1 PRESS RELEASE 2009 Index of African Governance With country rankings EMBARGOED UNTIL 1 OCTOBER 2009 The best governed African countries are peaceful and prosperous. They are well led, they deliver good services to their citizens, they hold free and fair elections, and they are less corrupt than their neighbors. By contrast the worst governed African countries are convulsed by conflict, hopelessly corrupt, run by autocrats, and often afflicted with the resource curse. Inhabitants of the first set of states enjoy rising living standards and improving life expectancies. Those who live in the second set of kleptocracies often go hungry and face many nasty choices. In between are a vast set of countries that deliver some goods to their citizens, but not others. Some provide relatively good standards of living while infringing on basic civil and political rights. Some offer national security, while failing to provide public infrastructure. The Index of African Governance, produced at Harvard University s Kennedy School of Government, ranks all 53 African countries according to their ability to provide good governance for their inhabitants. The full Index report illustrates the enormous variety of governance performance on the continent. Mauritius, the Seychelles, Cape Verde, and Botswana are the four best governed countries this year, as they were in last year s annually produced Index, then called the Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Tunisia, Ghana, Algeria, Namibia, South Africa, and São Tomé and Príncipe round out the top ten best overall performers. South Africa has slipped a little, from 5th to 9th largely because of its lower scores in the areas of respect for civil and political rights and the rule of law. In particular, its declines in terms of respect for physical integrity rights are notable. Although South Africa performs relatively well in most categories of the Index, in addition to its low score in the area of respect for physical integrity rights, its very low score in safety and security reflects the country s high crime rates. The Index also reveals continuing challenges in South Africa in terms of poverty and inequality. The bottom ten countries on the 2009 Index of Governance are Guinea, in 43rd place, Zimbabwe, Angola, Eritrea, the Central African Republic, Côte d Ivoire, Congo (Kinshasa) in 50th place, Chad, the Sudan, and ungoverned Somalia.
2 Elsewhere in southern Africa, Lesotho is 23rd, Comoros 25th, Mozambique 31st. Swaziland is 42nd, down from 34th in Nigeria is 38th, having moved up slightly since last year. In Central and East Africa, Malawi is 14th, Tanzania 20th, Zambia 24th, Rwanda 26th, Kenya 27th, and Uganda 28th. The Index of African Governance measures governance according to service delivery across five major categories of analysis: Safety and Security; Rule of Law, Transparency and Corruption; Participation and Human Rights; Sustainable Economic Opportunity; and Human Development. Scores on 57 variables provide the data for each of the category scores and for the overall ranking numbers. The 57 variables include such indicators as maternal mortality, kilometers of paved roads, GDP per capita, respect for civil and physical integrity rights, judicial independence, and numbers of people killed in violent conflicts. The purpose of the Index is not to rank, per se, but to offer governments, civil societies, donors, and investors a complex method of diagnosing the way in which each of Africa s 53 countries are governed, as compared to each of the other governments of Africa. By noting which indicators lag and which have advanced, governments can improve the outcomes for their populations. Civil societies can agitate for improvements in certain identifiable sectors. The title of the published version of the Index each year is Strengthening African Governance. That, and bettering the lives of all of Africa s peoples, is the overriding purpose of the Index. Without hard numbers derived from real outputs, not inputs or perceptions, good policy cannot be made and Africa cannot move itself forward into the ranks of advanced plural economies and societies. The Index of Governance method was invented by Robert I. Rotberg and Rachel M. Gisselquist at the Harvard Kennedy School. Rotberg and Gisselquist also work closely with a distinguished group of high level African advisors and rely on the in-country research of dedicated African associates. This is the third consecutive annual version of the Index, with its comprehensive rankings. It appears each year on several Harvard and other websites and in a 200-page published volume.
