BD Modified CNA Agar BD Modified CNA Agar with Crystal Violet

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "BD Modified CNA Agar BD Modified CNA Agar with Crystal Violet"

Transcription

1 INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE READY-TO-USE PLATED MEDIA PA Rev.: June 2003 BD Modified CNA Agar BD Modified CNA Agar with Crystal Violet INTENDED USE BD Modified CNA Agar is a selective medium for the isolation of Gram positive bacteria from clinical specimens. BD Modified CNA Agar with Crystal Violet is used for the isolation of streptococci and enterococci and inhibits staphylococci and Gram negative bacteria. PRINCIPLES AND EXPLANATION OF THE PROCEDURE Microbiological method. The nutritional composition of Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA) has made it a popular medium, both unsupplemented and as a base for media containing blood. 1 Trypticase Soy Agar II (TSA II) is an improved version, containing growth factors to provide clearer hemolytic zones than Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA) when supplemented with 5% sheep blood. It provides excellent growth and of beta hemolytic streptococci and other organisms. Ellner and colleagues found that a medium containing colistin and nalidixic acid in a Columbia agar base enriched with 5% sheep blood would support the growth of staphylococci, hemolytic streptococci and enterococci while inhibiting the growth of Proteus, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas species. 2 Columbia Agar base has a relatively high carbohydrate content and, therefore, beta-hemolytic streptococci may produce a greenish hemolytic reaction that may be mistaken for alpha. Trypticase Soy Agar II gives clearer hemolytic reactions but usually smaller colonies. In BD Modified CNA Agar and in BD Modified CNA Agar with Crystal Violet, Trypticase Soy Agar II is the base medium which provides nutrients and is supplemented with colistin and nalidixic acid to provide selectivity for Gram positive bacteria. Sheep blood and additional calf serum enhance the growth and allow the detection of hemolytic reactions. In addition to these ingredients, BD Modified CNA Agar with Crystal Violet contains crystal violet which is an efficient inhibitor of staphylococci. Thus, this medium is used for the isolation of streptococci and enterococci which are not inhibited by this dye. REAGENTS Formulas* Per Liter Purified Water BD Modified CNA Agar Pancreatic Digest of Casein 14.5 g Papaic Digest of Soybean Meal 5.0 Sodium Chloride 5.0 Agar 14.0 Growth Factors 1.5 Colistin 0.01 Nalidixic Acid 0.01 Calf Serum 50.0 ml Sheep Blood, defibrinated 5% ph 7.3 +/- 0.2 BD Modified CNA Agar with Crystal Violet, in addition to the ingredients listed above, contains 2 mg of crystal violet per liter of medium. *Adjusted and/or supplemented as required to meet performance criteria. PRECAUTIONS. For professional use only. Do not use plates if they show evidence of microbial contamination, discoloration, drying, cracking or other signs of deterioration. PA

2 Consult GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE document for aseptic handling procedures, biohazards, and disposal of used product. STORAGE AND SHELF LIFE On receipt, store plates in the dark at 2 to 8 C, in their original sleeve wrapping until just prior to use. Avoid freezing and overheating. The plates may be inoculated up to the expiration date (see package label) and incubated for the recommended incubation times. Plates from opened stacks of 10 plates can be used for one week when stored in a clean area at 2 to 8 C. USER QUALITY CONTROL Inoculate representative samples with the following strains (for details, see GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE document). Incubate at 35 ± 2 C for 18 to 24 hours, preferably in an aerobic atmosphere enriched with carbon dioxide. Strains BD Modified CNA Agar BD Modified CNA Agar with Crystal Violet Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 6305 greenish-grey colonies; Growth fair to excellent; greyish-greenish colonies; Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC Staphylococcus aureus ATCC Enterococcus faecalis ATCC alpha small whitish colonies with beta medium-sized white to yellow colonies with or without beta whitish colonies with greyish zone; no alpha small blue-grey colonies; beta Inhibition complete Growth fair to excellent; small bluish colonies; no Proteus mirabilis ATCC Inhibition partial to complete; no swarming Inhibition partial to complete; no swarming Uninoculated Red (blood color) Red (blood color), bluish hue PROCEDURE Materials Provided BD Modified CNA Agar or BD Modified CNA Agar with Crystal Violet, both provided in 90 mm Stacker plates. Microbiologically controlled. Materials Not Provided Ancillary culture media, reagents and laboratory equipment as required. Specimen Types BD Modified CNA Agar is a selective medium for many Gram positive bacteria in aerobic bacteriology and can be used for all types of bacteriological specimens. BD Modified CNA Agar with Crystal Violet is a selective medium for streptococci and enterococci, and is inhibitory to staphylococci. It is mainly used for the detection of streptococci in specimens from body sites where these organisms play a major role as infectious agents, e.g., for the detection of Group A streptococci (=Streptococcus pyogenes) in specimens from the upper respiratory tract, but it may also be used for the detection of these and other streptococci and enterococci from other clinical specimens. For additional information on these media, see PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE PROCEDURE. PA

