1 TAX GUIDE FOR THE TAXI AND SHUTTLE INDUSTRIES Information to help your business IR 135 October 2010 Help is at hand This tax guide gives you, as a self-employed person, an overview of your tax entitlements and responsibilities. If you need more detailed information, please refer to the publications mentioned in this guide, by going to Forms and guides. You can also get copies of many of these publications by calling Note In the taxi and shuttle industries it may be difficult to tell if you re self-employed or an employee. It s very important to make the distinction, because the tax responsibilities are quite different. If you re unsure about this issue, please read our leaflet Self-employed or an employee? (IR 336). Starting out in business We ll give a discount to individual taxpayers who receive self-employed or partnership income, and who make voluntary payments of income tax either in their first year of business, or in the year before they start paying provisional tax. To see if you qualify read our guide Smart business (IR 320). The number of provisional tax payments you ll need to make depends on how often you file GST returns and which provisional tax option you re using. RECORD KEEPING When you decide to go into business, start keeping accurate records right away, because it s much harder to work backwards at a later date. Record keeping is important because it helps you file accurate returns and proves to others that your figures are correct. There are also good business reasons to keep records: You ll have better control of your business. Raising finance will be easier. You ll be in a better position if you sell your business. Keep all of the following: tax invoices receipts cheque butts deposit slips bank statements logbooks cashbooks working papers showing your calculations and how you arrived at your conclusions. We recommend you file your records in a logical order so you can retrieve them easily when necessary. How long must you keep your records? Keep all your business records for at least seven years from the end of the tax year or the taxable period they relate to. Even after you stop operating your business, you still have record keeping responsibilities. For more information about record keeping, please read our guide Smart business (IR 320). Separate business bank account Keep a separate bank account for your taxi or shuttle business. Use your business account when you bank your takings (every day) and when you pay your business expenses. Don t use your business account for private transactions, and when you withdraw money from the business for personal spending, make sure you record it as drawings. A business bank account will make it easier to keep your business and private affairs separate. INCOME TAX You need to pay tax on the income you earn. Every year you re in business, self-employed or receive income that isn t taxed at source you ll need to file a tax return with us. Your return must include all the income you earn and all your business expenses. 1
2 NET INCOME Income tax is paid on your net income, which is calculated by taking your taxable income less claimable expenses. You can use the Schedule of taxi income at the back of this guide to calculate your net income. Due dates Most people in the taxi and shuttle industries have the standard 31 March balance date. If this is your balance date you file your return and pay your tax on the standard due dates. Contact us if you have a different balance date and you re not sure when you need to file your return and pay your tax. For more information go to (keywords: due date) Returns If you re filing your tax return yourself, you must send it to us by 7 July (you can file it later if we ve approved an extension of time). If your return is prepared or filed by a tax agent (accountant) with an extension of time, they ll have until 31 March the following year to file. Payments Your end-of-year tax payment is due by 7 February the following year or 7 April if your return is prepared or filed by a tax agent with an extension of time. Provisional tax If your tax to pay at the end of the year, ie, your residual income tax (RIT), is more than $2,500 you may have to pay income tax in instalments during the following year. This is provisional tax. It s not a separate tax, but a way of paying your income tax as you receive income through the year. Because income from running a business doesn t have tax deducted before you receive it, you ll have to pay provisional tax. How much will I need to pay? There are three ways to work out how much provisional tax you have to pay for the following tax year the standard option, the estimation option and the ratio option. Standard option To calculate