1 Physiology & Behavior 73 (2001) The EthoVision video tracking system A tool for behavioral phenotyping of transgenic mice A.J. Spink*, R.A.J. Tegelenbosch, M.O.S. Buma, L.P.J.J. Noldus Noldus Information Technology B.V., P.O. Box 268, 6700 AG Wageningen, the Netherlands Received 1 September 2000; accepted 21 December 2000 Abstract Video tracking systems enable behavior to be studied in a reliable and consistent way, and over longer time periods than if they are manually recorded. The system takes an analog video signal, digitizes each frame, and analyses the resultant pixels to determine the location of the tracked animals (as well as other data). Calculations are performed on a series of frames to derive a set of quantitative descriptors of the animal s movement. EthoVision (from Noldus Information Technology) is a specific example of such a system, and its functionality that is particularly relevant to transgenic mice studies is described. Key practical aspects of using the EthoVision system are also outlined, including tips about lighting, marking animals, the arena size, and sample rate. Four case studies are presented, illustrating various aspects of the system: (1) The effects of disabling the Munc 18-1 gene were clearly shown using the straightforward measure of how long the mice took to enter a zone in an open field. (2) Differences in exploratory behavior between short and long attack latency mice strains were quantified by measuring the time spent in inner and outer zones of an open field. (3) Mice with hypomorphic CREB alleles were shown to perform less well in a water maze, but this was only clear when a range of different variables were calculated from their tracks. (4) Mice with the trkb receptor knocked out in the forebrain also performed poorly in a water maze, and it was immediately apparent from examining plots of the tracks that this was due to thigmotaxis. Some of the latest technological developments and possible future directions for video tracking systems are briefly discussed. D 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Video tracking; Automated observation; Water maze; Rodent 1. Introduction 1.1. Why automated observation? The behavior of animals, including transgenic mice, is commonly recorded in either a manual or semiautomated way. Traditionally, a researcher observes the animal, and if he or she considers that a certain behavior pattern is displayed, the behavior is noted either by writing it down, or by entering the data into an event-recording program such as The Observer [1,2]. Although manual recording of behavior can be implemented with a relatively low investment, and for some behaviors it may be the only way to detect and record their occurrence, automated observation (such as video tracking) can provide significant * Corresponding author. Tel.: ; fax: address: (L.P.J.J. Noldus). advantages. The behaviors are recorded more reliably because the computer algorithm always works in the same way, and the system does not suffer from observer fatigue or drift. In contrast to manual observation, video tracking carries out pattern analysis on a video image of the observed animals to extract quantitative measurements of the animals behavior (for more details about how this works, see below) The development of automated observation systems Technology for automated detection and recording of behaviors has evolved dramatically in the past decade. Early systems, using hard-wired electronics, were only able to track a single animal in highly artificial environments. For example, an open field can be sampled with a grid of infrared beams either as the sole detectors [3 5] or in combination with other methods such as placing a series of strain gauge transducers under the arena to estimate the animal s position . The magnitude of an animal s motion can also be estimated using various types of touch-sensitive /01/$ see front matter D 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. PII: S (01)
2 732 A.J. Spink et al. / Physiology & Behavior 73 (2001) sensors ranging from a crude estimate of movement by placing the animal on a bass loudspeaker and monitoring the loudspeaker s electrical output when its cone was moved by the rat , or measuring the movement of a mouse s wheel by attaching the wheel s axle in place of the ball of a computer mouse , to sensors that can also measure the position of the animal (and hence locomotion), for instance by changes in the capacitance of a plate when the animal is in proximity to it , or changes in body resistance . Other comparable detection methods have included use of ultrasound  and microwave Doppler radar . The position of a rat in an open field has been recorded by attaching the rat to a computer joystick via a series of rods attached by a collar to the rat s neck . Animals behavior can also be measured using a computerized version of a Skinner box , in which the subject has to tap a touch-sensitive monitor [15,16]. The motion of individual limbs can be monitored automatically using actigraph sensors, which detect movement by means of a piezoelectric accelerometer . Early video tracking systems offered clear advantages of flexibility, precision, and accuracy over the various hardware devices listed above. However, the actual path of the animal still had to be entered manually