3 Test Procedure Streak the specimen as soon as possible after it is received in the laboratory onto BD Modified CNA Agar or BD Modified CNA Agar with Crystal Violet. The streak plate is used primarily to isolate pure cultures from specimens containing mixed flora. Alternatively, if material is being cultured directly from a swab, roll the swab over a small area of the surface at the edge; then streak from this inoculated area. In order to provide detection of all pathogens contained in the specimen, BD Columbia Agar with 5% Sheep Blood and, depending on the type of specimen, additional selective media must be included. 3,4 Since many pathogens require carbon dioxide on primary isolation, plates should be incubated in an aerobic atmosphere containing approximately 3 to 10% CO 2. Incubate plates at C for 18 to 24 hours or longer, if necessary. Results Typical colonial morphology on BD Modified CNA Agar is as follows: Streptococci (non-group D) Small, white to grayish. May be hemolytic, depending on the species Enterococci (Group D) Small to medium-sized, but larger than group A streptococci; gray Staphylococci Medium-sized, white to gray or cream to yellow. May be hemolytic, depending on the species Micrococci Large, white to gray or yellow to orange Corynebacteria Small to large, white to gray or yellow Candida spp. Small, white Listeria monocytogenes Small, gray, with weak beta Gram-negative bacteria Partial to complete inhibition On BD Modified CNA Agar with Crystal Violet, staphylococci and Gram negative bacteria will be partially to completely inhibited, while streptococci and enterococci will produce the same growth reactions as on BD Modified CNA Agar. However, there is a tendency that the colonies take on a bluish coloration due to accumulation of the crystal violet. Other Gram positive bacteria may or may not grow, depending on their sensitivity to the inhibitors. For details on the interpretation of growth on primary isolation plates, consult the references. 4-7 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE PROCEDURE BD Modified CNA Agar is used for the isolation of Gram positive bacteria, e.g., streptococci, staphylococci, coryneforms, Listeria spp and others. 2 BD Modified CNA Agar with Crystal Violet is used for the isolation of streptococci and enterococci. Staphylococci are inhibited on this medium. Other Gram positive bacteria may or may not grow on the medium, depending on the species and their sensitivity to the inhibitors. Most Gram negative bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae are inhibited on these media. Performance Results In an internal evaluation, strains of the following species were tested for growth and hemolytic reactions on these media. BD Columbia CNA Agar with 5% Sheep Blood was used as a growth reference. Plates were incubated at 35 to 37 C for 20 hours in an aerobic atmosphere enriched with CO 2. Results are shown in Table 1. Limitations of the Procedure Although they are Gram positive bacteria, aerobic sporeformers (Bacillus spp. and related genera) may be inhibited on these media. These media are not inhibitory to fungi. The number and types of bacterial species occurring as infectious agents is very large. Therefore, before the media are routinely used for rarely isolated or newly described microorganisms, their suitability must first be tested by the user by cultivating pure cultures of the organism in question. PA

4 Although certain diagnostic tests may be performed directly on these media, biochemical and, if indicated, immunological testing using pure cultures is necessary for complete identification. Table 1: Performance Results Species BD Modified CNA Agar BD Modified CNA Agar with Crystal Violet Growth, alpha Growth, weak alpha BD Columbia CNA Agar with 5% Sheep Blood Growth, alpha Streptococcus pyogenes Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus pneumoniae Growth, alpha Streptococcus sanguis Growth, weak alpha Enterococcus faecalis Growth Growth Growth Staphylococcus aureus No growth Staphylococcus epidermidis Growth No growth Growth Listeria monocytogenes Growth, weak beta No growth Escherichia coli No growth No growth No growth Proteus mirabilis Very weak growth, Very weak growth, swarming inhibited swarming inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa No growth No growth No growth Growth, weak alpha Growth, very weak beta Very weak growth, swarming inhibited REFERENCES 1. Vera, H.D., and D.A. Power Culture media, p In: E.H. Lennette, A. Balows, W.J. Hausler, Jr., and J.P. Truant (ed.), Manual of clinical microbiology, 3rd ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C. 2. Ellner, P.D., C.J. Stoessel, E. Drakeford, and F. Vasi A new culture medium for medical bacteriology. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 45: Forbes, B.A. and P.A. Granato Processing specimens for bacteria. In: Murray, P. R., E. J. Baron, M. A. Pfaller, F. C. Tenover, and R. H. Yolken (ed.). Manual of clinical microbiology, 6th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C. 4. Baron, E. J, L. R. Peterson, and S. M. Finegold Bailey & Scott s diagnostic microbiology, 9th ed., p Mosby-Year Book, Inc. St. Louis, MO. 5. Isenberg, H. D. (ed.) Interpretation of aerobic bacterial growth on primary culture media, Clinical microbiology procedures handbook, vol.1, p American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C. 6. Ruoff, K. L., R.A. Whiley, and D. Beighton Streptococcus. In: Murray, P. R., E. J. Baron, J.H. Jorgensen, M. A. Pfaller, and R. H. Yolken (ed.). Manual of clinical microbiology, 8 th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C. 7. Teixeira, L.M., and R.R. Facklam Enterococcus. In: Murray, P. R., E. J. Baron, J.H. Jorgensen, M. A. Pfaller, and R. H. Yolken (ed.). Manual of clinical microbiology, 8 th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C. PACKAGING/AVAILABILITY BD Modified CNA Agar with 5% Sheep Blood Cat. No Ready-to-use Plated Media, cpu 20 BD Modified CNA Agar with Crystal Violet and 5% Sheep Blood Cat. No Ready-to-use Plated Media, cpu 20 PA

5 FURTHER INFORMATION For further information please contact your local BD representative. BD Diagnostic Systems Tullastrasse 8 12 D Heidelberg/Germany Phone: Fax: BD Diagnostic Systems Europe Becton Dickinson France SA 11 rue Aristide Bergès Le Pont de Claix/France Tel: Fax: BD, BD logo, Trypticase and Stacker are trademarks of Becton, Dickinson and Company ATCC is a trademark of the American Type Culture Collection 2003 Becton, Dickinson and Company PA

BD Group B Streptococcus Differential Agar (Granada Medium)

BD Group B Streptococcus Differential Agar (Granada Medium) INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE READY-TO-USE PLATED MEDIA PA-257079.04 Rev.: Sep 2011 BD Group B Streptococcus Differential Agar (Granada Medium) INTENDED USE BD Group B Streptococcus Differential Agar (Granada Medium)

More information

PRINCIPLES AND EXPLANATION OF THE PROCEDURE

PRINCIPLES AND EXPLANATION OF THE PROCEDURE INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE PARTIALLY COMPLETED BOTTLED MEDIA BA-256665.02 Rev.: August 2003 BD Tryptic Soy Agar INTENDED USE BD Tryptic Soy Agar, provided in bottles, is a partially completed general purpose