your provisional tax you add 5% to your RIT for the immediately preceding tax year. Example Your RIT was $ 3,900 Plus 5% $ 195 Provisional tax payable $ 4,095 If you haven t filed your tax return for the immediately preceding tax year, you can still use the standard option by calculating it in one of these ways. If your RIT for the tax year before the immediately preceding tax year was more than $2,500, calculate your provisional tax by adding 10% to the total. If your RIT for the tax year before the immediately preceding tax year was $2,500 or less, you don t have to make any provisional tax payments, you just need to file your return and pay any tax by the due dates. If your RIT is over $2,500 when you file your income tax return you ll need to pay provisional tax based on the RIT plus 5%, paid equally on the remaining instalment due dates. For provisional tax instalments due on or after 1 October 2010 for the 2011 year and for all instalments for the 2012 year, the percentage increase has been removed. For individuals: When calculating your provisional tax instalments for the 2011 year (for instalments payable after 1 October 2010), if you re using either the 2010 or 2009 year RIT reduce it by 5%. For more details go to. Estimation option Estimate your income for the year and then calculate the provisional tax. You can re-estimate your provisional tax as often as you like up to and including your last instalment due date. Your last estimate becomes final at this date. Use the worksheet in your tax return guide to calculate your estimated income and provisional tax. Example Estimated untaxed income $ 80,000 Tax on this income $ 21,010 Provisional tax payable $ 21,010 If you choose to estimate your provisional tax you can t change to another option during that tax year. 2
3 IR 135 October 2010 Ratio option This option is only available if you re registered for GST. Provisional tax is payable based on your GST taxable supplies for each two-month period. We calculate your ratio percentage and you multiply this by your previous two months GST taxable supplies. This gives you the amount of provisional tax you need to pay. Example Ratio percentage 5.9% Taxable supplies for previous two months $ 58,741 Provisional tax payable $ 3,465 Number of instalments payable The number of provisional tax payments you ll need to make depends on how often you file GST returns and which provisional tax option you use. You ll find more information about income tax and provisional tax in our publications Income tax summary sheet (IR 325) and Provisional tax (IR 289). Income All the fares you earn in your taxi business are taxable whether your customer pays by voucher, taxi card, cash or barter arrangement. Any tips are also taxable. Other income Most income you receive from outside your taxi business is also taxable and needs to be included in your tax return, eg, interest, dividends, rental income, wages and other self-employed income. Expenses You can claim (deduct) most business expenses. You can claim for expenses: arising from your gross business income you have incurred from running your business. You ll find examples of deductible expenses on our Schedule of taxi income (IR 138) form at the back of this guide. Non-deductible expenses You can t claim: private expenses (eg, meals) speeding and parking fines (if an employer pays an employee s fine they may be able to claim a deduction) drawings (money you take from your business for private spending). Garaging expenses If your car is garaged at home, you may be able to claim expenses, eg, minor painting costs, minor repairs, or a percentage of your rates, mortgage interest or rent. Uniforms Money spent on everyday clothing is generally considered to be a private expense. If you buy distinctive work clothing or a uniform that clearly identifies your business and would not normally be worn for private purposes you can claim the purchase cost and drycleaning. Example Joe buys three sets of trousers and shirts to wear while working. He puts his company s logo on one set of the clothes. Although he uses the three sets of clothing for work he can only claim for the set with the company logo. Depreciation Depreciation is an allowance recognising that fixed assets lose value through wear and tear. Calculate the depreciation for a fixed asset, then: claim the depreciation as an expense, and deduct the depreciation from the asset s adjusted tax value, ie, the asset s cost price less all depreciation claimed since you bought it. Keep a schedule showing your fixed assets, your depreciation calculations and the adjusted tax values of the fixed assets. For more information, read our guide Depreciation a guide for businesses (IR 260). Go to