by the experimenter, either by following the track of the animal with the computer mouse  or joystick , or a digitizing tablet or similar device . Another early method was to feed the analog video signal to a dedicated video tracking unit, which detected peaks in the voltage of the video signal (indicating a region of high contrast between the tracked animal and background), and used this to produce the x, y coordinates of the tracked animals as output which was then fed to the serial port of a computer [21,22]. These analog systems have the disadvantage of being relatively inflexible (dedicated to particular experimental setups) and can normally only track one animal, in rather restricted lighting and background conditions. The first video digitizers were of the column scan type. These had no internal memory of their own, and were only able to sample the video signal at rather low rates . In contrast, a modern frame grabber uses a high-speed analog digital converter to enable real time conversion of the entire video image to a high-resolution grid of pixels . It is also possible to acquire digitized video images by first converting the video input to a digital video format such as AVI, and then using the AVI file as the input for object detection . However, this method has disadvantages that the AVI file quickly gets very large (and so only trials of a limited duration can be carried out), and the method does not allow for real-time live data acquisition. It is also possible to use a digital overlay board to obtain positional data of tracked animals without the need for a frame grabber [25,26]. Modern systems, which are based on full-color video frame grabbers and have flexible software, can track multiple animals simultaneously against a variety of complex backgrounds. Whereas an infrared detector system typically operates in an arena of m with beams (though systems do exist with a grid of beams, in an arena of 2 m diameter ), the frame grabber used by EthoVision has a resolution of pixels and can track a rat in an arena with a variable shape and up to 20 m diameter The application of video tracking Video tracking is particularly suitable for measuring three types of behaviors: behaviors that occur briefly and are then interspersed with long periods of inaction (rare behaviors ), behaviors that occur over many hours [24,28] (such as diurnal variation in behavior), and spatial measurements (e.g., Refs. [29,30]) (distance, speed, turning, etc.) that the human observer is unable to accurately estimate. If a behavior can be automatically detected using a video tracking system, that can greatly reduce the human effort required . This not only reduces costs, but enables a larger and therefore statistically more responsible number of replicates to be used, whilst at the same time reducing the total number of animals used in an experiment (because each mouse can be used much more efficiently). This is particularly important for transgenic mice because in that case the experiment examines a Heredity Environment interaction and a larger sample size is required to test if interaction effects are significant . It is usually obvious if an animal is experiencing an extreme behavior such as an epileptic seizure. However, certain other behaviors, such as behaving in a stressed manner, may be more open to interpretation in borderline cases. A key advantage of automated video tracking is that it forces researchers to define exactly what they mean by a given behavior, and so enables standardization of methodologies  which is one of the most pressing needs in mouse behavioral phenotyping [31,33,34]. In this paper we present EthoVision a general-purpose video tracking, movement analysis, and behavior-recognition system, and illustrate its use in behavioral phenotyping with a number of case studies. Noldus Information Technology introduced the first version of EthoVision in The system has undergone numerous updates over the years, based on feedback from users around the world, which has resulted in a very comprehensive package for studies of movement and behavior . The software has recently been comprehensively redesigned for 32-bit Windows platforms, with a highly interactive graphical user interface for display of experimental design, experimental arena, and tracks of movement. 2. How video tracking works In a video tracking system such as EthoVision, the basis of the system is that a CCD video camera records the area in
3 A.J. Spink et al. / Physiology & Behavior 73 (2001) Fig. 1. The basic EthoVision setup. The analog image from the camera is fed into a frame grabber in the computer, which digitizes the image. EthoVision then analyzes the signal to produce quantitative descriptions of the tracked objects behavior. which the subject animals are (the scene). The camera s signal can either be fed directly to a computer, or via a video cassette recorder (see Fig. 1). In the case of an analog camera (the most practical option with current technology) the signal is then digitized (by a hardware device called a frame grabber) and passed on to the computer s memory. The video signal consists of a series of frames (25 or 30 a second, depending on the TV standard of the camera), and each digitized frame is composed of a grid of pixels. Each pixel has either a gray scale value (for a monochrome signal) or values describing the color of each pixel (red, green, and blue, or hue, saturation, and intensity ). The software then analyzes each frame in order to distinguish the tracked objects from the background. Having detected the objects, the software extracts the required features from each frame (in the case of EthoVision 2.0 this includes the position of the mathematical center of each object, and its surface area). Calculations are carried out on the features to produce quantified measurements of the animals behavior. For instance, if the position of an animal is known for each frame, and the whole series of frames is analyzed, the average speed of locomotion (velocity) of an animal during an experiment can be calculated. In addition, if certain regions are identified as being of interest (the center and edges of an open field experiment, for example), the proportion of time spent by the animals in those regions can also be calculated. Measurements such as average velocity and time in the center of an open field can be used as indicators of anxiety (e.g., Case Study 2) and so in this way an accurate quantified measure can be obtained of whether animals receiving a particular treatment were more stressed than other animals, and these measurements can be directly comparable with data from other workers with similar questions. 3. Practical aspects of video tracking When using a video tracking system such as EthoVision, the data obtained will only be as good as the quality of the experimental design. Of course, basic considerations such as sufficient replication and avoiding pseudoreplication  must still be adhered to. Likewise, the better the practical setup, the better the quality of the data obtained. If the video signal is of poor quality (for example, containing reflections), the tracked animals may not be detected, or other objects (such as the reflections) may be mistaken for the animals. A number of factors should (if possible) be optimized: 3.1. Illumination Lighting should be indirect and even. The level of illumination (brightness) is not so critical, provided that it is above the detection level of the camera (down to 0.01 lx for a good monochrome CCD camera, about 1 lx for a color CCD camera). Monochrome cameras can also detect light in the near infrared (to about 850 nm). However, if one part of the arena is brighter than another, or if the brightness changes during an experiment, this may cause problems; both technically and because it might affect the behavior of the mice . Above all, reflections must be avoided. The easiest way to do this is to ensure that the light only reaches the scene by first bouncing off a mat surface (such as the wall of the laboratory). For instance, if
4 734 A.J. Spink et al. / Physiology & Behavior 73 (2001) Fig. 2. Possible lighting setup for a Morris water maze (after Ref. ). The lights are either placed so far away from the camera that the angle is too great to cause reflections (as in the diagram) or next to the pool and below the water level. an overhead light is used, a mat white wooden board can be suspended in between the light bulb and the scene. Alternatively the lights can be placed sufficiently far away from the camera so that they do not produce a reflection (see Fig. 2 ). If color tracking is used, the incident light source must contain a sufficient range of wavelengths to enable separation of the colors being tracked. Color cameras cannot detect infrared light Marking EthoVision distinguish between two mice in the same arena on the basis of size, for example an adult mouse and a pup. To distinguish two mice that are the same size, the researcher can color part of one of the mice the same grayness as the background, thus reducing its apparent size (Fig. 3). If the mouse is light-colored, dark hair dye can be used, if it is dark, a patch can be bleached on one. The procedure is to mix the hair bleach with dilute hydrogen peroxide, then leave it to soak for 30 min, and then rinse it thoroughly. Color tracking can be used to distinguish more than two mice (up to 16 per arena in the case of EthoVision ). If the mice being tracked are the same color, livestock markers can be used to paint blobs on the mice, which the system will be able to track. However, these blobs will only last 1 or 2 days, so can only be used for short-term experiments. Mice can also be colored with permanent marker pens or highlight markers for short-term experiments. For longerterm work the mice can be dyed with a brightly colored human hair dye. If the mouse has dark fur, it can first be bleached before the dye is applied, using the method described above. Colored fluorescent tags (illuminated with a UV light) can also be used to mark the animals. It is also possible to track mice in the dark by surgically attaching a small plastic cap to their sculls, and filling the cap with fluorescent dye. When tracking a relatively large number of mice, the marker colors must be as different from each other as possible, in terms of their hue and saturation. Colors should also be selected to be of a similar intensity (brightness) to each other, and to be not too low an intensity (that is, not too dull). Fig. 3. Mouse marked with dark coloring, to distinguish it from another mouse by reducing its apparent size.
