1 Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 64: , 1991 Vegeta tion pattern and soil nu trien ts of a Magellanic moorland on the Cordillera de Piuchué, Chiloé Island, Chile Vegetación y nutrientes del suelo en una tundra magallánica en la Cordillera de Piuchué, Isla Grande de Chiloé, Chile BARBARA RUTHSATZ 1 and CAROLINA VILLAGRAN 2 1 Universitiit Trier, Fachbereich Geographie/Geowissenschaften, Lehrstuhl für Geobotanik. Postfach 3825, D-5500 Trier. Deutschland 2 Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología, Laboratorio de Sistemática y Ecología Vegetal. Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile ABSTRACT Magellanic moorlands range from Tierra del Fuego to temperate southern Chile and grow on poorly drained soils, deficient in plant nutrients, leached by high rainfall (2,000-6,000 mm/yr). The climate is strongly influenced by the Pacific Ocean to the west. Mean annual temperatures reach 5-6 C. Neither longer frost nor drought periods are frequent. In Chiloé Magellanic moorland is restricted today to plateaus on the Cordillera de Piuchué, surrounded by scrub and woodland on better drained sites. Palynological studies show that these moorlands are remnants of vaster bog areas covering Chiloé island during the late glacial and early postglacial periods. A typical moorland complex has different floristic zones. Important ecological factors are the water regime and the nutrient supply. From an ombrotrophic bog center dominated by Donatia fascicularis, the vegetation changes to increasingly minerotrophic fen zones with other cushion plants, such as Astelia pumita, sedges like Schoenus antarcticus, rushes and grasses with a!ayer of Sphagnum magellanicum underneath. The ecotone between moorland and forest is covered by shrubs like Baccharis magellanica and Tepualia stipularis. The nutrient supply of the moorland was characterized by the total and plant-available contents of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Al as well as the C/N ratio and the effective cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the peat soils. The results show that only the cushion bog of Dona tia has nearly ombrotrophic conditions, whereas the Astelia mire and the Schoenus fen are strongly influenced by mineral seepage water. In addition to nitrogen, which could not be investigated in this study, phosphorus is the most important limiting factor for moorland vegetation. Man has disturbed the fragile equilibrium between woodland and moorland, by fire and logging. The enhanced runoff from deforested woodland favors the invasion of sorne moorland plant species. Key words: Bog-fen zonation, mineral nutrition, Chilean coastal range, succession. RESUMEN Las tundras Magallánicas se extienden desde Tierra del Fuego (55 S) hasta el sur templado de Chile (40 S). Se desarrollan en suelos anegados, pobres en nutrientes y lavados por lluvias abundantes (2,000-6,000 mm/a). El clima está influido fuertemente por el Océano Pacífico al oeste. Las temperaturas medias anuales alcanzan 5-6oc. Ni períodos de heladas ni de sequía son frecuentes. En Chiloé, las tundras magallánicas están restringidas actualmente a las cumbres y las laderas occidentales de la Cordillera de Piuchué. Estudios palinológicos demuestran que estas turberas son relictos de formaciones más extensas que cubrieron la Isla de Chiloé durante el período glacial y postglacial. Un complejo típico de tundra está compuesto de zonas diferentes en composición florística y condiciones ecológicas. Los factores más importantes son los regímenes hídricos y de nutrientes. La vegetación cambia de una turbera central ombrotrófica, formada por Donatia fascicutaris a zonas turbosas de creciente influencia minerotrófica con otras plantas en cojín como Astelia pumita, con Ciperaceas como Schoenus antarcticus, juncos y pastos sobre un estrato de Sphagnum magellanicum. El ecotono entre la turbera y el bosque está cubierto de arbustos como Baccharis magellanica y Tepualia stiputaris. Las turberas se caracterizaron por los contenidos totales y disponibles de K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Al, además de la relación C/N y la capacidad efectiva de intercambio de cationes de sus suelos. Los resultados muestran que solamente la turbera de Donatia tiene condiciones casi ombrotróficas. En cambio la zona de Astelia y la de Schoenus están bajo la influencia de aguas subterráneas provenientes de suelos minerales. Aparte del nitrógeno, que no ha sido estudiado en este trabajo, el factor limitan te para la vegetación de las turberas es el fósforo. El hombre ha alterado el frágil equilibrio entre bosques y turberas, destruyendo los bosques con fuego y extrayendo madera. El escurrimiento superficial desde áreas taladas favorece la invasión de algunas especies de turberas. Palabras claves: Turberas, composición florística, factores limitantes, zonación, sucesión. (Recibido el 5 de septiembre de 1990.)
2 462 RUTHSATZ & VILLAGRAN INTRODUCfiON The Magellanic moor1and (Dollenz 1980, Moore 1979, 1983, Pisano 1983) is the typica1 p1ant formation of western Patagonia and the subantarctic is1and. Its characteristic vegetation is cushion-p1ant bogs or cushion-p1ant mires. These formations are restricted to areas of the southern hemisphere influenced by strong winds coming from the oceans. F1oristically similar plant formations exist in New Zealand, Tasmania and Southeast Australia (Godley 1960, 1978). In southern Chile, Magellanic moorland occurs along with evergreen subantarctic rainforests of Pilgerodendron uviferum, Nothofagus betuloides and Drimys winteri, from the strait of Magellan to the Golfo de Penas ( e.g Dusen 1903, Scottsberg 1916, Schmithüsen 1956). Isolated areas of moorland vegetation occur farther north, e.g. on Chiloé Is1and and on the coasta1 range of southern Chile (Fig. 1), the Cordillera Pelada (Ramírez 1968) and Cordillera de Nahuelbuta (Looser 1952). The flora of the moor1and formation changes from 5 60S to 40030'S. Its composition in Chiloé Island is still quite similar to the Patagonian moorland. Most of the typical cushion plants which domínate these mire formations in Tierra del Fuego are found here: Donatia fascicularis (Donatiaceae), Astelia pumila (Liliaceae), Gaimardia australis (Centrolepidaceae), Oreobolus obtusangulus (Cyperaceae). Gaimardia and Oreobolus grow in similar mire formations a1so in Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales (Villagrán 1980). As cushion-plant mires and bunchsedge lawns grow in contact with vegetation of swampy and alluvial sites, as well as with woodland vegetation on dryer soils, they form mixed communities with plants of these formations. The aims of this investigation were to describe the vegetation and soils of a cushion-plant mire and its accompanying p1ant formations, including forest-moorland transitions and to explain the vegetation zonation by studying the most important features of its mineral nutrition J 72 ~ \ VEGETATION ZONES.. 1 < Magellanic Moorland _,. ( ~ \.~ --. \ ~ Evergreen forest Deciduous forest ~::f:fl High montane vegetation 1 : Cordillera de San Pedro 2: Piuchué 3: Rancho Grande 4 : Cordillera Pelada 180 Km Fig. 1: Distribution of the Magellanic moorland, the evergreen rainforest and the summergreen broad-leef forest in southern Chile (after Schmit hüsen 1956 and Moore 1983, from Villagrán 1988). Location of the study area on Chiloé. Distribución de las tundras magallánicas, el bosque lluvioso siempreverde y el bosque latifoliado y caducifolio en Chile austral (según Schmithüsen y Moore 1983, de Villagrán 1988). Localización del área de estudio en Chiloé. STUDY AREA The striking constancy of the flora and vegetation of the Magellanic moorland along its wide geographical range must have its origin in a common history (Villagrán 1988) and similar eco1ogica1 conditions prevailing until toda y. Typical examples of this vegetation type are bound to extremely oceanic areas with 2,000 -