More information

BD CLED Agar / MacConkey II Agar (Biplate)

BD CLED Agar / MacConkey II Agar (Biplate) PA-257562.01-1 - INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE READY-TO-USE PLATED MEDIA PA-257562.01 Rev.: Jan. 2016 BD CLED Agar / MacConkey II Agar (Biplate) INTENDED USE BD CLED Agar / MacConkey II Agar (Biplate) is used for

More information

Laboratory Exercise # 11: Differentiation of the Species Staphylococcus and Streptococcus

Laboratory Exercise # 11: Differentiation of the Species Staphylococcus and Streptococcus Laboratory Exercise # 11: Differentiation of the Species Staphylococcus and Streptococcus Purpose: The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to explore the differences between Staphylococcal species and

More information

LAB 4. Cultivation of Bacteria INTRODUCTION

LAB 4. Cultivation of Bacteria INTRODUCTION LAB 4. Cultivation of Bacteria Protocols for use of cultivation of bacteria, use of general growth, enriched, selective and differential media, plate pouring, determination of temperature range for growth

More information

BIOL 3200-005 Unknown Lab Report. Unknown #545. Enterococcus faecalis

BIOL 3200-005 Unknown Lab Report. Unknown #545. Enterococcus faecalis BIOL 3200-005 Unknown Lab Report Unknown #545 Enterococcus faecalis Henry G. Norrell III (Manny) Lab: Tuesdays 3:00-4:50 pm 2 December 2014 INTRODUCTION: This experiment was performed to identify an unknown

More information

Short Report: Failure of Burkholderia pseudomallei to Grow in an Automated Blood Culture System

Short Report: Failure of Burkholderia pseudomallei to Grow in an Automated Blood Culture System Accepted for Publication, Published online October 13, 2014; doi:10.4269/ajtmh.14-0018. The latest version is at http://ajtmh.org/cgi/doi/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0018 In order to provide our readers with timely

More information

LABORATORY PROCEDURE BBL Pneumoslide Test for Streptococcus pneumoniae

LABORATORY PROCEDURE BBL Pneumoslide Test for Streptococcus pneumoniae I. INTENDED USE LABORATORY PROCEDURE BBL Pneumoslide Test for Streptococcus pneumoniae The BBL Pneumoslide Test is a serologic latex slide agglutination method for the qualitative detection of capsular

More information

Difco & BBL Manual, 2nd Edition. MacConkey Agar w/o CV Escherichia coli ATCC Uninoculated Plate. Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028

Difco & BBL Manual, 2nd Edition. MacConkey Agar w/o CV Escherichia coli ATCC Uninoculated Plate. Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 MacConkey Agars MacConkey Agar MacConkey Agar Base MacConkey Agar without Crystal Violet MacConkey Agar without Crystal Violet or Salt MacConkey Agar without Salt Intended Use MacConkey agars are slightly

More information

HOW TO WRITE AN UNKNOWN LAB REPORT IN MICROBIOLOGY

HOW TO WRITE AN UNKNOWN LAB REPORT IN MICROBIOLOGY HOW TO WRITE AN UNKNOWN LAB REPORT IN MICROBIOLOGY GENERAL Unknown reports in microbiology are written in scientific format. Scientific writing is written differently from other types of writing. The results

More information

NEW SELECTIVE AND DIFFERENTIAL MEDIUM FOR COAGULASE-POSITIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI ALLOWING RAPID GROWTH AND STRAIN DIFFERENTIATION'

NEW SELECTIVE AND DIFFERENTIAL MEDIUM FOR COAGULASE-POSITIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI ALLOWING RAPID GROWTH AND STRAIN DIFFERENTIATION' NEW SELECTIVE AND DIFFERENTIAL MEDIUM FOR COAGULASE-POSITIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI ALLOWING RAPID GROWTH AND STRAIN DIFFERENTIATION' SYDNEY M. FINEGOLD AND EDWARD E. SWEENEY Departments of Medicine, Veterans Administration

More information

SELECTIVE AND DIFFERENTIAL MEDIA

SELECTIVE AND DIFFERENTIAL MEDIA SELECTIVE AND DIFFERENTIAL MEDIA Selective and differential media are used to isolate or identify particular organisms. Selective media allow certain types of organisms to grow, and inhibit the growth

More information

PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUES. To demonstrate good aseptic technique in culture transfer or inoculation and in handling sterile materials.

PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUES. To demonstrate good aseptic technique in culture transfer or inoculation and in handling sterile materials. PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUES I. OBJECTIVES To demonstrate good aseptic technique in culture transfer or inoculation and in handling sterile materials. To demonstrate skill in isolation of organisms from a mixed

More information

CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIGENOUS BACTERIA AND PATHOGENS

CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIGENOUS BACTERIA AND PATHOGENS Indigenous Bacteria and Pathogens 1 CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIGENOUS BACTERIA AND PATHOGENS All plants and animals are natural habitats for bacteria. The naturally occurring, and generally nonpathogenic

More information

Enteric Unknowns Miramar College Biology 205 Microbiology

Enteric Unknowns Miramar College Biology 205 Microbiology Enteric Unknowns Miramar College Biology 205 Microbiology Enteric (Greek enteron = intestine) bacteria are comprised of several different genera, but all reside in the digestive tract of mammals. Because

More information

Lab Exercise 2 Media and Culture

Lab Exercise 2 Media and Culture Lab Exercise 2 Media and Culture Lab Exercise #2 Bacterial Media & Culture I. OBJECTIVES: Practice microbial collection techniques Describe colony morphology and the relationship to microbial identification.

