WHITE PAPER. VERITAS NetBackup Technical Overview VERITAS NETBACKUP TECHNICAL OVERVIEW

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1 WHITE PAPER VERITAS NetBackup Technical Overview VERITAS NETBACKUP TECHNICAL OVERVIEW 1

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS VERITAS NetBackup Technical Overview...1 Product Overview...4 Key Features of NetBackup...4 NetBackup Administration Console...5 NetBackup Servers and Clients...6 NetBackup Centralized Management...6 VERITAS NetBackup Global Data Manager...7 Continuous Data Availability Features...10 Online Backups of Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS)...10 Online Oracle Database Block Level Incremental Backup & Recovery...11 Automatic RMAN Script Generation...12 VERITAS NetBackup Database Archiver Agent...12 Online SAP R/3 Backup & Recovery...13 High Performance Lotus Backup and Recovery...13 IBM DB2 Backup & Recovery...14 Online File System Backups...14 VERITAS NetBackup FlashBackup...14 NDMP Backups of Network-Attached Storage (NAS)...16 Supported NDMP Configurations...17 NDMP Backups...17 Direct Access Recovery (DAR)...17 Library sharing between NetBackup and NDMP Hosts...17 VERITAS NetBackup Array Integration Option...18 VERITAS NetBackup Instant Recovery Option...18 Andrew File System (AFS) Backups...19 VERITAS NetBackup Backup Concepts...19 Storage Units...19 VERITAS NetBackup Policies...19 Scheduling...21 Database Backup Methods...24 The Basic Backup Process...25 Multiplexing Backups...26 Automatic Multistreaming Clients...26 Compressing Backup Data...27 Backing Up Network (CIFS/NFS) Files...28 Restore Concepts...29 Multiplexing Restores...30 Restoring to Alternative Clients...30 Server Independent Restores...30 Restores in Multiserver Environments...31 Server Independent Restores in Disaster Recovery Scenarios...32 True Image Restore...33 Backup/Restore of Moved Directories and Files...33 VERITAS NetBackup for Windows...34 Remote Administration...34 Microsoft SQL Server Online Database Backup...34 Microsoft Exchange Server Backup & Recovery...34 Microsoft sharepoint portal server backup...35 Microsoft Windows 2000 SAK Support...35 Open File Management...35 VERITAS Bare Metal Restore...36 Security

3 Authentication...40 Authorization...40 Encryption...40 Device and Media Management...41 Basic Volume Management Process...41 Shared Storage Option (Dynamic Drive Sharing)...43 Sharing Tape Libraries...44 Managing Robot Inventory...45 Scratch Pools...45 Spanning Volumes for Large Images...46 Tracking Media Age and Number of Mounts...46 Media Overwrite Protection...46 Verifying Media...46 Duplicating NDMP images...47 VERITAS NetBackup Vault...47 Importing Media...49 Administration and Use...49 Administrator Interfaces...49 User Interfaces...52 Installation...53 Configuration...54 Activity Monitoring...55 Reports and Logs...55 Operational Reports...55 Progress Logs...55 Detailed Activity Logs...56 Advanced Reporting...56 Error Reporting...56 Crash Recovery...56 Internal Databases...56 Supported Hardware and Software...57 Summary...57 Appendix A...58 Frequently Asked Questions...58 Appendix B...61 Glossary...61 Appendix C...63 Client Backup Coverage Utility