3 MOORLAND VEGETATION AND SOILS 463 6,000 mm precipitation evenly distributed during the year. Mean annual temperatures reach 5o to 60C with little difference between the cool summer and the moderately cold winter periods. Its local distribution is restricted to wet, poorly drained plains, with a bed-rock poor in bases and mineral nutrients in general (Holdgate 1961, Pisano 1983, Roig 1984). Magellanic moorland in Chiloé is confined to the uplands (700 m) and the western slopes of the Cordillera de Piuchué. This mountain range represents the southern extension of the Chilean coasta1 range, with a basement of Precambrian and/or paleozoic extremely metamorphic schists (Zeil 1964, Saliot 1969, Watters a. Fleming 1972). These schists consist of quartzitic fie1dspates, penetrated by green schists richer in mineral nutrients. The Cordillera de Piuchué forms a very effective clima tic boundary. Whereas the western slopes are exposed to the offshore winds coming from the Pacific, the eastern slopes are more protected. Although long ranging climatic information is unavailable for this area (Holdgate 1961, Villagrán 1988), estimates of over 3,000 mm per year have been made in the uplands. As these mountains are very often covered by clouds, additional fog deposition can be expected. The precipitation is evenly distributed over the year and during the winter there are occasional snowfalls. During summer (december to february), occasionally longer dry and warm periods may occur. In the area of the moorlands, the mean annual temperature may seldom be above so - 60C. Frosts can occur in the uplands at any time of the year. Periods with night frost and temperatures above zero during the day may happen in combination with short droughts. Due to the geological and climatological conditions, most of the soils of the Cordillera de Piuchué are poor in bases, influenced by standing or seeping water. They have an upper peat layer of varying depth. Therefore podzolic acid anmoor and moor gleys are predominant. In these soiis, humic substances, manganese, iron and perhaps aluminium are mobile and can be transported along the soil profile or leached. An iron-enriched layer was observed frequently on top of the bedrock. Podsolic brown soils are found on better drained slopes (Pérez C., personal communication 1989). The altitudinal vegetation belts reflect clearly the prevailing climate and soil conditions (Villagrán 1985). Due to lower precipitation and higher radiation, the different forest communities reach their upper limits at 50 to 100 m higher levels on the eastern slopes than on the western slopes. The moorland is restricted to the uplands above 600 m and to the western slopes, where they may descend IS0-200m. Following an east-west transection at about 42020'S, grow in contact with forests dominated by Nothofagus nítida, Amomyrtus luma and Drimys winteri, occasionally mixed with Saxegothaea conspicua and Podocarpus nubigena. These forests are restricted to steeper slopes. Small patches of Nothofagus betuloides and N. antarctica are found within the moorland (Fig. 2). In the ecotone between the forest and the open moorland we find shrub formations of Baccharis magellanica, Chusquea uliginosa. The western slopes are cut up by deep valleys. Thus narrow ridged alternate with Fig. 2: Moorland on the Fundo Pichihué on the Cordillera de Piuchué/Chiloé with cushion-plant bogs surrounded by sedge/grass fen and islands of Nothofagus woodland. Turberas en el Fundo Pichihué en la Cordillera de Piuchué/ Chitoé, con formaciones de plantas en cojín rodeadas de turberas dominadas por ciperáceas y gramíneas y grupos aislados de Nothofagus.
4 464 RUTHSATZ & VILLAGRAN less inclined slopes interrupted by broad terraces. Sites with extremely different moisture and temperature regime are found side by side. The cushion-plant formations cover flat areas or slightly inclined terraces (Fig. 3) down to about 450 m. They are frequently surrounded by open forests of Fitzroya cupressoides and Pilgerodendron uviferum. The ecotone is dominated by Tepualia stipularis. This species also occurs in the understory of open conifer forests. Cushion-plant mires always coincide with the poorest drained sites. Fig. 3: Moorland terrace on the western slope of the Cordillera de Piuchué covered with a cushionplant carpet and Schoenus antarcticus bunches. In the foreground a wind-shaped Nothofagus tree. Terraza en la ladera occidental de la Cordillera de Piuchué cubierta de una turbera con un césped de plantas en cojín y macollas de Schoenus antarcticus. En primer plano un árbol de Nothofagus doblado por el viento oeste. Fig. 4: Vegetation transect on the Fundo Pichihué (Cordillera de Piuchué/Chiloé). In the foreground the cushion-plant bog of Donatia, in the middle the depression with Astelia cushions, in the background the Schoenus antarcticus fen and the Nothofagus woodland. Transecta estudiada en el Fundo Pichihué (Cordillera de Piuchué/Chiloé). En primer plano la turbera formada por Donatia, en el centro una depresión con cojines de Astelia, al fondo la formación de Schoenus antarcticus y el bosque de Nothofagus. METHODS A typical sequence from the center of a cushion bog community to the surrounding forest was selected (Fig. 4). Following this 130 m long transect line the vegetation was sampled in 1 x 1 m quadrats, 1-3 m apart. The percent cover of each species was estimated as precisely as possib1e in each quadrat. The nomenclature follows Marticorena & Quezada (1985). The transect was permanent1y marked to repeat this description in the coming future. At five 1ocations a1ong the transect, soi1 profiles were digged down to 40 or 50 cm depth. Soil samples were collected from two 1ayers, 0-10 cm and cm. Big roots were eliminated in the field. Soil samples were air-dried and screened through a sieve with 2 mm-mesh wire. The following chemical analyses were carried out in the laboratory (at University of Trier, Germany): Determination of the total contents of C and N: Element analyzer CHN-0- Rapid (Heraeus). Total contents of P: Extraction with HN0 3, in pressure bombs and colorimetric determination (Wenzel 1956). Total contents of K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Al: Extraction with HN0 3 in pressure bombs and determination with an AAS.
