Peak load reduction for distributed backup scheduling

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1 Peak load reduction for distributed backup scheduling Peter van de Ven joint work with Angela Schörgendorfer (Google) and Bo Zhang (IBM Research)

2

3 My research interests are in the design and analysis of large (distributed) stochastic systems: - performance analysis; scheduling; stochastic optimization and control

4 Part I: Peak load reduction for distributed backup scheduling

5 load 8am 6pm Load is highly varying throughout the day - network costs are non-linear in the hourly load - aim to reduce network costs by shifting peak load

6 load backups 8am 6pm - the load is comprised of different types of traffic - we focus on the backup traffic

7 load backups 8am 6pm Users (workstations) aim to do daily backups - the backup transmitted across the network to a central server - backup traffic can be shifted because of delay-tolerance

8 load load backups backups 8am 6pm 8am 6pm current target Backups are initiated by the users, based on local information only - backup policy is characterized by hourly backup probabilities However - users are not always connected - the server may have some capacity constraint

9 load load backups backups 8am 6pm 8am 6pm current target Question 1: How much traffic can the network handle for given backup probabilities? Question 2: How to choose the backup probabilities to minimize the network costs while ensuring regular backups?

10 Model outline

11 N users network server Consider N users that generate data (bits) over time - user backup to a central server - access to server over a data network

12 A 1(t) B(t) i A 2(t) A 3(t) A 4(t) A 5(t) network server - time is slotted - user i generates A i (t) bits in slot t - data is added to the backlog B i (t)

13 A 1(t) B(t) i A 2(t) A 3(t) A 4(t) A 5(t) network C i (t) server - users can only do a backup when connected to the network - connectivity is represented by C i (t) {0, 1}, i = 1,..., N

14 A 1(t) B(t) i σ i (t) A 2(t) A 3(t) A 4(t) A 5(t) network C i (t) server Connected users may decide to do a backup (σ i (t) = 1) or not (σ i (t) = 0)

15 A 1(t) B(t) i σ i (t) A 2(t) A 3(t) A 4(t) A 5(t) network C i (t) server Connected users may decide to do a backup (σ i (t) = 1) or not (σ i (t) = 0) The backlog evolution and offered backup load are given by B i (t + 1) = (A i (t) + B i (t))(1 C i (t)σ i (t)), N H(t) = (A i (t) + B i (t))c i (t)σ i (t) i=1

16 User type & Backup probability Consider the number of days since backup W i (t) {0, 1,... } (user type): W i (t + 1) = W i (t) ( 1 σ i (t)c i (t) ) + 1 {η(t+1)=0}, with η(t) := t mod T the hour of the day

17 User type & Backup probability Consider the number of days since backup W i (t) {0, 1,... } (user type): W i (t + 1) = W i (t) ( 1 σ i (t)c i (t) ) + 1 {η(t+1)=0}, with η(t) := t mod T the hour of the day The backup decision is random and may depend on W i (t) and the hour of the day u(t) {0,..., T 1}: { 1 w.p. ν(u(t), Wi (t)) σ i (t) = 0 otherwise

18 Capacity & network cost minimization

19 Let W(t) = (W 1 (t),..., W N (t)) and consider the Markov process U := {(η(t), W(t)), t = 0, 1,... } For fixed ν, we can analyze U to obtain insights into the backup system

20 The stationary distribution π of the process U satisfies where π(u, w) = π(0, 1)k 1 (u, w), u = 0,..., T 1; w 1, π(u, 0) = π(0, 1)k 2 (u), u = 1,..., T 1, w 1 k 1 (u, w) := m(0, u 1, w) m(0, T 1, y), k 2 (u) := u v=1 y=1 and with normalizing constant [ π(0, 1) = y=1 k 1 (v 1, y)c(v 1)ν(v 1, y), T 1 w=1 u=0 T 1 k 1 (u, w) + u=1 k 2 (u)] 1.

21 Let u m(u, u, w) := (1 c(v)ν(v, w)), u, u = 0,..., T 1; w = 0, 1,..., v=u and define g(u, w) := 1 m(u, T 1, w)m(0, u 1, w + 1), u, u = 0,..., T 1; w = 0, 1,..., Proposition If α(u) := lim w w( g(u, w) w 1) exists and α(u) (0, ) for all u {0, 1,..., T 1}, then U is positive recurrent.

22 Lemma The expected backlog size of a type-w user at hour u: S(u, w) = where T 1 u =0 = p(u, u, w)e π [ B(t) η(t) = u, W (t) = w, η(τ (t)) = u ]. [ E π B(t) η(t) = u, W (t) = w, η(τ (t)) = u ] p(u, u, w) = u 1 v=u +1 T 1 v=u +1 w =0 w =0 a(v), w = 0, a(v) + (w 1)â + u 1 v=0 a(v), w 1, π(u,w ) π(u,0) c(u )ν(u, w )m(u + 1, u 1, 0), w = 0, π(u,w ) π(0,1) c(u )ν(u, w )m(u + 1, T 1, 0), w 1.

23 load B(t) L(t) 8am 6pm We consider the sum of H(t) (backup load) and L(t) (extraneous load) - denote H(t; ν) to reflect the impact of ν

24 Network costs log10(kb) The data network is associated with a load-dependent hourly cost function g : R R We are interested in the average per-day network costs (T = 24) G(ν) = T 1 u=0 E{g ( L(u) + H(u; ν) ) },

25 We approximate G(ν) G(ν) := T 1 u=0 g ( E [ L(u) ] + E π [ H(u; ν) ]), The E [ L(u) ] can be obtained from measurements. Exploiting user independence: E π [H(u; ν)] = NT π(u, w) ( S(u, w) + a(u) ) c(u)ν(u, w), w=0

26 We aim to minimize the network costs, while ensuring regular backups min ν G(ν) such that T w=w j π(0, w) γ j, j = 1, 2,.... This problem is non-convex.

27 Implementation

28 We consider an IBM location with N = 5397 users 25 L u c u u u load L(u) connectivity c(u)

29 w = 1 w = 2 w = 3 w = 4 w 5 We truncate the state space at w = 5 and compute the ν(u, w) - the probability is high at night and low during working hours - users that have not done a backup in a while are more likely to schedule during peak hours

30 Comparison to original scheduling table Europe team s schedule: = Our schedule: =

31 Comparison to original scheduling table - Performance days without backup total load

32 Constrained system β Consider a constraint on the total amount of backup traffic: B i (t + 1) = (A i (t) + B i (t))(1 C i (t)σ i (t) min{1, β/b(t)}) Users are no longer independent - stability conditions and proofs are more involved - use mean field limit to compute long-term average behavior

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