our website Work it out for a list of depreciation rates and a calculator that can work out how much you can claim. Adjustments You may need to make adjustments in your income tax returns. A common one is the private use adjustment, eg, you may own a computer that s partly for business use and partly for private use. The adjustment ensures you only claim the business portion of the expenses. If you use your taxi to travel from home to work, or for any private use, you ll need to separate the running costs of your vehicle between business and private use. These adjustments are made based on logbook records. For the self-employed (not a company, trust etc) there are three options you can use: actual business costs, logbook records or mileage rates. 3
4 Example of a logbook Sometimes Ross has to use his taxi to get the household shopping and take the children to school. The details Ross records in his logbook are shown below. Vehicle logbook (3-month period) Meter reading (at start of period) 15,165 Date Journey Meter reading Reason for trip Driver s signature From To Start Finish Distance (km) Home School 15,165 15, Taking kids to school Home Grocery shop 15,718 15, Grocery shopping Hastings Airport 16,485 16, Drop wife at airport Airport Hastings 17,525 17, Pick up wife Private distance 205 Meter reading (at end of period) 17,775 Total distance travelled (17,775 15,165) 2,610 For more information on adjustments, read our guide Smart business (IR 320). Example of adjustments Private use of a motor vehicle Ross has travelled a distance of 2,610 km in three months. The distance for private use is 7.85% ( 205 km) ( 2,610 km) Ross can claim 92.15% of his vehicle expenses as a business expense. Depreciation adjustment Ross s taxi has an adjusted tax value of $30,000 He uses the diminishing value rate for depreciation which is 36% (including 20% loading). The depreciation is calculated as: Step 1 Opening adjusted tax value $ 30, Depreciation ($30,000 x 36%) $ 10, Closing adjusted tax value $ 19, Step 2 Total depreciation $ 10, Less 7.85% private use (non-deductible) $ Equals 92.15% business use (deductible) $ 9, GST (GOODS AND SERVICES TAX) GST is a tax on most goods and services in New Zealand which is collected for the government by GST-registered persons. You charge GST on the goods and services you supply and claim GST on goods and services you use in the business. From 1 October 2010 the GST rate is 15% (prior to 1 October this was 12.5%). If you re registered for GST you have to send GST returns to us. You account for GST on your supplies made (eg, income) and claim GST on supplies you received (eg, expenses). If the GST on sales exceeds the GST on expenses, you pay us the difference. If the GST on expenses exceeds GST on sales, we ll refund the difference. Do you have to register for GST? You must register for GST if the annual turnover from your taxi business is more than $60,000 in any 12-month period, or you expect it to be more than $60,000 over the next 12 months. If your annual turnover is less than $60,000 you can choose whether you register for GST. If your fare schedule includes GST, you must register for GST, even if your annual turnover is less than $60,000. If you re not sure please discuss with the company you re driving for. 4
5 IR 135 October 2010 GST returns You return your income, claim your expenses and work out your GST to pay (or your GST refund) in your GST return. There are four categories of GST return, each one covering a different period of time (the taxable period). Return category Taxable period Who can use this return category? A B C 2 months (periods ending on the last day of January, March, May, July, September and November) 2 months (periods ending on the last day of February, April, June, August, October and December) 6 months (you can choose when each 6-month period ends) Anyone who is registered (except those with an annual turnover of more than $24 million) Anyone who is registered (except those with an annual turnover of more than $24 million) Only those registered with an annual turnover of $500,000 or less D 1 month Anyone who is registered. Category D must be used by those with an annual turnover of more than $24 million. Note: If you re liable for provisional tax your taxable period must align with your balance date. Due dates The due date for GST returns and payments is the 28 of the month following the end of the taxable period. There are two exceptions to this. If your GST return period ends on: 30 November, it will be due on 15 January of the next year 31 March, it will be due on 7 May. For example, if you have a taxable period ending on 30 June, the return and payment are due by 28 July. But if the taxable period ends