5 MOORLAND VEGETATION AND SOILS 465 Determination of the plant-available amounts of P and K: Extraction with ammonium-lactate-acetic-acid following the method of Egner-Riehm ( Schilchting & Blume 1966). Determination of the exchangeable fractions of the cations ( effective cation exchange capacity = CECeff) by extraction with NH 4 Cl and determination of the elements with an AAS. Calculation of the H-ions following Nair & Prenzel (1978) and Meiwes et al. (1984). RESULTS Vegetation pattern of a typical moorland zonation The moorland occurs on flat lands, broad shallow depressions and slightly inclined slopes. The vegetation of the central cushion-plant bogs (Fig. 5: 1-30 m) is characterized by a dense carpet of Donatia fascicularis, Gaimardia australis and Oreobolus obtusangulus. These species are % cover A: Phanerogams Donatia fascicularis Ga mardia australis Oreobolus obtusangulus Drosera uniflora Tapeinia pumila Euphrasiaantarctica Schizaea fistulosa Acaena pumita Astelia pumila 20 Caltha append1culata 20 Perez a lactucoides ss m
6 466 RUTHSATZ & VlLLAGRAN 20 Mars1ppospermum grandlflorum ll ~la Pernett a oepp1 11(var nana(.11 Senet1o s ec... o/c o e o ver Escallon1a alpma lll Ph1lem magellan1ca.... m to ~2i cover < 1 '11> Hymenophyllum sesellfol1um 1 Carex s ec.. Carex mtcro loch1n.. Gle1chen1a aff htorahs.1.1 Asteranthera ovata Gret ia landbeck11a, 1 Uncm1a s ec. Nothofagus n111da Blechnum ma ellan1cum.. Unctma tenu1s Myoschdos oblonga Amomyrtus luma Dnmvs wmten Luzunagapolyph lla lebetanthus mvrsm1tes % cover 20 lj Rhacomitnum spec l, Rhacomitríum s ec. B Mosses and lichens cover < 1% ,;..... Oicranoloma spec Cladonia ;pec. 1 liverwort. ~ Plagiochila spec. Anthoceros (?) spec liverwort ' Antnoceros spec Sphagnum magellanicum ti Metzgeria spec Drepanocladus s ec... ~. lo hoco ea spec.. 1 liverwort 1 ~hªgnumaff.cus idatum m BO Fig. 5: Vegetation zones of a typical moorland on an upland plateau ofthe Cordillera de Piuchué/Chiloé at about 700 m: 0-28 m= Donatia fascicularis bog, m= Astelia pumila mire, m= Schoenus antarcticusffestuca monticolafcortaderia pilosa fen, m = Bacchan s magellanica/chusquea uliginosa scrub. PartA: Phanerogams, Part B: Mosses and lichens (incomplete species list). Height ofthe columns: % vegetation cover. Sample plots 1 x 1 m. Zonas de vegetación de una turbera típica en una planicie de altura en la Cordillera de Piuchué/Chiloé en alrededor de 700 m: 0-28 m = turbera de Donatia fascicularis, m = turbera de Astelia pumila, m = turbera de Schoenus antarcticus/festuca monticola/cortaderia pilosa, m = matorral de Baccharis magellanica/chusquea uliginosa. Parte A: Fanerógamas, Parte B: Musgos y líquenes (lista incompleta). Altura de las columnas: Cubierta de vegetación en%. Tamaño de las parcelas: 1xl m. accompanied by few dwarf herbs, such as Drosera unij1ora, Tapeinia pumila, Euphrasia antarctica, Schizaea fistulosa, Myrteola nummularia and typical mosses and lichens of the genus Rhacomitrium, Dicranoloma, and Cladonia. Often, Schoenus antarcticus-bunches and occasional stunted Nothofagus antarcticatrees appear at the margins of the Donatiacarpets. The sharp boundary between the moorland dominated by Donatia and that dominated by Astelia pumila (Fig. 5: m) coincides with a narrow depression bordering the Donatia bog. The effect of the minerotrophic seepage water becomes obvious due to the association with swamp plants, such as Caltha appendiculata and Tetroncium magellanicum. The conditions of minerotrophic fen areas are also indicated by the grasses Festuca monticola and Cortaderia pilosa. Astelia is not restricted to sites with permanently seeping ground water. This is proved by the fact that, without Caltha and little coverage of Tetroncium, Astelia
7 MOORLAND VEGETATION ANO SOILS 467 can have high dominance ( 40-50% cover) in the moorland (Fig. 5: m). Beyond the Astelia-carpet the ground starts rising to the base of a steeper s1ope covered with wood1and. Here the lowest field layer is composed by Myrteola nummularia, Tetroncium magellanicum, Gaultheria antarctica and Gunnera /abata. Above them the leaves and shoots of Schoenus antarcticus, Festuca monticola and Cortaderia pilosa emerge up to cm hight (Fig. 5: m). A moss layer of Sphagnum magellanicum covers 30-60% of the soil. Sorne species appear only near the shrub belt. These are Carex magellanica, Carpha alpina var. schoenoides, Pratia repens, Schoenus rhynchosporoides, Carex canescens and a species of Sphagnum (Fig. 5: m). Sorne elements such as Blechnum penna-marina, Chusquea u!iginosa and Baccharis magellanica are common to open scrub and forest margins. The ecotone between open moorland and forest has variable lengths. In the selected transect, this zone is about 15 m wide (Fig. 5: m). Sorne dead trees are standing between the dense shrub layer formed by Baccharis magellanica, Chusquea uliginosa, Escallonia alpina and Philesia magellanica. The herb layer, clear1y indicates the relation to the adyacent forest (Tab1e 1 ). Poorly growing trees of Nothofagus nitida and Amomyrtus luma are a1so presen t. Moorland soi/s The up1ands of Piuchué, with the exception of few rocky outcrops are covered with moor- and anmoor-gleys, in which the water table surfaces 'nearly all year round. The upper peat layer is normally 10 cm deep (Holdgate 1961). The soi1 pro files and the total con ten ts of C and N (Fig. 6), indicate that the soils below the Donatia-, Astelia- and Schoenus-vegetation are moor-gleys, under Baccharis-scrub have the character of an anmoor-gley, and under Nothofagus-forest that of a gley. At the time of sampling, all soils were very moist up to the top layer. Peat 1ayers are moderately to strongly decomposed and the degree of decomposition increases with depth. This agrees with the rising Nt-contents and the decreasing C/N-ratio (Fig. 6). The highest C/Nratio (35) was found in the Astelia-p1ot. TABLE 1 Floristic composition of the forest on the SW -exposed slope at the end of the vegetation transect Composición florística del bosque sobre la ladera suroeste al final de la transecta estudiada Cover of the tree layer Cover of the shrub layer Cover of the field layer (T): 7, (S): 60%, (F): 10%, height: 6-8 m height: 2m height: 0,30 m T: S: 50% 20% % 10% 10% 3% 2% + + Drimys winteri Nothofagus nítida Desfontainia spinosa Pi/gerodendron uviferum Embothrium coccineum Podocarpus nubigena Chusquea quila Gaultheria phyl/yreifo/ia Philesia magellanica Desfontainia spinosa Nothofagus nítida Drimys winteri Blechnum magel/anicum Escallonia alpina F: Gleichenia litoralis Juncus cf. chilensis Uncinia spec. Drimys winteri Desfontainia spinosa Escallonia alpina Baccharis magellanica Luzuriaga poliphylla Greigia landbeckii Philesia magellanica Epiphytes: Philesia magellanica Serpyllopsis caespitosa Hymenophyllum pectinatum Hymenophyllum peltatum liverworths, mosses, lichen