3 INDEX OF AFRICAN GOVERNANCE 2009 PRESS PACKET Strictly embargoed until 1 October This packet includes: 1) The cover page for the volume in which the Index will shortly appear, along with all of the items listed below. 2) New in the 2009 Index of African Governance a highlight of what you will see and hear 3) The Research Team, indicating the high level of African involvement and engagement with the Index 4) The Meaning of Governance which explains the origins of the Index and the rationale behind it. This essay also details and explains the full contents and workings of the Index. 5) The 2009 Results This is an elaboration of the press release and reports on the latest results in detail. It also comments on anomalies and strange rankings. 6) A table with the actual 2009 Rankings from number 1 to number 53. 7) Five more tables giving the results alphabetically, by both rank and raw score, and then according to the categories mentioned in the press release. A final table offers rankings according to only two categories, not all five. 8) Measurement, Methods, and More a detailed explanation for the technically minded on how the Index is constructed. Robert I. Rotberg and Rachel M. Gisselquist Harvard Kennedy School of Government Program on Intrastate Conflict and Conflict Resolution Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
4 STRENGTHENING AFRICAN GOVERNANCE index of african governance results and rankings 2009 Robert I. Rotberg and Rachel M. Gisselquist A Project of The Program on Intrastate Conflict and Conflict Resolution at The Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University & The World Peace Foundation
5 This publication was created at the Program on Intrastate Conflict and Conflict Resolution at Harvard s Kennedy School, under the direction of Robert I. Rotberg and Rachel M. Gisselquist. The President and Fellows of Harvard College and Robert I. Rotberg Harvard Kennedy School 79 John F. Kennedy Street, Box 121 Cambridge, MA October 2009
6 i rotberg & gisselquist I Strengthening African Governance new in the 2009 index of african governance 1. The Index of African Governance now includes detailed scores and rankings on all fifty-three African countries, adding assessment of the five North African countries to the forty-eight sub-saharan African countries assessed in previous editions. 2. The Index now uses raw data collected by in-country affiliates in thirty-eight of the fifty-three countries of Africa. Where and when appropriate, the Index supplements its assessments of Africa through internationally comparable data with data collected by its own researchers in those countries. 3. The Index is now subject to a thorough sensitivity analysis, rigorously undertaken for the Index by an outside research team. 4. The Index is now capable of being displayed and its data arrayed in a variety of useful ways and places. 5. The 2009 Index continues the 2007 and 2008 Ibrahim Indexes of African Governance, using the methods pioneered by Robert I. Rotberg and Rachel M. Gisselquist in those years. This is a continuation of the original Index. 6. The 2007 and 2008 Ibrahim Indexes, and the first four months of research on the 2009 Index were generously supported by the Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Since the end of 2008, there has been no official connection between the Mo Ibrahim Foundation and this Index. It is now backed by the World Peace Foundation of Cambridge, Massachusetts and remains based in the Program on Intrastate Conflict in the Harvard Kennedy School. For details on the first five new items above, please see the end of the first essay in this Index, The Meaning of Governance: Ranking Africa.
7 1 THE RESEARCH TEAM 2009 The Index of African Governance is compiled and updated annually by a team of researchers at Harvard University and across Africa, under the leadership of Robert I. Rotberg and Rachel M. Gisselquist. The 2007 and 2008 editions of the Index were published as the Ibrahim Index of African Governance. In the first edition, published in 2007, Rotberg and Gisselquist set out the Index s basic framework and theory of governance, building on earlier work by Rotberg. The Index and all of its data have been revised annually to reflect the latest research and best data currently available. The project has been advised by a distinguished Executive Council of African scholars and business leaders, whose names are listed below. Although based at Harvard s Kennedy School, the Index of African Governance project is committed to African involvement particularly of scholars and students and to the transition of the project to African counterparts. The Index s team, both at Harvard and in Africa, reflects that commitment. Since 2008, Rotberg and Gisselquist have built a team of research affiliates (institutions and individuals) throughout the continent. They have collaborated on the collection of basic data for the Index in thirty-eight countries. In 2009, affiliates in twenty-nine countries submitted data collection questionnaires. The 2009 Index also drew on data collection completed during by research affiliates in nine additional countries. These research affiliates lend a wide range of experience; while most are in academia or national statistical agencies, others are from the NGO sector, in journalism, or have independent consulting backgrounds. Each year, this (growing) team of in-country researchers diligently collects official statistics and other information on a range of indicators from sources in their countries. Many of these in-country researchers, well-respected scholars and analysts, also share their insights on the reliability of the figures and the Index project more generally. As anyone who has conducted research in Africa will know, this task is far from straightforward: Many countries lack the resources to produce basic statistics in a timely way. Many others do not make public the information that they do collect. Although government agencies in some countries have provided extensive support for our project, in other countries the relevant agencies have cooperated less fully with our researchers. In addition to this team of in-country researchers, the Index project, from its inception, has worked with a talented and international group of graduate student researchers at Harvard, including African students from across the continent. This Harvard-based team provides assistance with quantitative analysis and with coding projects, compiles data from international sources, and conducts literature reviews and desk studies. Several of our Harvard research assistants have also contributed published papers to the Index. Finally, since 2008, the Index project has actively sought to build and deepen collaborative research with African academics and analysts. As part of this effort, the project in October 2008 held a workshop on the Ibrahim Index at Harvard (funded by the Mo Ibrahim Foundation and the World Peace Foundation). The workshop brought together for a week of discussions scholars from universities in Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Mauritius, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, and Tanzania. Rotberg and Gisselquist have also met directly with other scholars during trips throughout the region to solicit feedback, to learn about the latest research on the continent, and to introduce the Index as a research and teaching tool. Rotberg and Gisselquist invite those interested in working with the Index project to contact them directly. They are especially interested in contacts from countries where the project currently lacks an in-country research affiliate.