5 A.J. Spink et al. / Physiology & Behavior 73 (2001) If different colored markers are applied to different parts of the body of an animal (head, back, and tail, for example), these parts can be tracked individually, and parameters such as orientation (in absolute terms of the body axis and in respect to other animals) or head contact can be calculated  Arena size When a video signal is digitized by a frame grabber, the resulting grid of pixels produced for each video frame will be of certain dimensions (determined by the hardware that digitizes the signal). The ratio of the minimum number of pixels of the mouse s image (usually 3), to the number of pixels in the entire image, determines the ratio of the actual size of the tracked mouse to the maximum size of the scene. If one cage is filmed, this is also the maximum size of that cage. If more than one cage is placed within the camera s field of view, so that they can be analyzed simultaneously, the maximum total of all the cages widths is the maximum size of the scene. For instance if a frame grabber has a image resolution of , and you are tracking mice that are 2 cm wide, the maximum size of the scene is 576/3 2 = 384 cm. If the cages are placed in a 4 2 grid under the camera, the external width of each cage can be no more than 384/4 = 96 cm. In practice, if a high-resolution frame grabber is used (such as the one in the EthoVision system), the size of the scene tends to be limited by how big an area the camera can see when suspended from the laboratory ceiling, with a lens that is not too wide-angle (less than 4 ), for a given size of the camera s image detector (CCD) Sampling rate The video camera produces frames at a rate of 25 or 30 per second (depending on its TV standard: NTSC in America and Japan, PAL in most of the rest of the world). Because a mouse usually does not move a significant distance in 1/25th of a second, this sample rate can usually be reduced to 5 10 samples/second if a measurement such as velocity or distance moved is required (5 s 1 was used in most of the case studies detailed below). 4. The EthoVision system The EthoVision for Windows software has a number of features that make it particularly suitable as a tool in studies such as those described in the Case Studies section (below) Data and experiment management Since a water maze experiment of different transgenic mice strains tends to be a large experiment with over 1000 data files as well as their associated profiles (which contain all the settings), data management within EthoVision is particularly important. The EthoVision Workspace Explorer (Fig. 5) enables the user to manage these files through a simple interface (similar to the Windows Explorer), so that, for instance, settings defining the acquisition method (the tracking profile) can be dragged and dropped from one experiment to another. An entire experiment or workspace can be backed up to a single file to facilitate both safekeeping of the data and transfer between different computers. In addition, users are able to find their way around the parts of the program by means of the Experiment menu. They can use the program s functions in a logical order starting with experiment design and arena and zone definition, then to data acquisition, followed by track visualization, and finally data analysis Independent variable definition As well as tracking objects, EthoVision allows a researcher to define a complete experimental protocol, in terms of the independent variables of an experiment, and their values. Up to 99 independent variables (such as treatment, room temperature, genetic strain of the mouse) can be defined, and in addition EthoVision automatically records a series of system independent variables such as the profile (setting file) used, time and date of the trial, trial duration, etc. These independent variables can be used to select, sort, and group data, both when plotting tracks and analyzing the data. For instance, you can select to plot all the tracks from mice of a particular genotype, or calculate the mean time taken to reach the target of a water maze by control mice compared with treated mice Object detection methods When studying different mouse strains, the object detection method is very important; each method has its advantages and disadvantages. EthoVision offers three detection methods. Gray scaling is the fastest. It defines all connecting pixels that are both brighter than a high gray scale threshold and darker than a low threshold as the animal, and all other pixels as the background. The thresholds can be set either manually by the user, or calculated automatically by the program. It is a fast method (giving the highest sample rate), but cannot be used if the same gray scale values are present both in the mouse s image and the background. The subtraction method first makes a reference image, with no mice present, then subtracts the gray scale value of each pixel of the reference image from the equivalent pixel of the live image. Any pixels which have a subtracted value other than zero are different between the reference and live images, due to the presence of the mouse. The user can define whether the mouse has to be lighter than or darker than the background, or just different. This method is more tolerant for differences in light intensity across the scene. The third detection method uses the hue and saturation of the tracked
6 736 A.J. Spink et al. / Physiology & Behavior 73 (2001) mouse (or a marker painted on it) to define its color, and pixels with the defined colors are tracked. Up to 16 different colors can be tracked in each arena at once. With all three methods, objects that are either smaller than the mouse (such as droppings) or larger (such as reflections) can be excluded on the basis of their size Arena and zone definitions Up to 16 enclosures can be placed under one camera, and each enclosure can be treated as a separate independent replicate (called an arena; see Fig. 4). The animals in these arenas can be tracked simultaneously. Multiple arena definitions and zone definitions can be defined for each experiment. This is particularly handy when, for instance, a water maze experiment is prepared, with multiple platform positions. When setting up the experiment, the user can assign the proper arena definition to each track file before the experiments are started. The user can define up to 99 regions of interest (zones; see Fig. 4). These can be used in the analysis (for example, the time taken for a mouse to reach the platform of a water maze, see Case study 1) and also for automatic start and stop conditions. For instance the trial can be stopped automatically when the mouse has reached the platform of a water maze. Zones can be added together to make a cumulative zone (for instance, if a maze has more than one target). Zones can also be defined as hidden zones, for use with nest boxes, burrows, etc. The system assumes that when an animal disappears from view and it was last seen adjacent to a hidden zone, it is inside the hidden zone. Fig. 4. Arenas and zones of a Morris water maze. The arena is the circular area bounding the outside of the water maze, and it is divided up into four zones ( quadrants, see Case Study 3) labeled North, South, East, and West.
