1 12 June 2015 Cyber Defense and Cyber Security Policies in the UK, Germany and France Marco Mayer, Sant Anna School of Advanced Studies
2 We ll talk about: Cyber Security Cyber Defense Cyber Intelligence Why? All of these issues are related to Cyber NaEonal Policies within the Cyber Domain
3 Introduc>on: The cyber domain is technologically driven and market power is highly concentrated in a small group of private digital en>>es; Thus, to fully understand the Germany and UK cases we should also consider the role of the private companies (i.e. Bri>sh Telecom and Deutsche Telekom).
4 The UK Cyber Security Approach Background and Aims: Cyberspace is also considered a warfare domain Cyberspace as a Na>onal Interest Priority Cyber- security Informa>on Sharing Public- Private- Partnership (CiSP) Special Foreign Rela>ons (i.e. USA- Israel- Qatar)
5 UK Cyber Security Approach The government has allocated 860 million unel 2016 to establish a Na>onal Cyber Security Programme. This vision is set out in the UK Cyber Security Strategy, published in November This strategy considers the cyberspace: As a Na+onal Interest Priority. The UK Cyber Security Strategy has 4 objeceves: making the UK one of the most secure places in the world to do business online and tackling cyber crime making the UK more resilient to cyber avack and bever able to protect our interests in cyberspace helping to shape an open, vibrant and stable cyberspace that supports open socie>es building cyber skills, knowledge and capability the UK needs
7 The UK Cyber Security Organiza>on Chart Upgraded at Prime Minister Level Office of Cyber Security and InformaEon Assurance The OCSIA supports the Minister for the Cabinet Office, the Rt Hon Francis Maude MP and the Na>onal Security Council in determining priori>es in rela>on to securing cyberspace. The unit provides strategic direc>on and coordinates ac>on rela>ng to enhancing cyber security and informa>on assurance in the UK. The OCSIA is headed by James Quinault
8 Office of Cyber Security and Informa>on Assurance Aims and objeceves: The OCSIA is responsible for implemen>ng a number of cross cu\ng agendas including: Providing a strategic direc>on on cyber security and informa>on assurance for the UK including e- crime; Suppor>ng educa>on, awareness, training and educa>on (for example, Get Safe online and the Cyber Security Challenge); Working with private sector partners on exchanging informa>on and promo>ng best prac>ce; Ensuring that the UK s informa>on and cyber security technical capability and opera>onal architecture is improved and maintained; Working with the Office of the Government Senior InformaEon Risk Owner (OGSIRO) to ensure the resilience and security of government ICT infrastructures such as the Public Sector Network (PSN) and G- cloud engaging with internaeonal partners in improving the security of cyberspace and informaeon security.
9 Cyber- security InformaEon Sharing Partnership (CiSP) The Cyber- security Informa>on Sharing Partnership (CiSP), part of CERT- UK, is a joint industry government inieaeve to share cyber threat and vulnerability informaeon in order to increase overall situaeonal awareness of the cyber threat and therefore reduce the impact on UK business. CiSP allows members from across sectors and organisa>ons to exchange cyber threat informa>on in real >me, on a secure and dynamic environment, whilst opera>ng within a framework that protects the confiden>ality of shared informa>on.
10 BriEsh Telecom SupporEng Minister Of Defense to protect against the Cyber Threat Challenge MOD wanted to integrate exis>ng system security informa>on sources to create a centralised security capacity and expand its situa>onal awareness SoluEon BT designed and deployed a fully accredited cyber- defence solu>on called ecnd (enhanced computer network defence) to deliver round- the- clock support Value ecnd is helping the MOD iden>fy poten>al vulnerabili>es more effec>vely, reducing the window of exploita>on open to threat sources
11 Special Foreign Rela>ons UK- USA The United States and the United Kingdom work closely on a range of cybersecurity and cyber defense ma]ers. For example, the U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US- CERT) and CERT- UK collaborate on computer network defense and sharing informaeon to address cyber threats and manage cyber incidents. To deepen this collaboraeon in other areas, the United Kingdom s Government CommunicaEons Headquarters (GCHQ) and Security Service (MI5) are working with their U.S. partners the NaEonal Security Agency and the Federal Bureau of InvesEgaEon to further strengthen U.S.- UK collaboraeon on cybersecurity by establishing a joint cyber cell, with an operaeng presence in each country. The cell, which will allow staff from each agency to be co- located, will focus on specific cyber defense topics and enable cyber threat informa>on and data to be shared at pace and at greater scale.