8 2 rotberg & gisselquist I Strengthening African Governance HARVARD TEAM INDEX OF AFRICAN GOVERNANCE TEAM Director: Robert I. Rotberg, Director of the Program on Intrastate Conflict in the Harvard Kennedy School and President of the World Peace Foundation Research Director: Rachel M. Gisselquist, M.P.P., Ph.D. Editor: Emily Wood, M.A. Administrative Team: Katie Naeve Researchers and Affiliated Scholars: Rahma Adam, Marie Besançon, Denise Garcia, Yeonkyung Grace Park, Katie Naeve, Adibeli Nduka-Agwu, Oyinola Shyllon, and Adam Ziegfeld Researchers and Affiliated Scholars: Rahma Adam, Denise Garcia, Zekarias Hussein, Dambudzo Muzenda, Sagita Muco, Yeonkyung Grace Park, Laura Rudert, and Oyinola Shyllon Researchers: Emmanuel Bagenda, Renata Campante, Sue Drummond Haley, Maya Horii, Zekarias Hussein, Heather Jensen, Michelle Lyden, Stephanie Schwartz, Melesse Tashu, Curtis Valentine, Rebecca Wright, and Adam Ziegfeld EXECUTIVE COUNCIL Michael Chege, Emeritus Professor of Political Science, University of Florida, and Advisor, International Development Policy, Ministry of Planning and Development, Republic of Kenya Mathews Chikaonda, Group Chief Executive, Press Corporation Ltd (Malawi) Keli Gadzekpo, Executive Vice-Chairman, Databank (Ghana) Monde Muyangwa, Academic Dean, Africa Center for Strategic Studies, National Defense University (Zambia) Moss Ngoasheng, Executive Chairman of Safika Holdings (Pty) Limited (South Africa) Nawal Nour, Director, African Women s Health Center, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston (the Sudan) Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja, Interim Director, African Governance Institute, Dakar (the Democratic Republic of the Congo) Julie Oyegun, Director, World Bank Group, Diversity Programs (Nigeria) Rotimi Suberu, Professor of Political Science, Bennington College (Nigeria) Geraldine Umugwaneza, Deputy Registrar, Eastern African Appeals Court (Rwanda) Leonard Wantchekon, Professor, Department of Politics, New York University (Benin)
9 3 IN-COUNTRY RESEARCH AFFILIATES The following individuals and organizations assisted with in-country data collection in the 2009 and research cycles. The statistics compiled by these researchers have been invaluable in the development of the Index. Although not all of the numbers compiled are cross-nationally comparable (and thus cannot currently be included directly in our dataset), all statistics gathered inform the project and many are used and cited throughout this report. The Index project continues to work toward greater use of local numbers. Benin: Edgar Sasse for the Institut de Recherche Empirique en Economie Politique (Cotonou) (in ) Botswana: Lawrence Ookeditse, Teaching Assistant and candidate for Masters in Politics and International Relations, University of Botswana (in 2009) Jeffrey Ramsay, Ph.D., Government of Botswana (in ) Burkina Faso: Noraogo Ilboudo, Economist/Statistician, Institut de Recherche Empirique en Economie Politique (Cotonou) (Burkina-based affiliate) Burundi: Gérard Nduwayo, Consultant/Researcher Cameroon: Solomon Enoma Tatah, Counselor, United Nations Department, Ministry of External Relations, Yaoundé Cape Verde: Francisco J. Rodrigues, Director of Methods and Information Management, National Institute of Statistics (in ) Comoros: Ahmed Djoumoi, Statistician Demographer, Direction Nationale de la Statistique Côte d Ivoire: Linda Dempah, MBA, Harvard Business School, and Jerome N dri, National Governance and Capacity Building Secretariat (SNGRC) Djibouti: Coordinated by Abdulrahman R. Olhaye with assistance from local counterparts 1 Ethiopia: Dawit Mamo Ketema Gambia: Sam Sarr, Managing Editor, Foroyaa. (In , Alagi Yorro Jallow, journalist, and Sam Sarr.) Ghana: Samuel Atuobi, Research Associate, Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (in 2009) Joseph Asunka, Center for Democratic Development (CDD-Ghana) (in ). Guinea: Youssouf Boundou Sylla, Ph.D., IFAD Consultant Kenya: Karuti Kanyinga, Ph.D., Senior Research Fellow, and George Michuki, Ph.D., Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi Lesotho: Potlako Ntšekhe-Nzima, Consultant Liberia: Daoudah Kromah, Division of Statistics, Ministry of Labor, and Yusuff Sarnoh, Senior Research Officer, Liberia Institute of Statistics and Geo-Information Services Statistics (LISGIS) and Lecturer, Department of Geography, University of Liberia (in 2009) Jackson Wonde, Deputy Minister, Ministry of Labor (in ) Madagascar: General Secretary of Madagascar Action Plan, Presidency of the Republic of Madagascar (in ) Malawi: Mathews A. P. Chikaonda, Ph.D., and Lydia Malemia Mali: Fadimata Haidara, Research Economist, GREAT Mali (Bamako) Mauritania: Ball Mohamed Fadel, Economist, Centre Mauritanien d Analyse des Politiques (in 2009) Mozambique: International Capital Corporation (Maputo) Namibia: Lelly Nghixulifwa (in 2009) Niger: M. Abdourahamane Hassane. (In , Abdourahamane Rabi, Centre de Documentation de l Institut Nationale de la Statistique (Niamey), collaborated on the research.) 