8 468 RUTHSATZ & VILLAGRAN 40 C/N - %, G-10cm cm r ~ i-34-44cm 40 ' r : ' G-50cm ' f.-:- 30. ' 1 ' ' : - 1 ' - ' : ' 20 :, cm ' -- 1 ' ' 1 1 : ' ' ' ' ' : ' r 20-30cm 1 ' '.. ' ' '.'. 1 o ' Do Ast Sch Ba No % 3 2 o Do Ast Sch Ba No o - r - r r-1 r Do Ast Sch Ba No Fig. 6: Total contents of carbon (Ct) and nitrogen (Nt) and C/N ratios in the soil of typical vegetation zones from the moorland transect. C and N in % of dry soil from two soil depths. Do = Donatia bog, Ast = Astelia mire, Sch = Schoenus fen, Ba = Baccharis scrub, No = Nothofagus forest. Contenido total de carbono (Ct) y nitrógeno (Nt) y proporción C/N en el suelo de zonas típicas de la transecta de turberas. C y N en % de suelo seco de dos capas. Do = Donatia, Ast = Astelia, Sch = Schoenus, Ba = Baccharis, No = Nothofagus. The difference with the lower soil layer is here the greatest of all profiles. In addition to moisture, nutrient availability in the rooted soil!ayer is the most important factor influencing the floristic composition of the moorland vegetation. One can separa te the basic nu trien ts, including K, Ca, and Mg, from occasionally mobile toxic elements like Fe, Mn or Al, and mineral P and N otherwise bound in organic compounds. The availability of these elemen ts is modified by the ph, the redox-potential and the presence of other substances which form unsoluble compounds with them In the present investigation the redoxpotential and the availability of mineral N could not be determined in the field because of technical reasons. The effective cation exchange capacity (CECeff, circle-shaped diagrams in Fig. 7 and 8) is always higher in the upper 1 O cm than in the deeper soil layer. The differences between the two layers are larger in the Donatia- and Astelia-plots. The densely rooted top soil has between 4.5 to 2.8 times the CEC of the deeper soil, which is saturated with water all year. Especially striking is the high cation saturation in the upper 1 O cm of the Astelia peat ( 298 meq/kg dry soil). Small differences are not considered, be cause only mixed soil samples without replicates were analyzed. The exchangeable cation contents of the lower soil!ayer indicate a possible influence of underlying mineral soils or seepage water. They are lowest under the Donatiabog (Fig. 7). There was a higher availability of K, Na, Mg and Fe in the lower soil layer of the Astelia plot. Mn can be found in all samples only in traces. The Al values increase from the center of the moorland to its border, reflecting the ex-
9 9 Exchangeable (NH 4 Cl) cations (Pichihué) meq 100g MOORLAND VEGETATION ANO SOILS Al 3 2 Al K Na Fe Mg : ' Mg..! " > ::.: Donatia \ -lo cm -5cm -lo cm -30cm Fig. 7: Contents of cations exchangeable with NH 4 Cl from the lower layer of the soil profiles. Numbers in meq/1 00 g dry soil. The effective cation exchange capacity (CECeff) is presented in circle diagrams. Contenido de cationes intercambiables con NH 4 Cl de la capa inferior de los perfiles de suelo. Valores en meq/100 g de suelo seco. La capacidad efectiva efectiva de intercambio de cationes (CECeff) está representada en diagramas circulares. pected effect of the underground soil and/or groundwater. Free H+ ions have a surprisingly small importance. In the root layer of the soil (0-10 cm), the differences between the sites are greater and more varied (Fig. 8). Again, the inceas-
10 470 RUTHSATZ & VILLAGRAN Mg Exchangeable (NH 4 Cl) cations (Pichihué) Ca Mn Al Mg Al Mg Ca Na K Na Al K Na Ca Fe Fe -lo cm -S cm -lo cm -30cm Fig. 8: Contents of cations exchangeable with NH 4 Cl from the upper layer of the soil proflles. Numbers in meq/1 00 g dry soil. The effective exchange capacity (CECeff) is presented in circle diagrams. Contenido de cationes intercambiables con NH 4 Cl de la capa superior de los perfiles de suelo. Valores en meq/100 g de suelo seco. La capacidad efectiva de intercambio de cationes (CECeff) está representada en diagramas circulares.
11 MOORLAND VEGETATION AND SOILS 471 ing content of exchangeable Al represents the growing influence of the mineral soil from the center to the margin of the moorland. A similar trend occurs for Fe, which is present only in traces in the Donatia bog. Exchangeable amounts of Mn in the upper peat layer of the Astelia plot are very high ( 6 meq/ 1 00 g dry soil). The supply of exchangeable Mg is relatively good in all plots, except in the Baccharis scrub. In the Donatia and the Astelia stands, the content of Mg is higher than meq/ 100 g dry soil. The Astelia mire seems to have a better supply of Ca too than all the other sites. The portion of K and N a of the total CEC is lower than 1 meq/ 1 00 g dry soil with the exception of the Astelia and the Schoenus plot. The plant-available amounts of potasium and phosphorus were also analyzed (Fig. 9). The availability of K is highest under the Astelia carpet, still relatively good in the upper peat layer of the Schoenus fen, but much lower in the other moorland sites. The plant-available concentrations of P are very low in all soil samples analyzed (Fig. 10). Among them, the cushion-plant peat soils have the highest values. In all the other plots the concentrations of P are lower than 3 mg/ 100 g dry soil. A general view of the nutrient supply of a site can be obtained on the basis of the total contents of the mineral plant nutrients in the soil. In the lower soil layer (20-50 cm), the total contents of potasium and magnesium increased from the center to the border of the moorland (Table 2). This is due to the growing influence of the mineral soil and seepage water penetrating the peat soils. Al contents of the peat under the cushion-plant vegetation was 2-3 times KAI mg/100g Kt mg/100g o Do Ast Sch Ba No Do Ast Sch Ba No Do Ast Sch Ba No Fig. 9: Plant-available (extractable with NH 4 -lactate-acetic-acid) potasium (KA ) and total contents of potasium (Kt) in the soils of typical moorland zones from the vegetation transect studied. Explanations see Fig. 6. Contenido disponible para las plantas (intercambiable con lactato de NH 4 en ácido acético) de potasio (KA ) y su contenido total (Kt) en los suelos de las zonas típicas de la transecta estudiada. Símbolos: vea Fig. 6.