12 Cambridge vs Cambridge January 2015: President Obama and David Cameron announce Cambridge v. Cambridge hackathon As part of a series of cybersecurity ini>a>ves made public today during Bri>sh Prime Minister David Cameron s visit with President Barack Obama, the two na>ons announced that MIT s Computer Science and Ar>ficial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) will face off against the University of Cambridge this fall for a special student hackathon dubbed Cambridge v. Cambridge. The mul>day compe>>on is part of con>nued efforts by the two na>ons to collaborate on cybersecurity and harness their collec>ve brainpower to help combat global cyberavacks
13 Special Foreign Rela>ons UK- Israel March 2015 The Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed at the Israeli Prime Minister s office by Liam Maxwell, Government Chief Technology Officer, on behalf of the UK Government Digital Service (GDS), and by Harel Locker, Director- General of the Israeli Prime Minister s office. The MoU states that the 2 countries will: exchange informa>on and experiences around open markets, open standards and open source work together to make sure that each country has the capability and ability to develop digital public services develop other ways of working together interna>onally.
14 Special Interna>onal Rela>ons UK- Qatar November 2014: UK signs agreement with Qatar to fight Jihad and cyber threats The United Kingdom and Qatar recently signed an agreement on Jihad and cyber warfare issues. Emir of Qatar, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al- Thani and the UK Prime Minister David Cameron met in London a few days ago to sign the security pact. Both countries agreed to share classified intelligence in order to track and counter jihadists and cyber warfare opera>ons. This agreement includes close coopera>on with the UK GCHQ cyber intelligence agency on cyber threats and figh>ng terrorism. On the top, the UK will sell Qatar cyber security products and services in order to strengthen their security measures. This coopera>on arrives at a crucial period for the Middle East as the Islamic State avempts to annihilate the en>re Middle East region through terrorist acts. In terms of security and cyber, Qatar could not find a bever partner than Great Britain. A month ago in Kuwait, the United States also affirmed its desire to cooperate with Europe and Arabs countries in order to fight the Islamic State, which is currently the most significant terrorist threat to Middle East and West.
15 UK vs EU The UK is facing opposieon from other EU countries, which want EU cyber security rules to apply widely to operators of 'digital service plahorms' such as Amazon and not only to operators of criecal infrastructures (banking, energy, health and transports, cables, hubs, etc). The disagreement concerns the precise scope of the Network and Informa>on Security (NIS) Direc>ve. EU countries are nego>a>ng over the final wording of the rules, which are scheduled to be agreed by June and to come into force in 2018.
16 What is the NIS Direc>ve? The Network and InformaEon Security (NIS) Direc>ve was first published by the European Commission in February 2013 in a bid to bolster the security of criecal infrastructure in the EU and ensure that cyber security incidents affec>ng that infrastructure that have a real- world impact are reported to regulators. The Commission's original proposal also envisaged a new cross border cyber security informaeon sharing regime. Since the plans were first published, MEPs and government officials from the 28 EU countries have been working to refine the proposed new framework. Once finalised, EU countries will have to implement the Direc>ve into na>onal law.
17 The Diﬀerent Approaches on Cyber Defense in the UK and Germany
18 For years, we have been building a defensive capability to protect ourselves against these cyber a]acks. That is no longer enough. You deter people by having an offensive capability. Philip Hammond, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
20 Germany Cyber Defense and Cyber Strategy Cyber Defense
21 Germany Cyber Defense and Cyber Strategy The German Federal Office for Informa>on Security under Ministry of Interior
22 Germany Cyber Security Organiza>ons To what extent do you assist the German armed forces (Bundeswehr) in cyber defense? BSI is a civilian and preveneve authority. More parecularly, it has a proteceve funceon for key government networks. BSI detects targeted and non- targeted a]acks on key government networks and defends against these a]acks, in its role as an IT security provider. BSI s further responsibiliees include approval of IT security products and services used within the German federal government. This leads to cooperaeon between the German Federal Ministry of Defense and BSI. The Bundeswehr is responsible for cyber defense in the military sense. Michael Hange ist seit dem 16. Oktober 2009 Präsident des Bundesamts für Sicherheit in der Informa>onstechnik (BSI) in Bonn The German Federal Intelligence Service (Bundesnachrichtendienst, BND), the German Federal Criminal Police Office (Bundeskriminalamt, BKA), the German Bundeswehr and others are taking care of German security interests and avemp>ng to contain the threat.