4 PRODUCT OVERVIEW The VERITAS NetBackup product family provides a complete set of solutions for protecting data from the desktop to the data center and consists of three distinct yet complementary products: VERITAS NetBackup DataCenter, VERITAS NetBackup BusinesServer and VERITAS NetBackup Professional. NetBackup DataCenter is the classic NetBackup product designed for enterprise environments and high-end applications. NetBackup BusinesServer is a scaled-down version of NetBackup DataCenter optimized for smaller workgroup environments or remote sites. Finally, NetBackup Professional is designed to provide a scalable and practical solution for centrally managing the backup of desktops and laptops within a corporate environment. NetBackup DataCenter and NetBackup BusinesServer are based on the same core architecture and code base, and this document describes these concepts in detail. NetBackup Professional, while an important part of the NetBackup story, is based on a different architecture optimized for desktop backup and recovery and will not be discussed here. Information on the details of NetBackup Professional can be found in other available documentation. VERITAS NetBackup DataCenter is the industry s leading enterprise data protection solution that provides centralized control from a single management interface. The multi-tier architecture of VERITAS NetBackup DataCenter provides customers with a fast, reliable, data center strength backup and recovery solution that can protect environments that span terabytes to petabytes in size. The NetBackup DataCenter master server uses other NetBackup DataCenter media servers as workhorses to accomplish backup and recovery tasks in a highly centralized manner. In contrast, NetBackup BusinesServer, designed for smaller environments, instead functions as a standalone master/media server. Despite this key difference, most of the underlying architecture and capabilities of the two products are the same. For simplicity, this document generally will not distinguish between DataCenter and BusinesServer products and will instead simply refer to NetBackup. KEY FEATURES OF NETBACKUP Key features in VERITAS NetBackup include the industry s most advanced media management, disaster recovery support, and intuitive Java and Windows administrative interfaces. In addition to protecting data in a mixed UNIX, Linux, Microsoft Windows and Novell NetWare environments, VERITAS NetBackup delivers advanced, application aware solutions for all leading applications including Oracle, IBM DB2, SAP R/3, Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft Exchange Server, Lotus Notes & Domino Server, Informix, and Sybase. VERITAS NetBackup provides high performance backup, archiving, and recovery services for UNIX, Linux, Windows, and PC client systems in client/server networks. It can be economically scaled to serve any size operation ranging from a standalone system to an entire enterprise. Storage devices can be disk, tape, or optical media. The VERITAS NetBackup Media Manager component of VERITAS NetBackup manages the tape and optical storage and is designed so that other VERITAS storage products, such as VERITAS NetBackup Storage Migrator, can also share secondary storage devices. NetBackup provides extensive and automated support for most tape libraries, which means human intervention is rarely required. Administrators can set up periodic or calendar-based schedules for automatic, unattended backup operations of clients across the network. These backup operations may be full or incremental. A full backup processes all files, while an incremental backup only processes those files changed since the last full or incremental backup. By carefully scheduling automatic backups, an administrator can achieve systematic and complete backups over a period of time, and optimize network traffic during off-peak hours. In addition to scheduled backups, administrators can perform manual backups of client data using the same criteria as specified for automatic backups. Manual backup operations are useful in special circumstances, such as backing up a client that missed a previously scheduled backup or preserving a system configuration prior to installing new software. 4

5 Client users, too, are able to initiate backup, archive, and restore operations for data on their client systems without operator or administrator intervention. User-directed backups allow users to protect their files immediately on demand. If files are damaged or accidentally deleted, users can quickly and easily recover any backed up or archived files by restoring them back to their primary disk space. The NetBackup Master Server maintains a database (called the catalog) that records information about all backup and restore operations. A separate backup procedure is provided to protect the NetBackup catalog to facilitate recovery in case of a disk failure. A Catalog Archiving feature helps users manage large catalogs that require a great amount of disk space and time to back up. Catalog archiving reduces the size of online catalog data by relocating large catalog files to secondary storage. NetBackup administration will continue to require regularly scheduled catalog backups, but without the large amount of online catalog data, the backups will be faster. VERITAS NetBackup is also closely integrated with VERITAS NetBackup Storage Migrator for sites that need hierarchical storage management. See the VERITAS NetBackup Storage Migrator Technical Overview for more information, or visit the VERITAS Web site at NETBACKUP ADMINISTRATION CONSOLE A consolidated application, the NetBackup Administration Console, shown in Figure 1 below, provides an easy, intuitive entry point into the administration categories of NetBackup. Primary administration is separated into three management areas: NetBackup Management, Media and Device Management, and Vault Management. Under NetBackup Management, the administrator may run reports, create backup policies and storage units, manage the catalog, or configure host properties for Master Servers, Media Servers or Clients. Within Media and Device Management, one manages tape media and devices, from the creation of tape media groups and pools to the monitoring of tape devices. Vault Management extends media management to automate and control all facets of offsite tape vaulting. In addition, the NetBackup Administration Console offers a variety of configuration wizards to simplify many routine tasks. 5

6 Figure 1: NetBackup Administration Console NETBACKUP SERVERS AND CLIENTS VERITAS NetBackup includes both client and server software. Server software resides only on the platforms that manage the physical devices used for secondary storage. Client software resides on the individual client systems containing the data to be backed up (a server can also be a client). In this architecture, client software is responsible for generating the data stream to be backed up and server software directs this data stream to a secondary storage device. NETBACKUP CENTRALIZED MANAGEMENT VERITAS NetBackup DataCenter accommodates multiple servers working together under the administrative control of one of the servers. In this relationship, the NetBackup administrative control server is designated to be the master server, with the other servers designated as media servers, operating under control of the master server. Note, however, that a master server can also function as a media server. All NetBackup administrative functions are performed centrally from the master server, and the master server controls all backup scheduling for each media server. Each of the media servers performs the actual backup operations under direction from the master, and backup data stays local to the media servers and their respective storage devices. A master server and its associated media servers are referred to collectively as a NetBackup storage domain, and large networks may have more than one domain. Client systems back up data to NetBackup servers. Figure 2: A master server/media server storage domain 6