12 472 RUTHSATZ & VILLAGRAN r- C/P 300 r- loo P 1 mg/100g PAI mg/100g r- r o ~ ) ~ o :1 r o o Ir: flr. o o Do Ast Sch Ba No Do Ast Sc:h Ba No Do Ast Sch Ba No Do Ast Sch éa No Fig. 10: Plant-available ( extractable with NH 4 -lactate-acetic-acid) phosphorus (P Al) and total contents of phosphorus (Pt) in the soils of typical moorland zones from the vegetation transect studied. Explanations s. Fig. 6. Contenido disponible para las plantas (intercambiable con lactato de NH 4 en ácido acético) de fósforo (P Al) y su contenido total (Pt) en los suelos de las zonas típicas de la transecta estudiada. Símbolos: vea Fig. 6. r- 500 r-;: lower than below the Baccharis scrub and the Nothofagus forest. The Schoenus fen, on the other hand, shows Al amounts of about 1.5 g/kg dry soil and has therefore the lowest Al concentration of all soils analyzed. Total iron concentrations in the lower soil layer range from 6 gfkg dry soil below the Schoenus fen to 90 g/kg dry soil underneath the Aste/ia cushions. Studies of Damman ( 1978) show that sorne mineral elements are leached and concentrated in the layer affected by the regular changes of the water table. To these elements belong Fe, Al and Mn. Na and Ca show similar trends. Their totals range from 0.2 to 0.8 gfkg dry soil and increase slightly from the center to the border of the moorland. Total Na and Ca in the lower soillayer of the Nothofagus forest are similar to the concentrations in the cushion-plant area. As the mineral soil has a higher bulk density, the content of an equal volume of soil should be higher in the mineral- than in the moorgley. The total amount of bases and acidforming cations in the rooted soil!ayer ( 0-1 O cm) reflects only partially the variation of its exchangeable fraction (Table 2). Al, and less markedly K, increased in the direction to the woodland. Fe concentrations are the highest below the Schoenusfen in the center of the transect. The mobile portions of Ca and Mn reflect their total contents in the soil. In the upper 1 O cm peat soil, below the Astelia cushions, both are more concentrated than below the adjacent Donatia bog or Schoenus fen. Below the Baccharis scrub
13 MOORLAND VEGETATION AND SOILS 473 TABLE 2 Total contents and plant-available ( extractable with NH 4 Cl) amounts of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Al as well as the effective cation exchange capacity (CECeff) of the soil pro files from typical moorland zones of the vegetation transect studied. Numbers in mg/kg dry soil Contenido total y disponible para las plantas (intercambiable con NH4Cl) de K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn y Al seguido por la capacidad de intercambio de cationes (CECeff) de los perfiles de suelo en las zonas típicas de la transecta estudiada de turberas. Valores en mgfkg suelo seco Soil Dona tia Astelia character bog mire cm depth cm Kt 514 1, t Nat o t Cat 1,066 4,895 a Mgt 1,526 1, mg/kg Fet 671 4,411 10,442 96,379 Mnt 24 2, Alt 939 1,336 9,949 9,191 e K X e Na h a Ca 317 1,249 n g Mg 1,322 1,372 e a Fe b Mn 7 1,596 e NH4Cl Al mg/kg H meqfkg CECeff ph (KCl) Schoenus Baccharis Nothofagus fen scrub woodland ,058 4,013 4,501 1,318 4,495 4, ,612 1, ,574 1,338 38,408 21,330 8,087 5,821 14,541 7, ,646 25,855 20,186 14,668 25,412 21, loo and the Nothofagus forest, both elements have much lower total concentrations than below the Astelia carpet (Table 2). The proportion of the exchangeable ions to their total contents is normally higher in peat than in mineral soils and in the upper than in the lower soil layers (Table 3). An exception again was the Astelia peat where values were the highest for all elements. For sorne of them (K, Na, Ca, Mn) there were no differences between the upper and the lower soil layer. Whereas the exchangeable portions of K and Mg in the mineral soil are quite low, because of their high total contents, the relative availability of Fe and Al was lowest in the peat soils. To compare the total and plant-available K one can use the values for the fraction exchangeable with ammonium-lactate (Fig. 9). The result is the same: The mobile
14 474 RUTHSATZ & VILLAGRAN TABLE 3 Relation between total and exchangeable (en NH 4 Cl) amounts of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Al in the soil profiles from typical moorland zones of the vegetation transect studied Proporción entre el contenido total y el intercambiable con NH3Cl de K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Al en Jos suelos de las zonas típicas de la transecta estudiada de turberas Soil Dona tia Astelia character bog mire cm depth cm KtK/K NatfNa l. O CatfCa MgtfMg FetfFe Mnt/Mn AltfAJ Schoenus Baccharis Nothofagus fen scrub woodland fractions in the soil are 40 to more than 100 times smaller in the mineral soils. Because phosphorus is a critical factor in mire ecosystems, it was analized in all soils (Fig. lo). Its total content is highest where its available fraction is lowest. Values are lowest in the upper soil layer of the Schoenus fen, and highest in the cushion bogs and the Nothofagus forest. In the lower peat layer of the Donatia and Astelia mires P is hardly mobile. This is clearly shown by the Pt/P Al ratios (Fig. l 0). They are related to the Fe fraction of the same soil layers. High Fe concentrations, as found in the upper layer of the Schoenus-fen and the lower layer of the Donatia and Astelia peat, may fix the generally low contents of P when Felllhydroxy-ions are present. In a reducing environment Fe is present as Fell, which cannot combine with P in the same way. The small mineralization rate of P in the peat soils can be deduced also from the extremly large C/P ratios (Fig. 10). C/P ratios decreased from the center to the margin of the moorland, at the same time that P-mineralization rate increased. DISCUSSION The effect of mineral nutrition on vegetation pattern It is difficult to draw definitive conclusions about the effects of the nutrient supply on the moorland zonation on the Cordillera de Piuchué. Sorne suggestions discussed here, are based additionally, on yet unpublished studies of other two transects. It can be proposed that the Al, Fe and Mn in the soils have their origin in the weathering processes of the underlying schits. The contents of K, Ca and Mg may be enriched by deposition of salt spray coming from the Pacific coast to the west. Because Na is relatively mobile it should be leached quickly under high precipitation. Similar leaching processes are likely for the other bases, where the vegetation