More information

Test Method for the Continuous Reduction of Bacterial Contamination on Copper Alloy Surfaces

Test Method for the Continuous Reduction of Bacterial Contamination on Copper Alloy Surfaces Test Method for the Continuous Reduction of Bacterial Contamination on Copper Alloy Surfaces Test Organisms: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048) Pseudomonas aeruginosa

More information

This module is for INFORMATION ONLY. No BETC test questions are from this module. On completion of this module, participants will be able to:

This module is for INFORMATION ONLY. No BETC test questions are from this module. On completion of this module, participants will be able to: MODULE 3 - LABORATORY TESTING Objective This module is for INFORMATION ONLY. No BETC test questions are from this module. On completion of this module, participants will be able to: o o Identify the types

More information

Lab Exercise 3: Media, incubation, and aseptic technique

Lab Exercise 3: Media, incubation, and aseptic technique Lab Exercise 3: Media, incubation, and aseptic technique Objectives 1. Compare the different types of media. 2. Describe the different formats of media, plate, tube etc. 3. Explain how to sterilize it,

More information

Gelatin Hydrolysis Test Protocol

Gelatin Hydrolysis Test Protocol The Gelatin Hydrolysis Test is used to detect the ability of microorganisms to produce the enzyme gelatinase. This test is helpful in identifying and differentiating species of Bacillus, Clostridium, Proteus,

More information

MICROBES OF THE BODY: THE ENTERICS

MICROBES OF THE BODY: THE ENTERICS MICROBES OF THE BODY: THE ENTERICS The term enterics refers to organisms belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. This is a family of Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, facultative anaerobic rods. Several

More information

C. Instruct students to put on lab coats and gloves; clean their benches.

C. Instruct students to put on lab coats and gloves; clean their benches. Basic Clinical Microbiology Lesson Plan Week 5 Carbohydrate Fermentation, MRVP Class 1 A. Take attendance. B. Review Lab Report questions from previous week. C. Instruct students to put on lab coats and

More information

Bovine Mastitis. 062612tr

Bovine Mastitis. 062612tr Bovine Mastitis 062612tr Hardy Diagnostics has everything for your laboratory! Mastitis Microbiology Made Easy! Our products are designed to aid in the rapid identification of bovine mastitis organisms

More information

BIO203 Laboratory Media and Biochemical Tests

BIO203 Laboratory Media and Biochemical Tests BIO203 Laboratory Media and Biochemical Tests Table of Contents I. Media 1 TSA Tryptic Soy Agar 1 Blood Agar 2 EMB Eosin Methylene Blue Agar 3 MSA Mannitol Salt Agar 4 MacConkey Agar 5 II. Colony Morphology

More information

Campylobacter in broiler carcasses. Ingrid Hansson CRL Campylobacter Sweden

Campylobacter in broiler carcasses. Ingrid Hansson CRL Campylobacter Sweden Campylobacter in broiler carcasses Ingrid Hansson CRL Campylobacter Sweden Sampling of broiler carcasses One whole carcass per slaughter batch shall be collected after chilling, but before processing Avoid

More information

Exercise X. IMViC Tests

Exercise X. IMViC Tests Exercise X IMViC Tests IMViC tests are used to study the physiological characteristics of bacteria from the Family Enterobacteriaceae, especially Escherichia and Enterobacter. The biochemical characteristics

More information

LAB 4 BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERIA AND DETECTION OF MOTILITY

LAB 4 BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERIA AND DETECTION OF MOTILITY LAB 4 BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERIA AND DETECTION OF MOTILITY Objectives In this lab you will learn how to: - test the ability of your unknown (UK) to digest certain substrates - discern motility

More information

Microbiological Testing of the Sawyer Mini Filter. 16 December 2013. Summary

Microbiological Testing of the Sawyer Mini Filter. 16 December 2013. Summary Microbiological Testing of the Sawyer Mini Filter 16 December 2013 Summary The Sawyer Mini Filter was tested for its ability to remove three microorganisms Raoultella terrigena, Bacillus subtilis, and

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA

IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA It is virtually impossible to identify bacteria based on physical characteristics alone. This is due to the fact that there are only a few basic shapes and physical features

More information

Medical Microbiology Microscopic slides and media

Medical Microbiology Microscopic slides and media Medical Microbiology Microscopic slides and media Head of Microbiology Department and Laboratory Medical Immunology : Janina Grzegorczyk MD, PhD, professor Implementators: Małgorzata Brauncajs MD Zbigniew

More information

Diagnostic Techniques: Urine Culture

Diagnostic Techniques: Urine Culture Diagnostic Techniques: Urine Culture Melissa Schreiber, Presenter: Valencia College, Orlando, FL mschreiber@valenciacollege.edu Objectives: After completing this project the students should be able to:

More information

ACID LATEX TEST A STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPING TEST USING NITROUS ACID EXTRACTION FOR THE RAPID IDENTIFICATION OF

ACID LATEX TEST A STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPING TEST USING NITROUS ACID EXTRACTION FOR THE RAPID IDENTIFICATION OF BBL STREPTOCARD ACID LATEX TEST A STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPING TEST USING NITROUS ACID EXTRACTION FOR THE RAPID IDENTIFICATION OF β-hemolytic STREPTOCOCCI OF LANCEFIELD TYPES A, B, C, F AND G. I. INTENDED USE

More information

Professional English for Clinical Microbiology Unit 2: Working with Bacteria

Professional English for Clinical Microbiology Unit 2: Working with Bacteria Introduction When we pick our culture from the incubator, we will have a grown culture. Growth appears as colonies on the plate surface. Once we have obtained any growth, work flow in the Microbiology

More information

Chapter 1. Bacterial isolation, identification and storage

Chapter 1. Bacterial isolation, identification and storage Chapter 1. Bacterial isolation, identification and storage Ruangpan, Lila & Tendencia, Eleonor A. Date published: 2004 To cite this document : Ruangpan, L., & Tendencia, E. A. (2004). Chapter 1. Bacterial

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA

IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA It is virtually impossible to identify bacteria based on physical characteristics alone. This is due to the fact that there are only a few basic shapes and physical features