7 Figure 2 diagrams a simple master/media server configuration. The master server in a storage domain serves as a single point of administration for all backup operations in the storage domain. Administrators configure backup policies, manage all media and media pools, and configure all local and remote devices in the storage domain from the master without having to log on to or directly access any of the media servers. In addition to retaining backup schedules and other configuration information, the master server contains the backup catalog for the entire storage domain. Users can browse this catalog to locate and restore files. As also shown in Figure 2, devices configured on the media servers in the domain become additional network storage units for backup and restore operations. When clients have large amounts of data, making them media servers is also an effective way of reducing their backup time and lowering network traffic. The actual location of the backup images in a NetBackup domain is totally transparent to NetBackup administrators and users. The VERITAS NetBackup Media Manager resides on each NetBackup server and manages secondary storage media and the peripheral devices on those servers. NetBackup domains provide many advanced high availability features that ensure continuous operations in NetBackup environments. For example, if a storage unit (robotics or tape device) on any of the NetBackup servers in the domain goes down, the NetBackup master can automatically route the backups to another storage unit in the domain. If a media server is rendered inaccessible, another media server can take over the backup operations. If scratch media in the primary storage unit is unavailable, NetBackup can route the backup to another local storage unit or a storage unit connected to another NetBackup server in the domain. VERITAS also recommends VERITAS Cluster Server, a high availability software product, to protect the NetBackup master in case of hardware or system failure. All of these features ensure that all data in a NetBackup domain is protected and quickly recoverable in the event of a failure. VERITAS NetBackup Global Data Manager In environments where multiple local or remote NetBackup domains are implemented, VERITAS NetBackup Global Data Manager (GDM) may be used to greatly simplify monitoring and reporting tasks. Global Data Manager is an optional software layer that provides centralized monitoring and reporting for multiple NetBackup and Backup Exec domains across a corporate campus or around the world. The collection of all NetBackup domains monitored by Global Data Manager in a particular enterprise is referred as a Global Data Manager Domain. Should the Global Data Manager indicate a problem, In-context cross launching allows a customer to instantly launch either the NetBackup System Administration Console or the Backup Exec Remote Administration Console. 7

8 Figure 3: NetBackup Global Data Manager architecture Figure 3 diagrams a typical Global Data Manager configuration. The Global Data Manager launch window, also known as the Dashboard, shown in Figure 4 below, offers a single health view of an entire backup and recovery environment from a single console. Global Data Manager delivers enhanced monitoring by extracting pertinent information from each unique NetBackup master server (Global Data Manager Managed Server) and by collocating that information on the Global Data Manager Server itself. Once Global Data Manager has collected information for an entire Global Data Manager domain, users may look at their environment as a whole or may drill-down into specific sites within the Global Data Manager domain. The Dashboard presents not only NetBackup configuration and deployment details, but also a variety of real-time statistics, including details on failed jobs within the last 24 hours or completed jobs within the last 24 hours. Global Data Manager provides two key configurable parameters that help govern the sensitivity by which data is monitored. The Failure Threshold is set as a percentage to offer a level of reporting that screens out extraneous noise, or undesired data. For example, if we consider monitoring downed tape drives in a NetBackup domain with a total of ten tape drives, a failure threshold of 15 percent will alert the administrator to the condition of having more than one downed tape drive. The Look Back Interval represents the number of hours of prior job activity that Global Data Manager examines. The Look Back Interval is set by default to 24 hours; however, this parameter may be adjusted to provide a different reference time frame if required. 8

9 Various reports are also available with Global Data Manager. The Problems and Conditions report displays a list of all problems that exist on monitored and managed servers in the Global Data Manager domain; the statuses reported include Critical, Warning, and Informational. The Drive Status Summary report shows the current status of all tape drives in the system; the statuses reported include Warning (a high percentage of tape drives are down), Informational (more than one tape drive is down, but not more than the predetermined failure threshold), Unknown (the master server is unreachable), and Okay (no tape drives are down). The General Status report displays a list of the general status of each of the managed servers in the Global Data Manager domain; some of the statuses tracked include Catalog Size (the total size of the catalogs being stored, in megabytes), Failed Jobs (the number of failed jobs during the past 24 hours), and Clients at Risk (the total number of clients that have not been backed up in a predetermined time). Figure 4: The Global Data Manager Dashboard has multiple views that extend its monitoring and reporting capabilities 9