15 MOORLAND VEGETATION AND SOILS 475 cannot retain them effectively. The input of oceanic salts should increase from the center to the border of the moorland, as the roughness of the surface increases, and therefore the retention of particles and aerosols from clouds and fog in the forested slopes raises as well. Nearly all mineral nutrients should be fairly mobile because the soils are continuously wet and have reducing conditions associated with extremely low ph-values. The high annual precipitation ( over 3,000 mm) should enhance all leaching processes, even on slightly inclined slopes. The area chosen for the present investigations has small, but important topographic differences. The Astelia carpet covers the lowest point of the transect. The area rises slightly to both sides. The gradient is more pronounced in the direction of the Donatia bog than to the opposite side, where the moor ends at the base of a steeper slope covered by Nothofagus forest. There are underground water pathways leading from the Donatia bog and from the mountain slope to the depression covered by the Astelia carpet. On the other hand, there is a slight southwest slope and the depression is drained in this direction by a small stream. Probably, both the Schoenus fen and especially the Astelia mire receive additional water with dissolved mineral compounds from the small drainage basin. Thus the Astelia community should receive more water with dissolved minerals than all the other moorland types, especially when snow melts or during heavy rains. The Nothofagus forest grows on a steep slope. It might receive a somewhat higher precipitation than the open moorland. The water draining from this slope passes through the Baccharis scrub and eventually reaches slowly the Schoenus fen. In this contact zone, we find plants such as Carex magellanica, Carpha alpina, Carex canescens, Pratia repens, which are absent from the rest of the transect. The soil is wetter here than in the Schoenus fen zone. Carex magellanica and Carex canescens occur also in the northern hemisphere. In Europe they indicate transitional sites between raised bogs and fen vegetation. They are frequent also in the margin of raised bogs, where drainage water from the contiguous slopes accuniulates. This may be true to sorne extent for the transect studied. Because nutrient concentrations are given per soil weight, they can only be used for comparisons within the group of the peat soils (Donatia, Astelia, Schoenus formation) or within the more mineral soils (Baccharis scrub, Nothofagus forest). The development of Astelia cushions will be favored by continuous flow of water bringing a steady mineral supply. Whereas Fe and Al will be highly immobilized. Ca, Mg and Mn are bound in a reversible form to the soil surface and remain available for the plants. K and Na seem to be either available in small quantities (K) or easily leachable (Na). The Astelia formation occupies the site with the best nutrient supply of all the vegetation types investigated. This may be reflected in the rapid growth of Astelia cushions and the fact that small Nothofagus antarctica trees are found there. Compared to Astelia cushions, the Donatia bog is lower in K and Ca, but has similar amounts of Mg. In the lower peat layer of the Donatia bog contents of all nutrients are lower than below the Astelia cushions. The low exchangeable rates of Fe, Mn and Al are striking and relevant for the vegetation pattern. The concentrations are too low to produce toxic effects. Rather, plants growing here should be adapted to survive on sites with a poor provision of these elements. Their low availability contrasts with the high total concentration of the immobile fractions of Fe and Al. However dryed soil samples may have caused irreversible changes in the exchange conditions of the peat. Schoenus fen has a lower Mg supply than the Donatia bog. Exchangeable Fe and Al are often higher than in the soils of the cushion-plant formations. This may be related to the permanently high water table and the continuous influence of seepage water from the bordering mineral soils. The Schoenus community has several characteristics of a poor sedge lawn in northern Europe.
16 476 RUTHSATZ & VILLAGRAN A similar analysis of the availability of nutrients (Na, K, Ca, Mg) in the upper peat layer (5-15 cm depth) of analogous plant formations was performed by Smith (1981) in a moorland of South Georgia. The ph-values of the comparable Cyperaceae-moorland ranged from 4.0 to 4.8 and were related to the stagnant or seeping ground water regime. The humus content was much lower (Ct: l-3%) than in the moorland of Chiloé. Na and K concentrations (soluble in NH 4 Cl-extracts) of the upper soil layer were in the same range as in the cushion bogs and sedge lawns on the Cordillera de Piuchué. The availability of Ca was 1 O times higher in the moorland of South Georgia. The lower limit of these values compare to the Caavailability in the upper peat of the Astelia plot. The Mg supply, in contrast, seems to be higher in Chiloé. The Baccharis scrub resembles the Nothofagus forest in its mineral nutrition. With the exception of Mg, val u es are higher than in the open moorland. The supply of bases should be even higher because plant roots may reach the mineral soil. The total moorland complex probably, suffers from P deficiency, which is most pronounced at the Schoenus site. Combining field observations with the results of the chemical analysis of soils we suggest that the vegetation responds to the different nutrient conditions and that the vegetation pattern of the moorland reflects differences in topography and drainage. Only the Donatia community occurs under similar conditions to raised bogs in Europe or N orth America and might be called a Dona tia "bog", be cause of its extremely poor mineral supply. All other formations show more correspondence with sites of "fen" vegetation and poor moist woodland ("Bruchwald"). Transition be tween woodland and open moorland The Magellanic moorland grows in contact with evergreen subantarctic woodlands throuhout its geographical range in southern Chile. To understand its particular characteristics, one should look for the reasons why trees cannot colonize the moorland. In addition to natural causes, anthropogenic factors may play a role in explaining the transition between woodland and moorland. The natural growth and strength of the trees could be impaired by water saturating the root soil layers and by the depression of leaf temperatures due to wind exposure (Fig. 3). The water saturation of soil has complex effects on the availability of nutrients and toxic elements, and the ability of the roots to uptake nutrients. The deficient supply of oxygen in water logged soils inhibits all root activities. The common appearance of stunted trees showing branching in an eastern direction on the Cordillera de Piuchué is caused by the predominant westerly winds. The effect of wind is reinforced by the transport of ice needles in winter or salt spray from the ocean. These effects are especially visible in the Fitzroya trees, which domínate on the upper western slopes. Isolated individuals of Nothofagus betuloides and N. nitida growing on the open moorland are also affected by wind (Fig. 3). In the last decades, human use of the vegetation of the mountain range of Chiloé has increased. Fitzroya trees have been debarked to use the bark for sealing wooden boats and ships. The loss of its bark may weaken and eventually kili the trees. The thick layer of epiphytes may also protect the tree against frost and drought or even fire. The dense cover of epiphytes around its trunks is formed by mosses interlaced with lianas (Philesia magellanica) and the rhizomes of ferns (Hymenophyllum spp.). This thick moss cover may serve as filter for precipitation inputs in this forest ecosystem. The loss of the epiphytes alters the storage of nutrients to prevent leaching in the soil compartment. When shrubs or trees are weakened or decay, moorland plants can replace them. These species possess several characters which favor their growth on wet and nutrient poor sites. It was observed that in various places moorland species like Schoe-