23 Germany and cyber intelligence capabiliees Germany is currently developing cyber intelligence capabili>es in order to prevent future cyber- avacks. According to Germans, this new development is an early warning system which is capable of detec>ng imminent foreign cyber- avacks. The system will mainly monitor foreign social media. The Germany Federal Intelligence Service will invest 28 million into its Strategic Technical IniEaEve of Germany began to realize the importance of cyber intelligence as open source intelligence is a powerful strategy, especially to monitor social media and websites, which can help gather valuable intelligence in order to prevent cyber- a]acks.
24 Germany (Cyber) Foreign Rela>ons Germany has consistently stressed that governments should not use cybersecurity concerns as a pretext for interfering with individual rights. The revela>ons by Edward Snowden about the Na>onal Security Agency (NSA) and surveillance have mo>vated Berlin to take a leading role on these issues. Together with Brazil, Germany sponsored a UN General Assembly ResoluEon on the right to privacy in the digital age, which was adopted by consensus in December 2013.
25 Germany and the EU Mr. Oe\nger (top German official in Brussels and the commissioner for the digital economy and society) Insisted that the current dominance of the digital sector by U.S. companies is not forever. I m sure we can come back with investments in infrastructure, with human capital, with science and educa>on and research and universi>es, with clear strategies to leverage startups, he said. (Wall Street Journal, April 2015) Declared that The European Union is the largest single market in the world, but it sell consists of 28 fragmented digital markets, a structure Digital Commissioner Günther Oeqnger hopes to transform into a Digital Union of Europe. Germany March 2015)
26 Deutsche Telekom launches European March 02, 2015 network First services in three countries (Croa>a, Hungary and Slovakia Group to invest more than EUR 6 billion in Europe- wide network expansion through 2018 Up to 100,000 connec>ons migrated to IP technology each week Fixed- network transmission speed will rise to 500 Mbit per second
27 EU and Germany Thomas de Maizière (Federal Minister of the Interior) declared: "I support the EU in its efforts to make rules for the Member States to ensure IT security. Our common goal must be to increase the level of IT security throughout the EU, on the basis of decisive na>onal ac>on. With its dran IT Security Act, the Federal Government has presented a number of specific measures to increase IT security in Germany. We have made similar proposals in the ongoing discussion of an EU direc>ve on measures to ensure a high common level of network and informa>on security in the Union. My impression is that the German posi>on is also understood at European level. Germany has thus taken a leading role in an area that will become increasingly important at a Eme when digital vulnerability is growing. (Source: Official web site of Federal Ministry of Interior)
35 In order to bridge the UK, Germany and France different approaches is NATO the answer? In June 2014, NATO Defence Ministers endorsed the new cyber defence policy, which is currently being implemented. The new policy and its implementa>on will be kept under close review at both the poli>cal and technical levels within the Alliance and will be refined and updated in line with the evolving cyber threat. At the Wales Summit in September 2014, Allies approved a new ac>on plan which along with the new policy contributes to the fulfilment of the Alliance s core tasks. In June 2014, NATO Defence Ministers endorsed the new cyber defence policy, which is currently being implemented. The new policy and its implementa>on will be kept under close review at both the poli>cal and technical levels within the Alliance and will be refined and updated in line with the evolving cyber threat. At the Wales Summit in September 2014, Allies approved a new ac>on plan which along with the new policy contributes to the fulfilment of the Alliance s core tasks.
36 NATO Cyber CapabiliEes Background NATO s main cyber responsibility is to defend its own networks, while Allies protect theirs. NATO also helps Allies to boost their defences. NATO does this by sharing informa>on about threats, by helping to develop capabili>es, and through educa>on, training and exercises. The crea>on of the Rapid Reac>on Team was a result of the Alliance's revised cyber defence policy of 2011, which was enhanced at the 2014 Wales Summit and is now part of the Alliance s collec>ve defence framework. Cyber avacks could reach a level posing a threat to the prosperity, security and stability of the Euro- Atlan>c states, and their impact could be just as disastrous as a conven>onal avack. At the Wales Summit, NATO leaders decided that a cyber a]ack could trigger ArEcle 5, the Alliance s colleceve defence clause. The NATO Computer Incident Response Capability (NCIRC) is responsible for the defence of NATO's communica>on and informa>on systems.
37 Locked Shields is an annual real- >me network exercise April 2015
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