10 CONTINUOUS DATA AVAILABILITY FEATURES Timely access to critical data is often the difference between the success or failure of a business. Data must be available to users when they need it. In today s global economy, critical files and databases must often be available 24 hours per day. If access to a critical system is interrupted for any reason, alternative systems must be able to take over the load automatically and transparently. Disaster recovery capabilities must be available so that if the worst happens and a site is completely disabled, critical data can be restored and available online in a few minutes or, at most, a few hours. VERITAS NetBackup can be an effective way to provide cost effective disaster recovery protection for mission critical data. NetBackup delivers online high performance backups of database, file system, and applicationspecific data, with minimal impact on users or applications. In addition to fast backups, NetBackup also provides many methods to recover data quickly. VERITAS NetBackup is an industry leader in providing continuous data availability for all types of mission critical data during backup operations. ONLINE BACKUPS OF RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (RDBMS) VERITAS NetBackup supports high performance, online database and application-specific backups across multiple vendors in addition to providing sophisticated support for older versions of databases (please see the Database Backup Methods section below). NetBackup offers completely online, highly reliable backup solutions for all major databases, including Oracle (RMAN, RMAN Proxy Copy, and EBU), IBM DB2 Universal Database, SAP R/3, Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft Exchange Server, Microsoft SharePoint Portal Server, Lotus Notes & Domino Server, Sybase, and Informix. With these database solutions, online backups for other major applications such as PeopleSoft, Baan, and SAS are enabled. Oracle, DB2, SQL, Exchange, Lotus Notes, SAP R3, Sybase, and Informix database backups can also be encrypted to enhance security. No matter what the application or environment, NetBackup ensures continuous data availability and complete data protection. Microsoft SQL Server Microsoft Exchange Server Microsoft SharePoint Portal Server Lotus Notes & Domino Server R5 SAP R/3 IBM DB2 UDB Database backup performance is critical to data availability, even in online database backup configurations. The NetBackup architecture enables multiple parallel data streams to be pushed to a NetBackup server on the local machine or across the network (see Figure 5). On systems where backup media transfer rates far exceed disk or network transfer rates, data streams from multiple disks and clients can be combined into a single stream to drive the offline media at its peak rates this facility is called multiplexing. Performance scales in a nearly linear manner as additional peripheral devices and backup servers are added incrementally. 10

11 Figure 5: Online, high performance database backups enabled through multiplexing NetBackup also minimizes downtime by providing very fast recovery of databases, whole disks, or even entire sites in the event of a disaster. NetBackup maximizes restore performance by recovering multiple data streams in parallel from a multiplexed tape or across multiple tape drives, especially when used with fast tape technologies such as StorageTek 9840, IBM Magstar, Quantum DLT, etc. On systems with a locally attached tape device, NetBackup optimizes throughput by utilizing shared memory and other high performance data transfer techniques. Whatever the environment, NetBackup has the flexibility to provide continuous availability of databases or application-specific data with only minimal impact on user response times. Online Oracle Database Block Level Incremental Backup & Recovery Oracle backup and restore performance can be drastically increased by implementing the NetBackup for Oracle Advanced BLI Agent. Online Oracle database block level incremental (BLI) backups back up only changed file system blocks, virtually eliminating the backup window and significantly reducing the volume of data to be backed up and, more importantly, restored. This allows more frequent backups and continuous data availability while providing dramatically improved backup performance and significantly reducing CPU and network overhead during backups. The functionality brings compelling benefits to large database environments because backups both in data volume and time now are only proportional to the amount of changed data, not sheer database size. NBU BLIB database backups are supported for Oracle 7, Oracle 8, Oracle 8i and Oracle9i databases. NBU BLIB leverages Oracle s Proxy Copy functionality, whereby NetBackup is given the file names to be backed up rather than the database data itself. NBU BLIB backups leverage VERITAS File System technology called Storage Checkpoint. Storage Checkpoints identify and maintain a list of changed file system blocks as data changes (i.e., no pre-processing is needed to find changed data blocks as is the case with Oracle8i or Oracle9i RMAN). Through a VERITAS File System API, NetBackup extracts only changed data blocks and can take either differential or cumulative block level incremental backups. 11