7 A.J. Spink et al. / Physiology & Behavior 73 (2001) All the zones can be defined and altered either before of after data acquisition, allowing iterative exploratory data analysis of the effects of changing zone positions and shapes. The arena can be calibrated so that the parameters such as velocity are calculated in meaningful units. If more than one arena is used, they can each be calibrated separately, or one calibration can be used for all arenas. There are two calibration methods; in standard calibration the user measures a series of lines (for example, a meter ruler placed on the floor of a cage). If the camera image is distorted (by a fish-eye lens, or a lens that is not directly overhead) the standard calibration will not be accurate (the standard deviation of the calibration factors is given to enable the user to determine this), and the user can opt for advanced calibration. In that method a grid of points is mapped onto the arena, and a series of coordinate points are entered, giving a calibration that is accurate for the entire image, even when it is distorted Behavior recording In addition to automatically tracking the movement of the animal, EthoVision can automatically detect certain behaviors, such as rearing. EthoVision also allows the researcher to manually record (by keystroke or mouse-click) behaviors that cannot be detected automatically (such as sniffing) Image filtering As in most video tracking systems, EthoVision calculates the mathematical point at the center of the digitized picture of the animals body, including the tail. This means this point is further towards the mouse s posterior than is correct. Furthermore, a tracking system will still detect movement of the mouse when only the tail is moving. In order to prevent this, the tail can be removed from the image, using image filtering. The bars of a cage can also be filtered using a similar technique Track visualization The user can specify data sets at several hierarchical levels for the analysis and visualization of the data. The data can be selected, sorted, and grouped by independent variables. This way a selection of the tracks in an experiment can be plotted on a single screen, by treatment or genetic strain (see Fig. 5). The track plots can be displayed with or without the arena and zones or the background Fig. 5. This figure displays the EthoVision Workspace Explorer on the left panel and in the right panel eight tracks of a water maze experiment are plotted. The tracks are sorted by animal ID and trial number. As well as plotting the complete tracks, the user can also play the plots back in a customized way.
8 738 A.J. Spink et al. / Physiology & Behavior 73 (2001) image of the experimental setup. The plots can be exported as graphic files in a variety of standard formats Data analysis After initially selecting the tracks for analysis (using independent variables), the user can carry out further data selection by nesting over time-windows, zones, and behaviors (either ones automatically detected by the system, or behaviors entered by the researcher manually). The user can also group by the values of independent variables (such as treatment values), and further fine-tune the data using filter settings like minimal distance moved, to eliminate slight apparent movements, and down-sampling steps, to eliminate redundant data if a lower sample rate describes the path better. A wide range of quantitative measures of behavior is available in EthoVision, and these can be described with a full range of descriptive statistics: Distance moved For example, the total path distance followed by a mouse in a water maze until it reached the target. Velocity For example, the mean speed of the mouse whilst swimming in a water maze. In zone For example, the time taken for a mouse to reach the target of a maze. The zones can be completely redefined at any time before or after data acquisition. Distance to zone and Distance to zone border For example, the average distance that a mouse was from the walls of an open field, except when it was near a novel object. Heading For example, the mean direction of a mouse s path in relation to a maze s target. Turn angle A large mean and variance in the turn angle may indicate stereotypical behavior such as circling movements. Angular velocity High values of absolute angular velocity can be used to indicate a variety of behaviors including local searching patterns, stereotypic movements and abnormal behaviors, reaction to toxins, and measures of behavioral asymmetries in animals with unilateral brain lesions [42,43]. Meander The change in direction of movement of an object relative to the distance it moves. Therefore it can be used to compare the amount of turning of objects travelling at different speeds. Sinuosity The amount of random turning in a given path length. This is one value for the entire track and can be used, for instance, to quantify the foraging behavior of an animal [44,45]. Moving Whether or not the mouse is moving, compared to user-defined thresholds. For example, the percentage of the time that the mouse in a water maze was floating or the number of bouts of movement whilst the mouse was in the central zone of an open field. Rearing A useful parameter for assessing exploratory behavior, for example the frequency of rearing in an open field with and without a novel object. EthoVision detects rearing on the basis of the change in surface area of the mouse (as seen from above), using user-defined thresholds. Distance between objects In EthoVision, the user can select as many combinations of actors and receivers as wanted to calculate social interactions, including this parameter and the ones listed below (which are based on the distance between objects). Both other animals and zones can be selected as receivers of social interactions. Relative movement Whether a mouse is moving towards or away