17 MOORLAND VEGETATION AND SOILS 477 nus antarcticus, Oreobolus obtusangulus, Astelia pumila and Donatia fascicularis invade forest sites disturbed by fire severa! years befare (Fig. 11). Astelia can cover rapidly fallen trunks and the base of standing dead trees. The understory of poorly growing, relatively open woodlands of Fitzroya, Pilgerodendron and Nothofagus nitida are sometimes colonized by moorland species. lf moorland plants succeed in forming a continuous carpet, the establishment of tree seedlings may be seriously impaired. The extreme microclimate of the open moorland may be an additional complication for tree growth. The Donatia bog may dry up during dry summers. In winter, frost can penetrate the upper peat layer. Periods with frost during the nights and high temperatures during the day can produce frostheaving and destruction of the closed cushion plant carpet. Small holes or depressions can be formed and filled with rain water. On slopes, moorland terraces have evolved due to solifluction movements. Similar observations have been made by Roig et al. ( 1985) in Patagonia. Longer-term climatic changes may control the local distribution pattern of the woodland and moorland, especially changes in the precipitation regime. lncreasing rainfall, shortened dry periods and reduced radiation would favor the extension of Fig. 11: Cushion-plant moorland on the western slope of the Cordillera de Piuchué/Chiloé at about 600 m, surrounded by Fitzroya-Nothofagus woodland damaged by firc. Turbera de plantas en cojín en la ladera occidental de la Cordillera de Piuchué/Chiloé en alrededor de 600 m, rodeado de un bosque de Fitzroya y Nothofagus destruido por fuego. the moorland and viceversa. Decreasing temperatures in combination with more continental climate could perhaps damage the cushion plants, because of the frost. In this case the continuously wet sedge fen areas would be less damaged, because they will hardly freeze to a great depth. Considerations about succession The present pattern of the open moorland on the Cordillera de Piuchué seems to be in agreement with the present ecological conditions. Only in areas where the forest has been disturbed or roads have been built, successional processes are taking place. The differences in the water and nutrient relations are sufficient to explain the variation in the vegetation pattern. Results of the pollen analysis for this area (Villagrán 1988, 1991) show at 80 to l 00 cm depth high portions of Astelia and Donatia pollen as well as of other moorland species. A t the beginning of the pro file Astelia shows a peak followed by a Donatia peak. After, Gaimardia has a low but constant amount of pollen. It is possible that this pattern represents a successional sequence associated with increasing precipitation. Greater portions of Astelia pollen appear only in the lowest layer of the peat core indicating the initial stages of an open moorland. This species is present in the profile until today, but with small values. Pollen of Donatia disappears several times from the peat samples, but increases in the uppermost centimeter. These changes can be a consequence of recent human destruction of the forests. Similar results have been discussed by Godley & Moar (1973) based on a peat core from the Cordillera de San Pedro in Chiloé. In their sample core, pollen of Tapeinia increases in the upper peat layer. In both cases a Nothofagus forest is present in the surroundings of the bog and determines the pollen composition of the peat in a decisive way. Schoenus antarcticus is more frequent on the s1opes surrounding the Donatia bog than in the central area. Schoenus could decrease when the precipitation is increasing. Lough et al. ( 1987) have describ-
18 478 RUTHSATZ & VILLAGRAN ed a similar situation in the mountains of New Zealand, where sedges compete with cushion-plants. The very humid si tes of the Schoenus fen are influenced by additional seepage water and maintain less peat. In these places, an extense carpet of Sphagnum magellanicum covers the ground. In Europe this species grows predominantly on ombrotrophic bogs. In Chiloé and other parts of southern Chile (Pisano 1977) Sphagnum seems to be less tolerant of extremely poor mineral nutrition. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank all the Chilean and German helpers who made this work possible. Our special gratitude to Cecilia Pérez who helped with the field work, Dorothea Kehl who did the chemical analysis and an anonymous referee for his critica! and constructive remarks on the manuscript. This investigation was supported by FONDECYT, Grant LITERATURE CITED DAMMAN AWH (1978) Distribution and movement of elements in ombrotrophic peat bogs. Oikos 30: DOLLENZ AO (1980) Estudios, fitosociológicos en el archipiélago Cabo de Hornos. Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia, Chile 11: DUSEN P (1903) The vegetation of Western Patagonia. Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia ( ) 8 (Botany) GODLEY EJ (1960) The botan~of southern Chile in relation to New Zealal)tf and the Subantarctic. Proceedings of the Royál Society of London 152: GODLEY EJ (1978) Cúshion bogs. In: TROLL C & LAUER W (eds:) Erdwissenschatliche Forschungen 11: 141-1,58. GODLEY EJ & NT MOAR (1973) Vegetation and pollen analysis of two bogs on Chiloé. New Zealand Journal of Botany 11: HODGATE MW (1961) Vegetation and soils in the south Chilean islands. Journal of Ecology 49: LOOSER G (1952) Donatia fascicularis en la Cordillera de Nahuelbuta. Revista Universitaria (Universidad Católica de Chile) 37: 7-9. LOUGH TJ, JB WILSON, AF MARK & AC EVANS (1987) Succession in a New Zealand alpine cushion community: A Markovian model. Vegeta tío 71: MEIWES KJ, N KONIG, PK KHANA, G PRENZEL & B ULRICH (1984) Chemische Untersuchungsverfahren für Mineralboden, Auflagehumus und Wurzeln zur Charakterisierung und Bewertung der Versauerung von Waldboden. Ber. Forschungszentr. Waldokosysteme/Waldsterben (Gottingen) 7: MARTICORENA C & M QUEZADA (1985) Catálogo de la flora vascular de Chile. Gayana (Botánica) 42: MOORE DM (1979) Southern oceanic wet-heathland (including magellanic moorland). In Specht RL (ed,) Ecosystems of the World 9A: Amsterdam, Oxford, New York. MOORE DM (1983) Flora of Tierra del Fuego. Missouri Botanical Garden, Nelson/England. PISANO E (1977) Fitogeografía de Fuego Patagonia Chilena, l. Comunidades vegetales entre las latitudes 52 y 560Sur. Anales del Instituto de la Patagenia, Chile 8: PISANO E (1983) The Magellanic tundra complex. In: Ecosystems of the world 4B: Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, RAMIREZ C (1968) Die Vegetation der Moore der Cordillera Pelada (Chile). Berichte Oberhessischen Gesellschaft für Natur und Heilkunde, Naturwissenschaftliche Abteilung 36: ROIG FA (1984) La tundra argentina-chilena entre los paralelos la t. sur. Anales del Instituto Argentino de Nivología y G!aciología 6: ROIG FA, O DOLLENZ & E MENDEZ (1985) La vegetación en los Canales. En: Boelke O, DM Moore & FA Roig (eds.) Transecta Botánica de la Patagonia Austral: CONICET de la República Argentina, Buenos Aires. SALIOT P (1969) Etude géologique dans l'fle de Chiioé (Chili). Buletin Societé Géologique de France 7 (11): SCHLICHTING E & HP BLUME (1966) Bodenkundliches Praktikum. Hamburg, Berlin. SCHMITHUSEN J (1958) Die riiumliche Ordnung der chilenischen Vegetation. Forschungen in Chile. Bonner Geographische Abhandlungen 17: SKOTTSBERG C (1916) Botanische Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Expedition nach Patagonien und dem Feuerlande V. Die Vegetationsverhiiltnisse liings der Cordillera de los Andes S. von 41 S. Br. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlinger 56, N 5: SMITH RJL (1981) Types of peat and peat-forming vegetation on South Georgia. British Antarctic. Survey Bulletin 53: VILLAGRAN C (1980) Vegetationsgeschichtliche und pf!anzensoziologische Untersuchungen im Vicente Pérez Rosales Nationalpark (Chile). Dissertationes Botanicae 54. Cramer, Vaduz. VILLAGRAN C (1985) Análisis palinológico de los cambios vegetacionales durante el Tardiglacial y Postglacial en Chiloé (Chile). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 58 : VILLAGRAN C (1988) Expansion of Magellanic Moorland during the late Pleistocene: Palynological evidence from northern Isla de Chiloé, Chile. Quaternary Research 29: VILLAGRAN C (1991) Desarrollo de tundras Magallánicas durante la transición glacial-postglacial en la Cordillera de la Costa de Chile, Chiloé: Evidencias de un evento equivalente al "younger Dryas"? Bamberger Geographische Schriften 11: WATTERS WA & CA FLEMING (1972) Contributions to the geology and paleontology of Chiloé Island, Southern Chile. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London 263 (B): WENZEL W (1956) Aufschluss des Bodens mit Salpetersiiure und Uberchlorsiiure zur Bestimmung der Gesamtphosphorsiiure im Boden unter Verwendung der Vanadat-Molytdat-Methode. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenerniihrung, Düngung und Bodenkunde 75: ZEIL W (1964) Geologie von Chile. Berlín.
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Planting and Tree Care for Roxborough Park Keith Worley, Forester ISA Certified Arborist Where We Live: High elevation at the edge of Mountains and Plains. Harsh climates with: High winds. Drought periods
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Biomes An Overview of Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environments. Ecology can be divided into four increasingly comprehensive levels: Organismal
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Name Date Hour Directions: You are to complete the table by using your environmental text book and the example given here. You want to locate all the abiotic (non-living) and biotic (living) factors in
Air Masses and Fronts Air Masses The weather of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains is dominated by large masses of air that travel south from the wide expanses of land in Canada, and north from
Chapter 2 Plants need at least seventeen elements to grow. Three of these elements carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen are referred to as "building blocks." Plants get these elements from air and water. The other
Wildfire Damage Assessment for the 2011 Southeast Complex Fires Chip Bates & Mark McClure, Forest Health Management Background: On March 24, 2011, multiple wildfires began across southeast Georgia. Strong,
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Higher Geography Biosphere Vegetation Succession: Sand Dunes A PowerPoint resource to accompany the posters available at: http://www.macaulay.ac.uk/soilposters/education_vegetation_6v2.pdf http://www.macaulay.ac.uk/soilposters/education_vegetation_7v2.pdf
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They are beautiful in their peace, They are wise in their silence. They will stand after we are dust. They teach us, and we tend them. G.A. MacDunelmor BASIC GROWING REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR Oak Trees The
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Habitat Comparison at the Garden Several types of habitats are represented at the Atlanta Botanical Garden: tropical rainforest, desert, temperate deciduous forest and wetlands. During this activity students
THE CURIOUS CASE OF THE PLIOCENE CLIMATE Chris Brierley, Alexey Fedorov and Zhonghui Lui Outline Introduce the warm early Pliocene Recent Discoveries in the Tropics Reconstructing the early Pliocene SSTs
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Environmentally Significant Areas of Alberta Volume 3 Prepared by: Calgary, AB for: Resource Data Division Alberta Environmental Protection Edmonton, Alberta March 1997 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Large portions
Chapter 15 Quiz Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Figure 15-1 1. Use Figure 15-1. A daily measurement of toxic emissions in Maine measures 0.070
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Name: Date: Day/Period: CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate Chapter 12 in the Making Connections textbook deals with Climate Connections. Use pages 127-144 to fill
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Name: PLSOIL 105 & 106 First Hour Exam February 27, 2012 Part A. Place answers on bubble sheet. 2 pts. each. 1. A soil with 15% clay and 20% sand would belong to what textural class? A. Clay C. Loamy sand
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Soil quality testing Soil Core A soil core is useful when conducting the following tests for soil quality. It allows you to see and test soil properties that you otherwise would not have access to. You
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Tim Deboodt, OSU Crook County Extension Agent 498 SE Lynn Blvd. Prineville, OR 97754 541-447-6228 Tim.firstname.lastname@example.org Increasing water availability through juniper control. Throughout the region
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CLIMATE, WATER & LIVING PATTERNS NAME THE SIX MAJOR CLIMATE REGIONS DESCRIBE EACH CLIMATE REGION TELL THE FIVE FACTORS THAT AFFECT CLIMATE EXPLAIN HOW THOSE FACTORS AFFECT CLIMATE DESCRIBE HOW CLIMATES