1 In , figures were provided directly by the relevant ministries through the support of a formal request from the Ambassador of Djibouti to the United States and the United Nations, and further accelerated by a directive from the Executive Office in Djibouti to all the relevant ministries to gather and prepare the requested national data. Data collection for Harvard University was coordinated by Abdulrahman R. Olhaye with assistance from local counterparts.
10 4 rotberg & gisselquist I Strengthening African Governance Nigeria: David Uchenna Enweremadu, Ph.D., Lecturer, Department of Political Science, University of Ibadan. (In , Bayo Okunade, Ph.D., Professor, University of Ibadan, collaborated on the research.) Rwanda: Laura Rudert and Mawadda Damon, M.P.P.s, Harvard Kennedy School (in ) São Tomé and Príncipe: Henrique Pinto da Costa Senegal: Boubacar Sow, with assistance from Djibril Dia (in ) Seychelles: Helena de Letourdis, Principal Statistician, and Jude Padayachy, CEO, for the National Statistics Bureau, Mahé Sierra Leone: Robert Sam-Kpakra, Associate Lecturer, Institute of Public Administration and Management, University of Sierra Leone Somaliland: Ahmed Diriye, Ministry of Planning (in 2009) (In , Tamara Klajn, M.P.P., Harvard Kennedy School, and Patrick Reilly for Academy for Peace and Development/Akaademiga Nabadda iyo Horumarka [Hargeisa]) South Africa: Robert Mattes, Ph.D., Professor; Director, Democracy in Africa Research Unit, University of Cape Town (in 2009) Statistics South Africa (in ) Sudan: Jessica Reitz, M.P.P., Harvard Kennedy School (in ) Swaziland: Sue Drummond Haley, Independent Consultant (in 2007) Tanzania: John Jingu, Assistant Lecturer, University of Dar es Salaam (in 2009) Rahma Adam, MPP, Harvard Kennedy School (in ) Togo: Amevi Djadou, Institut de Recherche Empirique en Economie Politique (Cotonou) (Togo-based affiliate) Uganda: Robert Sentamu, Managing Director, Wilsken Agencies Ltd (in ) Zambia: George M hango, Central Statistical Office (in 2009) Zimbabwe: Usha Patel, ICC-Zimbabwe (In , Dambudzo Muzenda, M.P.P., Harvard Kennedy School, collaborated on research.) OCTOBER 2008 WORKSHOP Beginning in February 2008, the Index project invited members of African universities and research institutes to participate in a workshop at Harvard on governance and the Index. The following organizations were selected to participate on the basis of their applications and sent the following nominated participants: Addis Ababa University Merera Gudina Jefi, Chairman, Department of Political Science and International Relations; Member, Academic Commission, College of Social Sciences, Addis Ababa University Cheikh Anta Diop University (Dakar) Abdoullah Cissé, Rector, Université de Bambey, Diourbel; Professor of Law and Chair, Laboratory on Legal and Institutional Reforms in Africa, Université Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis; Visiting Professor, Université Cheikh Anta Diop Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), South Africa Kwandiwe Merriman Kondlo, Executive Director, Democracy and Governance Program, HSRC
11 Institute for Empirical Research in Political Economy (IREEP), Benin Augustin Marie-Gervais Loada, Professor of Law and Political Science, University of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso); Executive Director, Center for Democratic Governance (CGD), Ouagadougou; Affiliate, IREEP Damien Diedonné Napoléon Mededji, Director of Studies, IREEP; Research Analyst, National Institute of Statistics and Economic Analysis (Benin) Leonard Wantchekon, Founder and Director, IREEP; Professor of Politics, New York University University of Botswana David Sebudubudu, Senior Lecturer, Department of Political and Administrative Studies University of Dar es Salaam Rwekaza Sympho Mukandala, Vice-Chancellor, University of Dar es Salaam University of Ibadan Irene Pogoson, Lecturer, Department of Political Science Emmanuel Aiyede, Lecturer and Director, Postgraduate Affairs, Department of Political Science Akintola Olubukola Stella, Lecturer, Department of Political Science University of Mauritius Vinaye Dey Ancharaz, Senior Lecturer in International Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics University of the Witwatersrand Gavin Cawthra, Chair in Defence and Security Management; Director, Centre for Defence and Security Management, Graduate School of Public and Development Management Mohammed I. Jahed, Professor, Graduate School of Public and Development Management Anne McLennan, Acting Head of School and Associate Professor, Graduate School of Public and Development Management 5