More information

Oxygen relation Definition Examples Picture Facultative Anaerobe

Oxygen relation Definition Examples Picture Facultative Anaerobe Oxygen relation Definition Examples Picture Facultative Anaerobe Does not require oxygen. Can grow with or without it. Able to detoxify toxic by products of oxygen. E. Coli Microaerophile Growth throughout

More information

Disc Diffusion Susceptibility Methods

Disc Diffusion Susceptibility Methods Disc Diffusion Susceptibility Methods Introduction When a filter paper disc impregnated with a chemical is placed on agar the chemical will diffuse from the disc into the agar. This diffusion will place

More information

Aerobic Blood Culture Medium

Aerobic Blood Culture Medium JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, Sept. 1981, p. 247-251 0095-1137/81/090247-05$02.00/0 Vol. 14, No. 3 Evaluation of Sucrose and Magnesium Sulfate as Additives in Aerobic Blood Culture Medium JAN ENG The

More information

SSI STREPTOCOCCUS LATEX GROUP KIT

SSI STREPTOCOCCUS LATEX GROUP KIT SSI STREPTOCOCCUS LATEX GROUP KIT SSI STREPTOCOCCUS LATEX GROUP KIT Latex particles coated with streptococcal antiserum raised in rabbits Application The Streptococcus Latex Group Kit is a ready-to-use

More information

`TORAY TEXTILES EUROPE

`TORAY TEXTILES EUROPE `TORAY TEXTILES EUROPE See It Safe ANTI-MICROBIAL TEST RESULTS October 2006 Antimicrobial Test Methods Used ' TORAY' AATCC 147 (Modified) Antibacterial Activity Assessment of Tetile Materials: Parallel

More information

Introduction. Introduction. Why do we need microbiological diagnostics of udder infections? Microbiological diagnostics How is it done?

Introduction. Introduction. Why do we need microbiological diagnostics of udder infections? Microbiological diagnostics How is it done? Introduction Microbiological diagnostics of udder infections Karin Persson Waller National Veterinary Institute (SVA) Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, Sweden Mastitis = in most cases

More information

Biological Sciences Initiative

Biological Sciences Initiative Biological Sciences Initiative HHMI Student Activities Measuring Antibiotic Resistance Introduction: You might be aware that antibiotics were once thought of as a magic bullet; a nearly perfect drug for

More information

Stimulating Participation and Learning in Microbiology: Presence and Identification of Bacteria from Student s Hands

Stimulating Participation and Learning in Microbiology: Presence and Identification of Bacteria from Student s Hands Teaching and Learning Tips Stimulating Participation and Learning in Microbiology: Presence and Identification of Bacteria from Student s Hands Patrícia Antunes Abstract: We proposed in the Basic Microbiology

More information

Use of the BacT/Alert Blood Culture System for Culture of Sterile Body Fluids Other than Blood

Use of the BacT/Alert Blood Culture System for Culture of Sterile Body Fluids Other than Blood JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, Nov. 1998, p. 3273 3277 Vol. 36, No. 11 0095-1137/98/$04.00 0 Copyright 1998, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Use of the BacT/Alert Blood Culture

More information

VIRTUAL EXPERIMENT 5A OXYGEN RELATIONSHIPS (REVISED FROM THE ON-LINE MANUAL)

VIRTUAL EXPERIMENT 5A OXYGEN RELATIONSHIPS (REVISED FROM THE ON-LINE MANUAL) VIRTUAL EXPERIMENT 5A OXYGEN RELATIONSHIPS (REVISED FROM THE ON-LINE MANUAL) One often sees an organism described as being a strict aerobe, facultative anaerobe, strict anaerobe or some other such designation.

More information

Bacterial Detection and Live/Dead Discrimination by Flow Cytometry

Bacterial Detection and Live/Dead Discrimination by Flow Cytometry A P P L I C A T I O N N O T E Bacterial Detection and Live/Dead Discrimination by Flow Cytometry M I C R O B I A L C Y T O M E T R Y BD FACSCalibur, BD FACSort Flow Cytometers Introduction Accurate determination

More information

Labquality External Quality Assessment Programmes General Bacteriology 1 4/2010

Labquality External Quality Assessment Programmes General Bacteriology 1 4/2010 Labquality External Quality Assessment Programmes General Bacteriology 1 4/2010 Photos and text: Markku Koskela, M.D., Ph.D. Clinical microbiology specialist Oulu, Finland Sample 13/2010 Cerebrospinal

More information

Lab Notes for Exam 3 Section

Lab Notes for Exam 3 Section STAPHYLOCOCCUS IDENTIFICATION Lab Notes for Exam 3 Section These tests are used to differentiate between the three most common Staphylococcus species. These tests may be used for other purposes as well.

More information

URINE CULTURES GENERAL PROCEDURE

URINE CULTURES GENERAL PROCEDURE University of Nebraska Medical Center Division of Laboratory Science Clinical Laboratory Science Program CLS 418/CLS 419 URINE CULTURES GENERAL PROCEDURE I. Principle Urine cultures are performed to detect

More information

Normal flora, which make up about 90% of the cells of a human body, are microbes that

Normal flora, which make up about 90% of the cells of a human body, are microbes that Indigenous Unknowns Lab Report Introduction: Normal flora, which make up about 90% of the cells of a human body, are microbes that live and grow on the body without causing disease under normal conditions.