12 Figure 6: Online block level incremental backups Although the Storage Checkpoint and block level incremental backup technology are not Oracle-specific, VERITAS is first focusing on Oracle environment. Block level incremental backup support for other major databases and application-specific data environments is planned for future releases of NetBackup. Automatic RMAN Script Generation Creating RMAN scripts to perform Oracle backup and recovery can be a tedious process, vulnerable to human error and requiring a certain level of technical sophistication to be done properly. NetBackup has virtually eliminated this process by providing a graphical user interface that takes users through the process of configuring Oracle backups. This graphical RMAN script generator allows administrators who are unfamiliar with RMAN to quickly set up Oracle backups or restores in a fraction of the time without having to know the scripting language or debug a script. This capability is currently available for Windows, Sun Solaris, HP-UX, IBM AIX, Red Hat and Suse Linux, Tru64 UNIX and SGI IRIX environments. VERITAS NetBackup Database Archiver Agent The ability to preserve database data for long periods of time and then retrieve it quickly is more crucial today than ever. The optional NetBackup Database Archiver Agent supports database-release-independent archiving. An entire database or a subset of database data may be extracted and archived. As a result, the user can quickly and efficiently import and restore this data into another database, without depending on the environment s original configuration, database version, machine operating system version or associated applications. The Database Archiver Agent accomplishes this feat through the use of extensible Markup Language or XML. For a backup, it exports selected database data by first converting the data into XML and then processing these XML files to tape or disk. The data can be maintained in this state indefinitely, until a restore is required. The key value is that the data can be easily retrieved later, when the original set of databases, operating systems, and applications may not be available. With a restore request, the archived data is restored in XML format and is optionally inserted back into the database table of the user s choice. Since the Database Archiver Agent works 12

13 with an industry standard XML users can be confident that their business-critical database data will be available now and in the future. This capability is currently available for Oracle8i and Oracle9i databases on Sun Solaris, HP-UX and IBM AIX, with additional database and platform support planned for future releases. Online SAP R/3 Backup & Recovery With large-scale SAP R/3 environments requiring 24x7 operations, data protection becomes an essential component of any successful SAP R/3 deployment plan. The integration of VERITAS NetBackup and online SAP data backup utilities provides a comprehensive approach to SAP R/3 data protection. Certified by SAP on HP-UX, Solaris, IBM AIX, Compaq Tru64 UNIX, and Windows, VERITAS NetBackup for SAP R/3 provides high performance, online backup of SAP R/3 environments, optimal utilization of large scale device and robotic configurations, and a scalable, distributed design. Figure 7 diagrams a SAP R/3 backup configuration. SAP R/3 backups can be scheduled and automatically initiated via the NetBackup scheduler or via the SAPDBA interface. NetBackup supports the SAP R/3 BACKINT interface specification for backup, restore and inquire functions from the respective SAP R/3 tools (brbackup, brrestore, and brarchive). BACKINT then starts the required NetBackup programs, monitors the progress of each program, and reports the results back to the SAP R/3 tool upon completion. NetBackup supports SAP R/3 Oracle database backups as either raw partitions or regular files. Figure 7: NetBackup support for SAP R/3 environments High Performance Lotus Backup and Recovery NetBackup supports online backup of Lotus Notes and Domino Server R4 (on Windows) and R5 environments (on Windows, Sun Solaris, and IBM AIX). Lotus Notes R4 on Windows may be backed up using NetBackup with the Open Transaction Manager. Lotus Notes R5 environments can be backed up online or Hot using NetBackup for Lotus Notes, which takes advantage of the Lotus R5 backup API. NetBackup for Lotus Notes also supports backing up R5 transaction logs, so that databases may be recovered to a specific point-in-time. The actual recycling of transaction logs, however, is managed by Domino Server, with the type of backup implemented 13