from another mouse. This is a good example of providing an objective measure of behavior, which can later be explicitly interpreted as aggression or avoidance . Proximity Whether a mouse is close to or far away from another mouse (in relation to user-defined thresholds). This parameter has been used to study the effect of individual or group housing on social behavior  and social isolation as a symptom of schizophrenia [47,48]. Speed of moving to/from The distance-weighted speed at which an object moves towards or away from another object. These parameters can be used to quantify the intensity of avoidance or aggression. Net relative movement A combined measure for the above two parameters, this parameter is also frequently used in studies of social interaction [46,49]. The analysis report is a spreadsheet that can be manipulated for optimal presentation and exported in different file formats (or copied and pasted) to other spreadsheets or statistics packages for further analysis. The parameters can be calculated for every individual sample, and their statistics calculated both per track and across groups of tracks with the same values of user-defined independent variables (for example, all tracks of mice receiving the same dosage of a treatment). 5. Case studies The following case studies are presented in order to illustrate the use of EthoVision for detection and quantification of various behaviors in mice. Therefore, full details of neither the experimental setup nor full conclusions drawn from the data are given; the reader is referred to the researchers or the original publications for that information [55,70]. However, the raw data from some of these case studies have been placed on the web; follow the link from The data can be downloaded and opened in EthoVision for visualization and analysis Effect of genetic composition on open field behavior of mice. Behavioral phenotyping of the effects of disabling the Munc 18-1 gene The following case study is based on unpublished data kindly provided by R.A. Hensbroek and B.M. Spruijt
9 A.J. Spink et al. / Physiology & Behavior 73 (2001) Open field exploration strategies in mice selected for short and long attack latency Fig. 6. The behavior of mice with various genotypes (genetic background and munc18-1 mutation) in an open field expressed as total distance moved and time spent in the central area. Thick shading represents heterozygotes and thin shading wild types. Left-slanting shading represents 129/Sv mice, right-slanting shading represents hybrids. The bars represent ± 1 standard error of the mean. (Rudolf Magnus Institute for Neuroscience, Utrecht University). For further details about the experimental protocol, please contact them at: Mice that lack the gene for munc18-1 have no secretion of neurotransmitters and consequently die at birth . Heterozygotes still have one functional copy of the gene and a 50% reduction in munc18-1 protein levels. Earlier work had indicated that heterozygotes were more active than wild type mice, but it was not clear whether this was due to the munc18-1 deletion, or due to differences in genetic background. Heterozygotes were therefore repeatedly backcrossed with the inbred strain 129/Sv. The resulting mice were also crossed once with C57Bl/6. The effects of the munc18-1 deletion could now be tested both in a purely 129/Sv background and in hybrids of 129/Sv and C57Bl/6. The mice were placed in an empty circular open field for 15 min, firstly when the field was empty, and secondly with a 10 5 cm metallic cylinder in the middle. Heterozygotes were more active than wild types, both for the hybrids and 129/Sv mice (Fig. 6). The genetic background had a clear effect on the behavior of the mice: in 129/Sv, heterozygotes spent more time in the central area of the open field, while such a difference was not seen in hybrids. The following case study is based on unpublished data kindly provided by M.C. de Wilde and J.M. Koolhaas (University of Groningen). For further details about the experimental protocol, please contact them at: or Male wild house mice selected for short and long attack latency (SAL and LAL, respectively) differ in their way of coping with environmental challenges [51,52]. SAL males show an active behavioral response whereas LAL males show a reactive coping strategy. For instance, in the defensive burying test SAL males actively cover the shock prod with bedding material and LAL males freeze in a corner of the cage. Several studies suggest that the coping styles have a differential fitness in nature, depending on environmental conditions such as food availability [53,54]. The current experiment studied the exploratory behavior of SAL and LAL mice in an open field. The LAL mice (white bars in Fig. 7) were more active than the SAL genotype, moving a greater total distance, and exploring the outer zone more than the SAL mice, whereas the distance traveled in the inner zone was the same for the two groups. The SAL animals showed no difference in behavior in the second time period, compared with the first time period, whereas the LAL mice were significantly more active after the first 5-min period was over, moving a greater distance in both the inner zone and outer zone. These data are consistent with other work describing the two strategies. SAL mice continue to exhibit a behavior that they have found to be successful, whereas LAL mice will develop new behaviors with time. In the beginning the SAL and LAL mice explore the open field in a similar way, and after 5 min the SAL mice continue to explore the arena in that way. In contrast, the LAL mice develop a new exploratory strategy, both moving more, and spending more time Fig. 7. Distance moved by short attack latency (n = 16, black bars, ± standard error of the mean [S.E.M.]) and long attack latency (n = 12, white bars, ± S.E.M.) wild male house mice in an open field experiment.