More information

Laboratory Protocols Level 2 Training Course Isolation of thermotolerant Campylobacter from faeces

Laboratory Protocols Level 2 Training Course Isolation of thermotolerant Campylobacter from faeces Global Salm-Surv A global Salmonella surveillance and laboratory support project of the World Health Organization Laboratory Protocols Level 2 Training Course Isolation of thermotolerant Campylobacter

More information

3.2 TEST FOR STERILITY

3.2 TEST FOR STERILITY March 2012 3.2 TEST FOR STERILITY Final text for revision of The International Pharmacopoeia This monograph was adopted at the Forty-sixth WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Assessment and verification of the adequacy of the aseptic compounding environment is essential. Environmental monitoring programs are designed to promptly identify potential sources

More information

BACTERIA COUNTS IN RAW MILK

BACTERIA COUNTS IN RAW MILK BACTERIA COUNTS IN RAW MILK Richard L. Wallace TAKE HOME MESSAGES Bacterial contamination of raw milk can generally occur from three main sources; within the udder, outside the udder, and from the surface

More information

BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System

BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System Resistance Detection Workflow Efficiency Analysis and Communication BD Diagnostics 7 Loveton Circle Sparks, MD 115-0999 800.638.8663 www.bd.com/ds CHROMagar is

More information

Introduction. Contamination sources

Introduction. Contamination sources Introduction Tim Sandle www.pharmamicro.com Cleanrooms and environmental monitoring Contamination sources Contamination control The human microbiome and the microbial ecology of people Case study: Microorganisms

More information

EFFICACY OF AKACID AS DISINFECTANT

EFFICACY OF AKACID AS DISINFECTANT UNIVERSITÄTSKLINIK FÜR INNERE MEDIZIN I Abteilung für Infektionen und Chemotherapie Mikrobiologische Laboratorien 3P Univ. Prof. DDr. A. Georgopoulos Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A - 1090 Wien, Austria Tel.:

More information

Transferring a Broth Culture to Fresh Broth

Transferring a Broth Culture to Fresh Broth Sterile Technique It is very important in microbiology to work with pure cultures. Unfortunately this is difficult. The world around us is covered with microorganisms. Microorganisms are even carried on

More information

Stool sample processing. By Ahmad Taha

Stool sample processing. By Ahmad Taha Stool sample processing By Ahmad Taha The specimen of choice The specimen of choice is diarrhea stool(fresh random) in fecal transport system A rectal swab is only recommended for infants Visible pus,

More information

THESES OF DOCTORAL (PH.D.) DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL DAIRY FOOD ENRICHED WITH SPIRULINA (ARTHROSPIRA PLATENSIS)

THESES OF DOCTORAL (PH.D.) DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL DAIRY FOOD ENRICHED WITH SPIRULINA (ARTHROSPIRA PLATENSIS) THESES OF DOCTORAL (PH.D.) DISSERTATION UNIVERSITY OF WEST HUNGARY FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENCES INSTITUTE OF FOOD SCIENCE IMRE UJHELYI DOCTORAL SCHOOL OF ANIMAL SCIENCES Director of Doctoral

More information

Aerobic Count. Interpretation Guide. 3M Food Safety 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plate

Aerobic Count. Interpretation Guide. 3M Food Safety 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plate 3M Food Safety 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plate Aerobic Count Interpretation Guide The 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count (AC) Plate is a ready-made culture medium system that contains Standard Methods nutrients,

More information

BBL Mueller Hinton II Agar L007393 Rev. 11 July 2006

BBL Mueller Hinton II Agar L007393 Rev. 11 July 2006 ! I II BBL Mueller Hinton II Agar L007393 Rev. 11 July 2006 QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES INTRODUCTION Mueller Hinton II Agar is used in the standardized disc diffusion procedure for determining the susceptibility

More information

Integrated Science 2 TOC # Name. Antibiotics Effect on Bacteria

Integrated Science 2 TOC # Name. Antibiotics Effect on Bacteria Integrated Science TOC # Name Antibiotics Effect on Bacteria Per Antibiotics Effect on Bacteria Introduction: By definition, an antibiotic is a biochemical produced by a microorganism that inhibits the

More information

Metabolism Dr.kareema Amine Al-Khafaji Assistant professor in microbiology, and dermatologist Babylon University, College of Medicine, Department of

Metabolism Dr.kareema Amine Al-Khafaji Assistant professor in microbiology, and dermatologist Babylon University, College of Medicine, Department of Metabolism Dr.kareema Amine Al-Khafaji Assistant professor in microbiology, and dermatologist Babylon University, College of Medicine, Department of Microbiology. Metabolism sum of all chemical processes

More information

Bacterial pathogens and normal flora of human I. Objective

Bacterial pathogens and normal flora of human I. Objective MMBB255 Week 10 1 Bacterial pathogens and normal flora of human I. Objective The goal of this lab and next week s is to show you how to deal with samples that might come from individuals infected with

More information

Evaluation of Microbial Growth and Survival on Construction materials treated with Anabec NewBuild 30

Evaluation of Microbial Growth and Survival on Construction materials treated with Anabec NewBuild 30 Evaluation of Microbial Growth and Survival on Construction materials treated with Anabec NewBuild 30 Absar Alum, Ph.D. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Arizona State University Tempe,

More information

BacT/Alert: an Automated Colorimetric Microbial Detection System

BacT/Alert: an Automated Colorimetric Microbial Detection System JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, JUlY 199, P. 168-1612 Vol. 28, No. 7 95-1137/9/7168-5$2./ Copyright 199, American Society for Microbiology BacT/Alert: an Automated Colorimetric Microbial Detection System

More information

Raw Milk Quality Tests Do They Predict Fluid Milk Shelf-life or Is it time for new tests?

