EVALUATION FOR ULTRA HIGH-STRENGTH STEELS AS A RESULT OF USING CONTACT-LESS SYSTEMS FOR MEASURING DEFORMATION MODIFICATION OF FLD EVALUATION FOR ULTRA HIGH-STRENGTH STEELS AS A RESULT OF USING CONTACT-LESS SYSTEMS FOR MEASURING DEFORMATION Abstract Jiří SOBOTKA a, Pavel DOUBEK a, Michaela KOLNEROVÁ a, Pavel SOLFRONK

More information

Crimp Tooling Where Form Meets Function

Crimp Tooling Where Form Meets Function Crimp Tooling Where Form Meets Function Quality, cost, and throughput are key attributes for any production process. The crimp termination process is no exception. Many variables contribute to the results.

More information

NVH TECHNOLOGY IN THE BMW 1 SERIES

NVH TECHNOLOGY IN THE BMW 1 SERIES NVH TECHNOLOGY IN THE BMW 1 SERIES (Presented by) A. Fleszar LMS Americas J. Florentin, F. Durieux LMS International T. Yamamoto, Y. Kuriyama Nippon Steel Corporation CONTENTS Introduction Hybrid Interior

More information

Overview of Topics. Stress-Strain Behavior in Concrete. Elastic Behavior. Non-Linear Inelastic Behavior. Stress Distribution.

Overview of Topics. Stress-Strain Behavior in Concrete. Elastic Behavior. Non-Linear Inelastic Behavior. Stress Distribution. Stress-Strain Behavior in Concrete Overview of Topics EARLY AGE CONCRETE Plastic shrinkage shrinkage strain associated with early moisture loss Thermal shrinkage shrinkage strain associated with cooling

More information