10 740 A.J. Spink et al. / Physiology & Behavior 73 (2001) Table 1 Variables calculated from the animals tracks in the water maze experiment in Case Study 3 Variable WT vs. ad ( P) WT vs. comp ( P) Swim time n.s. <.05 Swim path length n.s. <.01 % time in goal zone n.s. <.05 Mean distance to goal <.05 <.002 Swimming parallel to wall <.05 <.001 Swimming < 22 mm from wall <.05 <.002 Number of wall contacts n.s. n.s. Swimming speed n.s. n.s. Table legend: n.s. = not significant (Scheffe test), WT = wild type, ad = mice with ad isoform disrupted, comp = mice with all CREB isoforms disrupted. in the inner zone as they adapt to the new situation in the second period The effects of CREB gene dosage on the performance of mice in the water maze learning task The following case study was based on data kindly provided by Dr. D. Wolfer and his colleagues (Department of Anatomy, University of Zurich). For details, please see the publication in Learning & Memory . The Morris water maze task is one of the most frequently used experimental paradigms designed to assess cognitive performance . EthoVision is used by several groups to track and analyze water maze experiments (e.g., Refs. [57 60]). A tank is filled with opaque water (chalk or milk powder is added) and the animal swims until it locates a hidden platform just below the surface of the water. Its speed of learning can be assessed by how rapidly the time to locate the platform is reduced when the task is repeated. Most studies have used rats as subjects, whereas mice have been less frequently used [61,62]. Mice have been shown to produce a normal learning curve . The behavior of mice in tasks of learning and memory is less characterized than in rats and in view of the development of transgenic mouse models with predefined deficiencies as new tools to identify putative cognition enhancers, it is important to conduct preliminary tests on wild type strains that are used to produce these transgenic animals, to calibrate the behavioral paradigm before beginning testing of the transgenic or knockout mice. The transcription factor CREB is involved in the formation and retention of long-term memory [63,64]. Although learning in mice is strongly influenced by the genetic background of the mice [65,66], early water maze studies did not take this into account. The current study aimed to validate previous studies using mice with welldefined genetic backgrounds (see the original paper  for details), with mice with different dosages of the CREB gene. Several variables were calculated from the animals tracks (the EthoVision data were processed using the WinTrack program ), see Table 1. It was found that mice with one hypomorphic CREB allele (ad) and one null CREB allele (CREBcomp, in which all CREB isoforms are disrupted) showed statistically significant (Scheffe test) defects for most measures of the performance in the water maze (compared with wild type mice) whereas mutants with a and D isoforms disrupted and the b isoform up-regulated showed less disruption. Previous Fig. 8. Two typical tracks of wild-type (right) and trkb-mice in the Morris water maze. The control mouse finds the hidden platform (the top-left square), on the basis of previous training, whereas the mutant mouse stays close to the edges of the tank (the gray circle).