in November, the return and payment are due by 15 January the following year. The due dates are printed on the GST return. What income is subject to GST? If you re registered, you must charge GST on your fares, and account for it in your GST returns. You must also pay GST on tips. If you have other sources of income, you may have to pay GST on those too. Please contact us if you re unsure. If your fare schedule includes GST, you re considered to be registered for GST (even if you aren t), so you must file GST returns and pay the GST collected. Expenses you can claim Generally, you can claim GST on supplies if: the supplies are used in your business, and you hold a tax invoice from your supplier. You can t claim GST on interest, drawings, salary or wages, or any private expenses. Garaging and uniform expenses You may be able to claim the GST on any of your garaging expenses and uniform expenses. For more details, please read Expenses on page 3. Normally, if you can claim the expense for income tax you can also claim GST. But you can t claim GST on mortgage interest or domestic rental. You may need to make an adjustment. Adjustments You may need to make adjustments in your GST returns. As with income tax, a common adjustment for GST purposes is the private use adjustment. Our GST guide (IR 375) has full details on GST adjustments. 5
6 Accounting for GST When you register, you choose how you re going to report your GST transactions to us and record them in your bookkeeping system. This is called accounting for GST. There are three ways to account for GST: Accounting basis You return the GST on your fares You claim the GST on your expenses Who can use this accounting basis? Payments When your customer pays you When you pay for them Registered persons with an annual turnover of $2 million or less Invoice When you issue an invoice or receive a When you receive an invoice All registered persons payment, whichever comes first Hybrid When you issue an invoice or receive a payment, whichever comes first When you pay for them All registered persons Choosing an accounting basis On the payments basis you generally account for GST in the period you make or receive your payment. This method is suitable for small businesses using a cash accounting system. On the invoice basis you claim GST when you receive an invoice. Account for GST when you issue an invoice or receive a payment, whichever comes first. This method is suitable for a business selling a lot of items on credit. On the hybrid basis you claim GST when you ve paid your expense but return the GST on your income when you ve issued an invoice or received a payment, whichever comes first. This method is suitable for a business buying items on a credit basis but selling on a cash basis. This method can be complicated to work out so we recommend you get a tax agent if you use it. For more information about GST, please see our publications GST do you need to register? (IR 365) and GST summary sheet (IR 324) EMPLOYER RETURNS If you re a taxi or shuttle owner who employs other people, you must deduct PAYE tax from payments to your employees. You then file PAYE forms (and make the payments) to us each month. We ll write to you when you register as an employer, telling you where to find information about meeting your tax responsibilities on our website. We also send you the PAYE forms each month, in time for the due date. For more information about employer responsibilities, please read our guide First-time employer s guide (IR 333). An employer whose gross annual PAYE and ESCT (employer superannuation contribution tax) combined is $500,000 or more must pay their PAYE twice-monthly. WORKING FOR FAMILIES TAX CREDITS These are entitlements for families who have children 18 or under living with them. It s not a benefit, but recognises that not everyone can comfortably afford all the costs of bringing up a family. How much you might be entitled to depends on how many children you have and how much you earn. For more information, please see our booklet Working and raising a family (IR 201). 6