14 determining whether or not the logs are marked for recycling. The following types of backups are supported with NetBackup for Lotus Notes: Full Backup Backs up all Lotus databases, logged or unlogged, specified in the file list and/or transaction logs, if the BACKUP_TRANSACTION_LOGS directive is found in the file list. Differential Incremental Backup When NetBackup performs a differential incremental backup on unlogged or local databases, it will only backup those unlogged or local databases specified in the file list that have been modified since the last full or differential incremental backup. The last modification date is determined by the time the database was last modified, not the time/date stamp of the database file. For logged databases, NetBackup will only backup those logged databases identified in the file list that have been assigned a new DBIID since the last full or differential incremental backup. Cumulative Incremental Backup When NetBackup performs a cumulative incremental backup on unlogged or local databases, it will only backup those unlogged or local databases specified in the file list that have been modified since the last full backup. Once again, the last modification date is determined by the time the database was last modified, not the time/date stamp of the database file. For logged databases, NetBackup will backup only those logged databases identified in the file list that have been assigned a new DBIID since the last full backup. User Backup Actions performed for a user backup are identical to a full backup except that the transaction logs are not marked as ready to be recycled after they are successfully backed up. Because transaction logs are not recycled, user backups are like taking a snapshot of the databases at a given point in time without impacting the content of ongoing full and incremental backups. IBM DB2 Backup & Recovery NetBackup delivers comprehensive data protection for IBM DB2 databases. Organizations can centrally manage the aspects of full or incremental backup and recovery for database and non-database files from intuitive graphical user interfaces (GUIs), allowing consistent backup policies to be set across the enterprise. NetBackup has data-center-strength media management that enables organizations to perform all aspects of media management, including library sharing. And, with VERITAS NetBackup Shared Storage Option, NetBackup offers heterogeneous Storage Area Network-ready solution for DB2 and other platforms. Shared Storage Option enables NetBackup to dynamically allocate individual tape drives, standalone or in a tape library, between multiple NetBackup servers in a SAN or SCSI switched environment. Customers realize benefits from reduced overall costs and from better utilization and optimization of resources during backup and recovery operations. NetBackup for DB2 also provides the following features: Nondisruptive Backups Online backup of DB2 ensures continuous operation of mission-critical databases. Track Backup History Detailed views of DB2 backup history simplify restores since backups of databases and transaction logs are easier to track. Fast Backups Highly parallel data streams ensure fast DB2 backups. SAP R/3 Support Fully supports backing up SAP R/3 running DB2. Encryption Support DB2 agent is supported with the NetBackup Encryption Option. ONLINE FILE SYSTEM BACKUPS VERITAS NetBackup FlashBackup While your critical enterprise server is up and running and performing its primary function, the VERITAS NetBackup FlashBackup option can make a lightning-fast backup in a fraction of the time required by conventional backup methods, while still providing data integrity and individual file restorability. 14

15 FlashBackup uses snapshot technology to provide high performance, online file image backups of mounted file systems 1 while still allowing restores of individual files and directories. FlashBackup significantly enhances backup performance for file servers, web servers, and internet mail servers that have file systems which contain a large number of small files. High performance backups are accomplished with minimal overhead on the host system being backed up. FlashBackup delivers the performance of raw file system backup without losing the flexibility of restores at the individual file and/or directory level. Both full and incremental FlashBackup backups are supported and are performed with a single sweep of the source disk, eliminating unnecessary head movement. All restores are performed with a single pass of the media, which optimizes restore times. Figure 8: NetBackup FlashBackup Figure 8 illustrates the FlashBackup backup and recovery process. FlashBackup delivers the high performance of a raw partition backup (i.e. it bypasses the buffered I/O of the file system) and dramatically reduces CPU utilization during the backup process. A disk snapshot capability provides a consistent view of the live disk during backup 2. This provides a point-in-time backup of the disk, even though users may continue to change the contents of the disk during the backup operation. FlashBackup also allows NetBackup to recover individual files, directories or raw partitions, so that customers do not have to sacrifice granularity for performance. FlashBackup can dramatically enhance backup performance especially in environments with large numbers of small files. Backup performance improvements of 6x 10x are commonplace in NFS file server, web server, and Post Office Protocol (POP) mail server environments. For example, Figure 9 graphs backup times for a customer with a large number of files on their file system that reduced their backup window from 72 hours using a standard backup to 11 hours using the FlashBackup option. 1 Supported file systems include Solaris running UFS or the VERITAS File System, HP-UX running Online JFS or the VERITAS File System. Support for other platforms is planned for future releases. 2 When FlashBackup is used with VERITAS File System, the online snapshot capability of VERITAS File System is used. When FlashBackup is used with Solaris UFS or HP-UX Online JFS, FlashBackup provides the online snapshot capability. 15

16 Base NetBackup 72 hours FlashBackup 11.5 hours 89 GB file system 5.4 million files Source: Large California customer Hours Figure 9: Performance improvements using FlashBackup NDMP BACKUPS OF NETWORK-ATTACHED STORAGE (NAS) VERITAS NetBackup provides online data backup and restore for network-attached storage (NAS) hosts using the Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP). Currently supported NAS hosts include VERITAS ServPoint NAS, Network Appliance (NetApp), EMC, Procom Technology, BlueArc, Quantum, Spectra Logic and Auspex. In a NetBackup NDMP configuration, only control and catalog information is transferred over the network. This is a critical requirement in NAS host environments where file servers can store a terabyte or more of online data, which makes network-based backups infeasible or even impossible. In a typical NetBackup/NDMP configuration (see Figure 10), a NetBackup server sends backup, recovery and robotic control commands via the NDMP protocol to the NAS file server, which contains locally attached disks, tape drives, and optionally, robotics units. The NetBackup catalog maintains a complete listing of the backup image. The NAS NDMP host performs the actual NDMP backup/restore utility that runs on the NAS file server and carries out the NDMP commands from NetBackup. Large robotics devices can be shared between NAS file servers or between NetBackup master/media servers and NAS file servers. Figure 10: NetBackup backups of NAS servers via NDMP 16