11 A.J. Spink et al. / Physiology & Behavior 73 (2001) studies [68,69] reported major deficits for mice with these genetic defects in all paradigms tested. It is likely that the difference is due to the differing genetic background of the mice used in different studies Learning behavior of mice in a water maze with the trkb gene knocked out in the forebrain during prenatal development The following case study was based on data kindly provided by Dr. D. Wolfer (Department of Anatomy, University of Zurich). For details, please see the publication in Neuron . The TrkB receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates short-term synaptic functions and long-term potentiation of brain synapses . Mice were studied which had had the trkb gene knocked-out in the forebrain during postnatal development. The mice developed without gross morphological defects (the mice do not survive until adulthood if the gene is knocked-out for the entire brain ), and the activity of the trkb-mice in an open field were similar to wild-type mice. However, in a Morris water maze experiment (similar to that of Case study 1), although the control mice learnt the route to the hidden platform (left track in Fig. 8), the mutant mice tended to hug the walls of the maze (thigmotaxis) and therefore did not find the platform (right track in Fig. 8). 6. Discussion and conclusions The four case studies illustrate different aspects of using EthoVision to track mice. The first case study (knock-out of the Munc 18-1 gene) looked at mice in an open field which were hypothesized to be hyperactive as a result of the knocked-out gene. Plots of two simple variables quantifying the mice s behavior demonstrated the experiment s effects. Simple, straightforward parameters such as distance moved or time in center can be powerful measures to quantify differences in behavior between different genotypes. Likewise the case study of SAL and LAL mice (Case study 2) showed clear differences in behavior between the genotypes on the basis of a variable (total distance moved) calculated from the EthoVision tracks, even though the actual differences in behavior were rather complex. The Morris water maze study on mice with differing CREB gene dosage illustrated that there are occasions one or two variables are insufficient to provide a good description of the experimental effects. It was only when a batch of variables was calculated that the interaction between the mice s genetic background and specific effects of the CREB gene became clear. An advantage of measuring behavior using a video tracking system is that once the tracks of the animals have been derived, a large number of dependent variables can easily be calculated from those tracks. Finally, the study of mice with the trkb gene disabled in the forebrain illustrated the fact that although proper statistical analysis is, of course, necessary, much valuable information, especially about exactly what to test, can be gained from viewing the plots of the animals tracks. The case studies demonstrate that video tracking provides an accurate and powerful means to quantify mouse behavior. Because it is repeatable and not subject to observer variance, it is eminently suitable for comparison of different data sets between different research groups. The case studies shown are all examples of relatively straightforward uses of a system like EthoVision. Even with the current system (EthoVision 2), more complex experiments and analyses can be carried out. In the future, EthoVision and other video tracking systems will be able to carry out more complex tasks. An indication of what these might be can be seen from projects that have been carried out in research projects, or customizations of the software. Whether these functions ever become part of the standard commercial package will depend on both how technically feasible the solution is, and how much interest there is in that application. Synchronization of video (behavioral) and physiological data. It is often the case that an experiment involves not only quantifying the behavior of an animal, but also measuring a variety of physiological parameters . In order to carry out a full statistical analysis of the data obtained, it is necessary for the various data streams to be synchronized. At the time of writing (November 2000) there is no straightforward and uniform solution to this problem. However, Noldus Information Technology, together with several partners are carrying out a research project to resolve this issue . Direct extraction of physiological data from video data. A customized version of EthoVision has been developed which uses an infrared thermographic camera both to record an animal s behavior, and simultaneously to measure its body temperature (at several points on the body simultaneously) . The method is noninvasive and thus particularly appropriate for monitoring the effects of stress. Automatic detection of complex behaviors. EthoVision is able to detect whether a mouse is moving, or whether it is rearing, but (in common with other commercial systems) is not able to automatically detect other behaviors (unless, of course, it is possible to define them in terms of the existing parameters). A behavior such as an epileptic seizure (characterized by the animal turning over with the tail in a characteristic position over the body) can be detected by using EthoVision in combination with neural networks  and statistical classification . 3-D tracking. If more than one camera is used (or one camera and a mirror ), it is in theory possible to obtain information about the movement of animals in all three dimensions. Although tracking in 3-D was already possible with some simple hardware devices  and more primitive video-based systems , ironically the more sophisticated the tracking system, the more difficult this becomes. However, a special version of EthoVision has
12 742 A.J. Spink et al. / Physiology & Behavior 73 (2001) been used to successfully track objects moving in three dimensions . Identification of large and indeterminate numbers of animals. To track a large and continually varying number of animals, especially if crowded close together, calls for quite different techniques than the object identification methods used by EthoVision. Some progress has been made using techniques such as active modeling and prediction of the animals shapes [79,80] and dynamic imaging with statistical analysis of detected body features . Acknowledgments We are grateful of those who provided us with their data for use in the case studies section of this paper. All members of the EthoVision team at Noldus Information Technology have contributed towards the product since it was initially launched in 1993; their hard work and dedication is acknowledged here. References  Noldus LPJJ. 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Application of a Network-Analysis Algorithm for the Definition of Locations in Open Field Behavior: How Rats Establish Behavioral Symmetry in Spatial Asymmetry S. Weiss 1, O. Yaski 1, E. Blumenfeld-Lieberthal
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vii LIST OF CONTENTS CHAPTER CONTENT PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT ABSTRAK LIST OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF NOTATIONS LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF APPENDICES
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