7 IR 135 October 2010 GETTING IT RIGHT Here are some of the most common mistakes made by people in the taxi and shuttle industry and how to avoid them. Avoid these mistakes Do it correctly Where to get more information Paying expenses from cash takings (this can mean you under-declare your income) Not registering for GST when your turnover exceeds $60,000 Not registering for GST when your fare schedule includes GST Not clearly establishing your employment status (employee or independent contractor) with your taxi owner this can cause tax problems Not keeping adequate records Not accounting for private use of business assets (income tax and GST) Claiming private expenses (income tax and GST) Not declaring all your income (income tax and GST) Make sure you add back your expenses when you calculate your day s income Register with us as soon as it becomes clear your turnover will exceed $60,000 over the coming year Make sure you register even if your turnover is less than $60,000 If you ve charged GST you re considered to be registered, even if you haven t officially done so Clearly establish your employment relationship Keep all invoices and receipts, write up your cashbook regularly and file your paperwork in order Contact us if you have any questions GST do you need to register? (IR 365) Contact us if you have any questions Self-employed or an employee? (IR 336) This can be a complex issue, so please contact us if you re unsure Smart business (IR 320) Make private use adjustments Smart business (IR 320) GST guide (IR 375) Remember to claim only expenses related to your business Please don t forget cash jobs and any casual work Smart business (IR 320) GST guide (IR 375) Contact us if you have any questions Not filing returns or paying tax on time Please remember your due dates Use the Tax due date calculator at (keywords: due date calculator) to produce a list of all the tax filing and payment dates that apply to you Not accounting for GST when you sell an asset (eg, your taxi) Not accounting for GST when you keep an asset after you deregister The sale of business assets is generally subject to GST and you can generally claim the GST when you buy a business asset GST guide (IR 375) Make an adjustment in your final return GST guide (IR 375) 7
8 ARE YOUR TAX AFFAIRS SORTED? You re required to file a return. If you ve made a mistake in a return, the best thing you can do is make a voluntary disclosure. This means telling us about tax you owe us, before we find out. If you make the voluntary disclosure before you re told you re going to be audited, you get these benefits: a reduction in any shortfall penalties by 75% or even 100% in some circumstances you won t be prosecuted. If you make the voluntary disclosure after you re told you re going to be audited (but before the audit starts), you get these benefits: a reduction in any shortfall penalties by 40% you won t be prosecuted (but you may be if you have deliberately evaded tax). For more information about voluntary disclosures, please read our booklet Putting your tax returns right (IR 280). USEFUL FORMS Over the next three pages there are forms designed to help you account for your income and expenses and complete your tax returns. These forms have been specially tailored for the taxi and shuttle industries. monthly cashbook monthly summary sheet schedule of taxi income. Tear out the forms and photocopy them, so you ll always have a supply. ARE YOU HAVING DIFFICULTY MANAGING YOUR TAXES? We recommend you use a tax agent a person who helps people with their tax responsibilities. You can find them in the Yellow Pages. Look under Accountants Chartered accountants or Taxation consultants. In most cases, if you use a tax agent, you ll get extra time to file your income tax returns and pay your end-of-year tax. Generally, you can claim the fees you pay to your tax agent in your income tax and GST returns. 8
9 MONTHLY CASHBOOK Information to help your business Date Who I paid Amount GST Fuel oil RUC Vehicle costs Airport tolls Phone and RT fees Home garage Stationery Amount paid including GST (if any) If charged eg, COF, rego, insurance, repairs, car wash % of home rates, insurance, rent/ mortgage interest Stationery cards, logbook, receipt book MONTHLY TOTALS Copy these MONTHLY TOTALS into MONTHLY SUMMARY SHEET Note: some of these columns may not match the columns on the MONTHLY SUMMARY SHEET. Staff wages and PAYE Bank fees Drawings Other expenses One-offs or seldom: eg, purchase of vehicle signage, meter, ACC, area knowledge test, polishes etc Details of other expenses
10 MONTHLY SUMMARY SHEET Information to help your business Totals of April May June July August September October November December January February March ANNUAL TOTAL FARES RECEIVED Cash Dockets Charge cards VEHICLE EXPENSES COF Fuel and oil Insurance Loan interest Registration Repairs and maintenance Road user charges Tyres GARAGING EXPENSES Power Rates Insurance Rent/mortgage interest ADMINISTRATION ACC Airport tolls Bank fees Communication Company levies Equipment rental/ repairs Medical/police licence Public liability insurance RT fees Stationery Uniform Voucher discounts Wages paid OTHER EXPENSES Copy the MONTHLY TOTALS from your MONTHLY CASHBOOK (previous page) into this sheet, and then put the ANNUAL TOTAL from this sheet into your Schedule of taxi income (IR 138) on page 13.