12 6 rotberg & gisselquist I Strengthening African Governance
13 7 I THE MEANING OF GOVERNANCE: RANKING AFRICA The Index of African Governance (together with its book-length report, Strengthening African Governance) has been published annually since The 2007 and 2008 editions were generously supported by a grant from the Mo Ibrahim Foundation and are known as the Ibrahim Indexes of African Governance. The introductory essay to the first edition of Strengthening African Governance set out the Index s basic framework and theory of governance, building on earlier work by Rotberg. 2 Since then, the authors have revised the rankings and report annually to reflect continuing work on the topic, discussions and collaborations with other experts (especially in Africa), and the release of new, better data. The 2009 edition of the introductory essay (below) is thus freshly updated. The authors invite all constructive comments and collaborations as they begin work on the 2010 Index of African Governance. All citizens of all countries desire to be governed well. That is what citizens want from the nation-states in which they live. Thus, nation-states in the modern world are responsible for the delivery of essential political goods to their inhabitants. That is their purpose, and has been their central legitimate justification since at least the seventeenth century. These essential political goods can be summarized and gathered under five categories: Safety and Security; Rule of Law, Transparency, and Corruption; Participation and Human Rights; Sustainable Economic Opportunity; and Human Development. Together, these five categories of political goods epitomize the performance of any government, at any level. No one, whether looking to her village, municipality, province, state, or nation willingly wants to be victimized by crime or to live in a society without laws, freedom, a chance to prosper, or access to decent schools, well-run hospitals, and carefully-maintained roads. This 2009 Index of African Governance measures the degree to which each of these five categories of political goods is provided within Africa s fifty-three (forty-eight in prior Indexes) countries. By comprehensively measuring the performance of government in this manner, that is, by measuring governance, the Index is able to offer a report card on the accomplishments of each government for the years being investigated 2000 and 2002 (for baseline indications) and 2005, 2006, and 2007 (the last years with reasonably complete available data for nearly all African nation-states). For those analysts who would like separately to explore the performance of countries on various aspects of governance, the Index includes scores in each of the five categories. Prior editions of the Index assessed governance in the forty-eight countries of sub-saharan Africa. This year, we have expanded our coverage to include North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia) based on comments from our readers who highlighted the importance of assessing governance in all countries on the continent and all members of the African Union. This year s Index assesses all African Union countries except Western Sahara. Because Western Sahara is not recognized by many countries outside of the African Union, there is insufficient information on its governance available at this time. In addition, the 2009 Index provides a new assessment of Morocco, the only country on the continent that is not a member of the African Union. 1 The research for this edition s first four months was also supported by the Mo Ibrahim Foundation. 2 See, for instance, Robert I. Rotberg, Strengthening African Governance: Ranking Countries Would Help, The Washington Quarterly, XXIV (2004), 71 81; Robert I. Rotberg, Improving Governance in the World: Creating a Measuring and Ranking System, in Rotberg and Deborah West, The Good Governance Problem: Doing Something About It, WPF Report 29 (Cambridge, MA, 2004), 3 30; Robert I. Rotberg, On Improving Nation-State Governance, Daedalus (Winter 2007).