Raw Milk Quality Tests Do They Predict Fluid Milk Shelf-life or Is it time for new tests? Raw Milk Quality Tests Do They Predict Fluid Milk Shelf-life or Is it time for new tests? Martin Wiedmann Milk Quality Improvement Program November 3, 2011 Fluid milk shelf life What defines shelf life

More information

62 MICROBIOLOGICAL 9518, CIP 4.83, or NBRC 13276

62 MICROBIOLOGICAL 9518, CIP 4.83, or NBRC 13276 USP 31 Microbiological Tests / 62 Microbiological Examination 1 Staphylococcus aureus such as ATCC 6538, NCIMB 62 MICROBIOLOGICAL 9518, CIP 4.83, or NBRC 13276 EXAMINATION OF NONSTERILE Pseudomonas aeruginosa

More information

Media Solutions for USP <1116> Compliance. Microbiological Examination of Controlled Environments

Media Solutions for USP <1116> Compliance. Microbiological Examination of Controlled Environments Media Solutions for USP Compliance Microbiological Examination of Controlled Environments Quality and Sterility Assured For All Your Testing Needs BD is constantly setting new industry standards

More information

3M Food Safety. Quality Solutions. for. Testing Times

3M Food Safety. Quality Solutions. for. Testing Times 3M Food Safety Quality Solutions for Testing Times 3 The Importance of Food Quality Producing safe and healthy food is critical to the success of one of the largest industries worldwide. New ingredients,

More information

Welcome to Implementing Inquirybased Microbial Project. Veronica Ardi, PhD

Welcome to Implementing Inquirybased Microbial Project. Veronica Ardi, PhD Welcome to Implementing Inquirybased Microbial Project Veronica Ardi, PhD Microbiology Laboratory Courses CourseSmart: ebook resources http://instructors.coursesmart.com/ Microbiology Laboratory Courses

More information

LAB EXERCISE: SCIENTIFIC METHOD I. Introduction

LAB EXERCISE: SCIENTIFIC METHOD I. Introduction LAB EXERCISE: SCIENTIFIC METHOD I Introduction The scientific method is the process used by scientists to accurately describe and explain natural phenomena. It consists of several steps. A question is

More information

Laboratory Protocols Level 2 Training Course Serotypning of Salmonella enterica O and H antigen.

Laboratory Protocols Level 2 Training Course Serotypning of Salmonella enterica O and H antigen. Global Salm-Surv A global Salmonella surveillance and laboratory support project of the World Health Organization Laboratory Protocols Level 2 Training Course Serotypning of Salmonella enterica O and H

More information

CULTURE MEDIA FOR COSMETICS INDUSTRY ACCORDING TO ISO STANDARD

CULTURE MEDIA FOR COSMETICS INDUSTRY ACCORDING TO ISO STANDARD CULTURE MEDIA FOR COSMETICS INDUSTRY ACCORDING TO ISO STANDARD PN-EN ISO 11930:2012 Evaluation of the antimicrobial protection of a cosmetic product NEUTRALIZERS 6157 Eugon LT 100 Broth tube 10,9 ml CULTURE

More information

Predictive microbiological models

Predictive microbiological models Campden BRI food and drink innovation Predictive microbiological models What are they and how can they be used in the food industry? PREDICTIVE MICROBIOLOGICAL MODELS: WHAT ARE THEY AND HOW CAN THEY BE

More information

Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Oil Degrading Bacteria Isolated from the Contaminated Sites of Barmer, Rajasthan

Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Oil Degrading Bacteria Isolated from the Contaminated Sites of Barmer, Rajasthan International Journal of Biotechnology and Bioengineering Research. ISSN 2231-1238, Volume 4, Number 5 (2013), pp. 429-436 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com/ ijbbr.htm Isolation,

More information

Culture media ISO 6579

Culture media ISO 6579 Culture media ISO 6579 Buffered Peptone Water Urea Indol TSI Agar Cat. 1172 β Galactosidase Lisine Decarboxilase Broth Cat. 1176 Voges-Proskauer Salmonella Buffered Peptone Water BUFFERED PEPTONE WATER

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF OTHER UNKNOWN BACTERIAL SPECIES: OU

IDENTIFICATION OF OTHER UNKNOWN BACTERIAL SPECIES: OU IDENTIFICATION OF OTHER UNKNOWN BACTERIAL SPECIES: OU I. OBJECTIVES To demonstrate the capacity to utilize previous laboratory experiences to accurately interpret tests conducted to identify a certain

More information

INSTRUCTIONS. Identification of Bacteria From a Mixed Culture (100 point lab project; BIOL260)

INSTRUCTIONS. Identification of Bacteria From a Mixed Culture (100 point lab project; BIOL260) INSTRUCTIONS Identification of Bacteria From a Mixed Culture (100 point lab project; BIOL260) I. Introduction. i. The identification of unknown bacteria is a time-honored part of most microbiology courses.

More information

Presentation at the 3 rd SAFOODNET seminar

Presentation at the 3 rd SAFOODNET seminar HYGIENE SURVEY IN ROMANIAN BAKERIES ALINA DOBRE, IBA, ROMANIA & SATU SALO, VTT, FINLAND INTRODUCTION Hygiene survey was performed in six Romanian bakeries. The work was carried out at VTT Technical Research

More information

LAB 5. Fermentation and Respiration chemoheterotrophs Respiration Fermentation

LAB 5. Fermentation and Respiration chemoheterotrophs Respiration Fermentation LAB 5. Fermentation and Respiration Protocols for Anaerobic growth, including use of Anaerobe Chamber, Catalase Assay, Oxidase Assay, Assay for Carbohydrate Utilization, Use of Oxidative-Fermentation tubes.

More information

Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Present in the Activated Sludge Unit, in the Treatment of Industrial Waste Water

Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Present in the Activated Sludge Unit, in the Treatment of Industrial Waste Water Iranian J. Publ. Health, Vol. 30, Nos. 3-4, PP. 91-94, 2001 Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Present in the Activated Sludge Unit, in the Treatment of Industrial Waste Water MK Sharifi-Yazdi 1,

More information

Etiology and treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis the Croatian experience

Etiology and treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis the Croatian experience Etiology and treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis the Croatian experience Višnja Škerk University Hospital for Infectious Diseases "Dr. Fran Mihaljevic" Zagreb Croatia Milano, Malpensa, 14 Nov 2008

More information

3M Food Safety. Innovative Solutions. that Enable Food Safety. ProcessingSafety

3M Food Safety. Innovative Solutions. that Enable Food Safety. ProcessingSafety 3M Food Safety Innovative Solutions that Enable Food Safety ProcessingSafety Innovative Solutions that Enable Food Safety The importance of food safety Producing safe and healthy food is critical to the