17 Supported NDMP Configurations The following sections describe specific supported NDMP configurations and capabilities, providing unparalleled flexibility in defining and implementing a NAS backup strategy. NDMP Backups NetBackup, of course, supports backing up NAS server to locally attached storage devices. However, there are times when it is not cost effective to directly attach a tape drive or library to each NDMP host, especially in environments where there are many smaller NAS servers. For this reason, NetBackup offers tremendous flexibility for alternate NAS server backup techniques (see Figure 11). NetBackup supports backing up from one NAS server over the network to another NAS server with locally attached storage devices AND restoring from a NAS server with locally attached storage devices over the network to another NAS server. This capability is known as 3-way backup/restore. In situations where there are no storage devices attached to any NAS server within an enterprise, NetBackup supports backing up the NAS server to a NetBackup server and restoring the NAS data from a NetBackup server to the NAS server. Also known as Remote NDMP, this functionality leverages NDMP and does not utilize any NFS mounting. Direct Access Recovery (DAR) Figure 11: NDMP to-ndmp backups NetBackup can use Direct Access Recovery during NDMP restores. DAR greatly reduces the time it takes to restore files since a single file can be restored without having to read the entire image. DAR can be used when restoring files, but not when restoring directories. NetBackup automatically determines whether using Direct Access Recovery will result in a faster restore and utilizes DAR if it will be beneficial. The NDMP host must support DAR to perform recoveries. Library sharing between NetBackup and NDMP Hosts NetBackup can share a tape library between the NetBackup server and one or more NDMP NAS servers, or just between the NDMP NAS servers themselves. For more information, see the Sharing Tape Libraries section. 17

18 VERITAS NETBACKUP ARRAY INTEGRATION OPTION For many of today s largest enterprises, traditional backup methods simply do not suffice. Data availability must be kept at a maximum, while backup impact to production systems must be kept at a minimum. Leading storage manufacturers have developed innovative data snapshot methods, which, when combined with backup, strive to address these challenges. The VERITAS NetBackup Array Integration Option enables NetBackup DataCenter to exploit these popular hardware data snapshot techniques. In most cases, a third mirror of the data is created within a disk array to serve as the backup object. The Array Integration Option splits the third mirror away from the primary mirror and secondary mirror to prepare the data for backup. NetBackup DataCenter then performs the backup, sending the data traffic to a NetBackup server, where it is backed up to a tape device. The NetBackup Array Integration Option may also be combined with the NetBackup ServerFree Agent to backup data directly from disk to tape. When the backup is complete, NetBackup DataCenter and NetBackup Array Integration Option establishes synchronization between the third mirror and the primary mirror for data consistency. This can be done immediately or at the time of the next backup. The NetBackup Array Integration Option currently supports backing up and restoring Oracle databases or file system data on Sun Solaris or HP-UX with HP Surestore Business Copy XP, Hitachi ShadowImage, or EMC TimeFinder. Additional application, operating system, and frozen image method support is planned for future releases. For more details, refer to the section about extended frozen image services within the VERITAS NetBackup ServerFree Agent 4.5 System Administrator s Guide. Figure 12: NetBackup Array Integration Option performing a split mirror backup VERITAS NETBACKUP INSTANT RECOVERY OPTION NetBackup is able to retrieve point-in-time copies from disk to produce the fastest recovery possible. By using VERITAS NetBackup Instant Recovery Option in conjunction with the VERITAS File System or VERITAS Volume Manager, backup administrators can now combat end user error and application corruption quicker than ever before. 18