14 8 rotberg & gisselquist I Strengthening African Governance The Index is updated annually. This includes updating the sources of information for the indicators in our Index in order to use the best data currently available. Unlike many other projects, we also update the Index backward in each year; all data for all years are presented using the latest available sources. This allows the Index to be used to demonstrate comparatively how each of the fifty-three countries has shown progress or has retrogressed over time. In focusing on its five categories, the Index takes a broader view of governance than some other projects that treat governance as relating only to the rule of law, democracy, and human rights. This narrow definition of governance is essentially what is called political governance in the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM). 3 Defining good governance as equivalent to good political governance, we argue, is too narrow. It ignores the central responsibilities of state governments to provide safety and security, as well as to provide for a basic level of well-being for their citizens. Moreover, our African advisors insist that the broader categories reflect African governmental performance more accurately and fully. The importance of socio-economic rights, in addition to civil and political rights, is highlighted in the African context. Indeed, the African (Banjul) Charter on Human and Peoples Rights notes that civil and political rights cannot be dissociated from economic, social and cultural rights in their conception as well as universality and that the satisfaction of economic, social and cultural rights is a guarantee for the enjoyment of civil and political rights. 4 Similarly, the APRM includes socio-economic development and economic and corporate governance, in addition to political governance, among its four focus areas. 5 In the 1995 Cairo Agenda for Action, Heads of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) highlighted the close relationship between peace, democracy, and development, noting that democracy, good governance, peace, security and justice are among the most essential factors in African socio-economic development. 6 As the Cairo Agenda highlights, the term governance is sometimes used in the African context in the narrow sense; the broad definition employed in our Index of African Governance, however, is also widely and strongly in use on the continent. (In order to satisfy both user preferences, we do provide rankings using both governance approaches.) The rest of this essay summarizes the Index s structure, uses, and underlying epistemology. It concludes with a summary of what is new in this year s Index. A more in-depth discussion of methodological choices is presented in the third essay, Measurement, Methods, and More. In addition, this year s Index report includes the Executive Summary and Conclusions of an independent statistical evaluation of the Index methodology by Michaela Saisana, Paola Annoni, and Michela Nardo, of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. The study finds that the 2008 Ibrahim Index can reliably be used to identify weaknesses and possible remedial actions, to make easy spatial and temporal comparisons (benchmarking), to prioritize African countries with relatively low levels of governance, and ultimately to monitor and evaluate policy effectiveness. 7 The full publication, entitled A Robust Model to Measure Governance in African Countries, is available on our website. Finally, for a comparison of the Index of African Governance and other related indices and assessments, readers may refer to our essay, Indices and Governance, published in the 2008 Ibrahim Index and available on our website. 3 The APRM also discusses economic governance and corporate governance. It includes a fourth focus area on socio-economic development. 4 African (Banjul) Charter on Human and Peoples Rights Preamble, paragraph 7 (adopted 27 June 1981, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev.5, 21 I.L.M. 58, 1982; entered into force 21 October 1986). 5 See also Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja, MAP Draft Programme of Action: Creating Preconditions for Sustainable Development, presented in Abuja, Nigeria, 28 May Organization of African Unity, Relaunching Africa s Economic and Social Development: The Cairo Agenda for Action (Addis Ababa, 1995), 6, as cited in Nzongola-Ntalaja, 4. 7 See A Robust Model to Measure Governance in African Countries, 5.