More information

INOCULATION PROCEDURES FOR MEDIA QC

INOCULATION PROCEDURES FOR MEDIA QC INOCULATION PROCEDURES FOR MEDIA QC The following inoculation procedures are used by Hardy Diagnostics for performance testing. Refer to the Quality Control section of each Technical Data Sheet in the

More information

Enumerating Chromogenic Agar Plates Using the Color QCOUNT Automated Colony Counter

Enumerating Chromogenic Agar Plates Using the Color QCOUNT Automated Colony Counter P3-4 IAFP, 06 Enumerating Chromogenic Agar Plates Using the Color QCOUNT Automated Colony Counter EILEEN GARRY, GRACE OUATTARA, PATRICK WILLIAMS, AND MEREDITH PESTA SPIRAL BIOTECH, INC., NORWOOD, MA Two

More information

62 MICROBIOLOGICAL 13276 Pseudomonas aeruginosa such as ATCC 9027, NCIMB

62 MICROBIOLOGICAL 13276 Pseudomonas aeruginosa such as ATCC 9027, NCIMB USP 37 Microbiological Tests / 62 Microbiological Examination 1 Staphylococcus aureus such as ATCC 6538, NCIMB 9518, CIP 4.83, or NBRC 62 MICROBIOLOGICAL 13276 Pseudomonas aeruginosa such as ATCC 9027,

More information

Testing Waste Water for Fecal Coliforms and/or E.coli using Colilert and Colilert -18 & Quanti-Tray

Testing Waste Water for Fecal Coliforms and/or E.coli using Colilert and Colilert -18 & Quanti-Tray Testing Waste Water for Fecal Coliforms and/or E.coli using Colilert and Colilert -18 & Quanti-Tray Gil Dichter World Wide Technical Support Manager, Water www.idexx.com/water 1 FOR ALL OF YOU WHO ARE

More information

RESISTANCE PATTERN OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION BACTERIAL ISOLATES TO SELECTED QUINOLONES

RESISTANCE PATTERN OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION BACTERIAL ISOLATES TO SELECTED QUINOLONES RESISTANCE PATTERN OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION BACTERIAL ISOLATES TO SELECTED QUINOLONES *A.R.M Momoh, *M.AC. Odike, * S. Olowo, **A.A. Momoh, **P.O. Okolo Department of *Pathological Sciences, College

More information

Laboratory Exercise #3. Isolation and identification of Unknown Bacteria. Procedure for Week 1 of Exercise 3. Day 1:

Laboratory Exercise #3. Isolation and identification of Unknown Bacteria. Procedure for Week 1 of Exercise 3. Day 1: Laboratory Exercise #3 Isolation and identification of Unknown Bacteria Procedure for Week 1 of Exercise 3 Day 1: 1. You will have 5 broth cultures at your workstation. Three of these tubes will contain

More information

Optimal Testing Parameters for Blood Cultures

Optimal Testing Parameters for Blood Cultures MAJOR ARTICLE Optimal Testing Parameters for Blood Cultures F. R. Cockerill III, 1,2 J. W. Wilson, 2 E. A. Vetter, 1 K. M. Goodman, 4 C. A. Torgerson, 1 W. S. Harmsen, 3 C. D. Schleck, 3 D. M. Ilstrup,

More information

Adapted from Biology 15 Laboratory Supplemental Manual: Wrightsman, Ininns and Cannon- Moloznic.

Adapted from Biology 15 Laboratory Supplemental Manual: Wrightsman, Ininns and Cannon- Moloznic. Biology 3B Laboratory Cultural Characteristics of Bacteria Objectives: Describe bacterial structure: colony morphology, cell shape, growth patterns. To distinguish how various growth media will affect

More information

3M Food Safety 3M Petrifilm Plates and 3M Petrifilm Plate Reader

3M Food Safety 3M Petrifilm Plates and 3M Petrifilm Plate Reader 3M Food Safety 3M Petrifilm Plates and 3M Petrifilm Plate Reader brilliant. This red dot changed microbiology. Imagine what it can do for your lab. In today s environment of heightened focus on food safety

More information

Penicillin. Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1945

Penicillin. Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1945 AL EXANDER FLEMING Penicillin Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1945 I am going to tell you about the early days of penicillin, for this is the part of the penicillin story which earned me a Nobel Award. I have

More information

AURAMINE O STAIN. Preanalytical Considerations

AURAMINE O STAIN. Preanalytical Considerations AURAMINE O STAIN Preanalytical Considerations I. PRINCIPLE Acid-fast mycobacteria resist decolorization by acid-alcohol after primary staining owing to the high lipid (mycolic acid) content in their cell

More information

Presentation at the 3 rd SAFOODNET seminar

Presentation at the 3 rd SAFOODNET seminar Sense and nonsense in standardisation Dr Rijkelt Beumer Laboratory of Food Microbiology Wageningen University (NL) Standardisation is a process in which on national, European or mondial level agreements

More information

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE VSCT 210 VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE VSCT 210 VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE VSCT 210 VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY Prepared By: Mary O Horo Loomis, DVM SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, HEALTH AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE VETERINARY

More information

Biochemical identification of bacteria. Dr. Paul Ingram Infectious Diseases Physician (RPH) & Microbiologist (PathWest Laboratories)

Biochemical identification of bacteria. Dr. Paul Ingram Infectious Diseases Physician (RPH) & Microbiologist (PathWest Laboratories) Biochemical identification of bacteria Dr. Paul Ingram Infectious Diseases Physician (RPH) & Microbiologist (PathWest Laboratories) Outline Phenotypic vs genotypic tests Pros and cons of biochemical tests

More information

Identification of Unknown Bacteria using a Series of Biochemical Tests

Identification of Unknown Bacteria using a Series of Biochemical Tests Identification of Unknown Bacteria using a Series of Biochemical Tests Katie Segal Section 1 Dr. Potter Microbiology 202 December 4, 2008 Introduction: Bacteria are single-celled organisms that are able

More information