19 The point-in-time copy capabilities of VERITAS File System and VERITAS Volume Manager allow users to select the method that makes the most sense for their environment. If a user cannot spare the disk space, they can select the Storage Checkpoint capability within the VERITAS File System. If sufficient disk space is available and the user would like to generate a point-in-time copy across disk arrays, they can select the volume snapshot feature of the VERITAS Volume Manager. With either method, the end result is the ability to capture data at the client without moving data across the network or to tape. Only catalog entries are sent to the NetBackup master server to accurately track the point-in-time copy that was created or identified for use with NetBackup. ANDREW FILE SYSTEM (AFS) BACKUPS Andrew File System (AFS) volume level backup and restore is supported in NetBackup. NetBackup utilizes the AFS VOSdump and VOSrestore utilities to implement the backup and restore operations. Both full and incremental AFS backup operations are supported. AFS is supported on the Solaris and HP-UX clients. Other platforms may be added in future releases. File-level AFS backups are not currently supported. VERITAS NETBACKUP BACKUP CONCEPTS The following sections explain the basic concepts involved in backup operations. STORAGE UNITS VERITAS NetBackup associates all storage devices and media with logical storage units. As used by NetBackup, the term storage unit refers to a logical entity that includes one or more physical storage devices that are of a specific type and media density and attached to a specific host. There are three categories of storage units: Directly attached standalone or robotic media storage units that contain tape or optical devices and are managed by the VERITAS NetBackup Media Manager. Standalone or robotic storage units controlled by the VERITAS NetBackup Media Manager via Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP). Disk file system storage units consisting of a designated directory in the file system that will receive the backup or archive data. During configuration, the NetBackup administrator first completes any necessary device and media configuration and then groups all devices and media into appropriate VERITAS NetBackup storage units. For example, on a specific host, a Hewlett-Packard optical disk library could be in one storage unit and an ATL tape library could be in another. Priorities may be assigned to individual storage units and/or to individual devices within a storage unit. This provides extreme flexibility with the preference of storage unit selection, should the administrator choose to have VERITAS NetBackup determine which storage unit to use during a backup. During backups and restores, VERITAS NetBackup specifies the media required and VERITAS NetBackup Media Manager automatically finds it and mounts it in a device within an available storage unit. The storage unit concept makes it easier to configure backups because the administrator can simply assign the storage unit with the type of storage needed for a client backup, rather than worry about specific devices. It also provides a virtual approach to backup storage because if more storage of that type is needed, it will be automatically and transparently utilized after being added to the VERITAS NetBackup Media Manager and VERITAS NetBackup configurations (see the Scratch Pools section below). VERITAS NETBACKUP POLICIES An important feature of VERITAS NetBackup is the capability to configure backup policies. A policy consists of one or more clients that have similar backup needs. Every VERITAS NetBackup client must belong to at least one 19

20 policy and often belongs to more than one. Policies were formerly known as classes in earlier versions of NetBackup. The major advantage offered by VERITAS NetBackup policies is that the administrator can group clients into policies and then configure backups for the entire group, rather than one client at a time. In addition, since a client can belong to more than one policy, the administrator can establish different schedules for different files on the same client or assign a client to one policy for automatic backups and another for user-directed backups and archives. When new clients are installed, they can be added to an existing policy or the administrator can define new policies for new clients on a one-by-one basis. An easy way to create a new policy is simply to clone and modify an existing one. The properties that the administrator configures for each policy include: Files lists the set of files to include in automatic backup operations for the policy. It is not a requirement that all files on the list exist on all clients and it is often convenient to make the file list a superset of the desired files. The administrator or user can also specify a list of files to exclude from each client backup. The exclude list is not part of the policy definition and is unique for each client. Clients lists the set of clients in the policy. When a new client is added to VERITAS NetBackup, the administrator can simply add the client s host name to the appropriate policy and the client software can optionally be installed automatically over the network. Schedules lists the set of schedules pertaining to the policy (refer to the next section for a detailed description of schedules). Policy Type specifies the type of policy you are configuring. You will use the Standard policy type for most UNIX clients. For Windows clients, you will use the MS-Windows-NT policy type. The other policy types cover special cases. For example, you would specify the Microsoft Exchange Server backup type to backup Microsoft Exchange clients or the Oracle backup type to back up Oracle databases on clients that are running Oracle. Policy Storage Unit specifies the type of storage device to receive the file backups. This is optional. If unspecified, backups and archives can go to any available storage unit. Priorities may be set, however, so that the backups and archives may be directed first to available storage units with higher priority. Policy Volume Pool specifies the set of volumes (media) to use for storing the backups. If unspecified, backups and archives use the default NetBackup volume pool. Policy Attributes the following are policy-specific attributes Limit Jobs Per Policy specifies the number of client jobs from this policy that can be performed concurrently. Administrators can use this parameter to balance network load. Job priority specifies the priority of backups for a policy relative to the other policies. This is useful to ensure that the most important data is backed up first. Keyword Phrase (optional) enables a policy to be defined by a unique name, which the administrator may browse for during a restore. The default setting lists no keyword phrase. Active specifies whether or not NetBackup will allow backups or archives for this policy. This is useful for temporarily deactivating a policy during, for example, network troubleshooting or repair. The administrator may also specify the date and time the policy becomes active. Backup Network Drives specifies whether to allow backups of remote files that are NFS mounted on the client. Cross Mount Points specifies whether or not VERITAS NetBackup is to cross file systems to back up directory paths and files. Collect True Image Restore Information specifies whether NetBackup will collect the information necessary to support true image recovery of directories saved by clients in this policy. For more information, refer to page

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