11 Schedule of taxi income IR 138 October 2010 Your name IRD number (8 digit numbers start in the second box. ) Year ended 31 March Revenue fare received A Less expenses Vehicle Certificate of fitness Depreciation Fuel and oil Insurance Repairs and maintenace Road user charges Tyres Sub-total Loan interest Less private use % Registration Total B1 Home garaging expenses Power Rates Depreciation Sub-total Insurance Less private use % Rent/mortgage interest Total B2 Administration ACC Airport tolls Bank fees Communication Company levies (other than vehicle Depreciation and garaging) Equipment repairs/rentals Medical/police licence Public liability insurance RT fees Stationery Uniform Voucher discounts Wages paid Other expenses Total Total expenses Add up all the expenses (Boxes B1 B3) above and print the answer in Box C Subtract Box C from Box A and print the answer in Box D Gain or loss on disposal of fixed assets (put any loss in brackets) B3 C D E Net income If Box E is positive, add Box E to Box D and print the answer in Box F F If Box E is negative, subtract Box E from Box D and print the answer in Box F Detach this page along the perforated line and staple it to the top of page 3 of your return. Remember to complete your return, sign it and send it in.
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BUSINESS SEMINAR SECURE YOUR BUSINESS AND FUTURE www.idealtax.com.au SEMINAR OUTLINE 1. Federal Budget 2011 2. Small Business Benchmarks 3. Small Business Concessions 4. Tax Return Tips 5. Superannuation
Dear Valued Client, 2013 TAX QUESTIONAIRE & CHECKLIST PLEASE VISIT: WWW.JEFFLAINECPA.NET FOR MORE INFORMATION Welcome and Happy New Year! As indicated last year, once again audits are up, greater emphasis
Frequently Ask Questions This document has been prepared to answer questions that you are likely to have on the new SalarySacrifice4Cars scheme ( the car scheme ). It is set out in 3 sections The car scheme
Running Your Business Your Guide to Accounting and Tax for Businesses 1. BUSINESS PLAN... 3 2. STRUCTURES... 5 3. ACCOUNTING... 8 4. INCOME TAX... 11 5. GST... 15 6. FBT... 18 7. PENALTIES... 19 8. PAYE...
LWK Pty. Limited ACN 121 288 373 Chartered Accountants Business Advisers and Consultants Business Advisers an Individual Tax Return Checklist This checklist has been prepared by LWK Pty Limited Chartered
Simple Financial Records for a Small Business December 2014 March 2015 A GUIDE TO SIMPLE FINANCIAL RECORDS FOR A SMALL BUSINESS CAVEAT This guide aims to help you set up simple financial records for your
Contractor and Freelancer Limited Company Essential Guide - How to Keep Your Accounts Made Simple! Contents Introduction... 5 IR35... 6 What is IR35... 6 What can I do to protect myself?... 6 The Rules
For year ended 30 th June 2014 Page 1 of 9 INFORMATION FOR 2014 TAX RETURN CHECKLIST INDIVIDUAL IMPORTANT NOTE WORKFLOW MANAGEMENT We shall endeavour to ensure that your Individual tax return is lodged
Personal Income Tax Return - Year End Questionnaire 2015 To assist us in preparing your income tax return, please use this questionnaire as a checklist when you compile your information. With respect to
Novated Leasing A practical guide to salary packaging your car. Thank you very much for your prompt action. I am very impressed by how quickly everything has been actioned. I would happily recommend to
Individual Tax Return Checklist 2015 This checklist has been prepared by Rose Guerin Chartered Accountants to assist clients to prepare for their 2015 individual tax return. Personal Details Client One
A complete service for the small business Nationwide UK Coverage www.the.co.uk What is a limited company? A limited company is a company in which the liability of the members or subscribers of the company
February 2015 CONTENTS Who should keep records? Expenses to track Deductible expenses Keeping a kilometre log Business vs. personal Other motor vehicles The standby charge GST/HST and QST considerations
ebrief for freelancers and contractors Car & motorcycle expenses for contractors Personally owned cars and motorbikes: Are you really claiming all the travel and subsistence expenses you are entitled to?
How to Use the Cash Flow Template When you fill in your cash flow you are trying to predict the timing of cash in and out of your bank account to show the affect and timing for each transaction when it
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