2 Contents Introduction to Microsoft Access Microsoft Access 2007 features 3 Opening a database 4 Database objects 5 Opening objects 6 Working with objects 6 Saving in Access 6 Copying database objects 7 Closing a database 7 Renaming database objects 7 Customising and grouping 8 Data navigation and entry... 9 Data navigation 9 Data entry 10 Data selection and editing Selecting data in tables 13 Selecting data in forms 13 Editing data 13 Copying and moving data 14 Deleting records 15 Using the undo facility 15 Customising datasheets Changing the appearance of a datasheet 16 Re-organising fields 16 More field and row options 17 Adding Totals to a datasheet 18 Sorting records 19 Saving the datasheet layout 21 Finding Records...22 Search 22 Find and Replace 22 Filtering records in a table or form 24 Criteria 26 Exercises 28 Task 1: Data navigation and entry in tables 28 Task 2: Data navigation and entry in forms 28 Task 3: Data selection and editing in tables 29 Task 4: Data selection and editing in forms 29 Task 5: Reorganising data in tables 29 Task 5: Reorganising data in forms 30 Task 6: Locating data in tables 30 Task 7: Locating data in forms 30 Reference list 32 2
3 Introduction to Microsoft Access 2007 What is a database? A database is a collection of related data. There are many everyday examples of databases such as: an address book containing names and addresses of friends and families; a card file holding details of business contacts; a filing cabinet holding last year s financial reports. All these are stores for data, or in other words databases. What is Microsoft Access? Access is a software application for managing databases. Access enables you to store, retrieve, organise and analyse data stored in a database. Microsoft Access 2007 features Backstage view (File tab) (Access 2010) When you first launch the Access 2010 application you are presented with the backstage view. From here you can perform most of the central operations that affect the whole database such as opening, closing and saving databases. Recently opened databases appear here. You can access this view at any time by clicking on the File tab of the Ribbon (see Ribbon and Tabs below). Ribbon and Tabs The ribbon is divided into several tabs, some of which are always available and some appear according to which task you are carrying out. Buttons may be greyed out if they are for functions you can t perform at that time. The Home tab contains most of the most commonly used features such as the formatting buttons. Click on the expand button to view more options, usually in the form of a dialog box. Quick Access Toolbar This is above the ribbon and allows you to perform certain functions quickly. Be default it contains buttons to save, undo and redo. Click on the drop-down arrow to customise the toolbar by adding new buttons. Status bar The Status bar at the bottom of the screen displays status messages on the left and locking keys on the right. There are also buttons to change the view of the current object on the far right of the status bar. 3
4 The Navigation Pane When you open a database, the Navigation Pane will show you the various objects (tables, queries, forms, reports, macros and modules) that make up that database. This acts as the control centre for the database. Click on the drop-down arrow to group and filter your objects: Select Object Type and All Access Objects to see objects grouped by type and to see all of them. Select Object Type and Tables to just see tables. Tables and Related views groups objects according to whether they are linked to a specific table. Select Custom to create your own groups (see Opening a database Click on the Office button (or Backstage View - File tab in Access 2010) and click on Recent and open the relevant database if it is a recently opened one or click on Open to browse to the appropriate database on your drives. You may see a security message asking you if you wish to Enable Content. This is because Access believes the database could contain viruses or other malicious content. If you believe the database to be safe, click on Enable Content to make the database fully available. You may then be asked if you wanted to make the database Trusted Content. This will mean that you no longer be asked security questions about this database in future. Use the Help provided for more information. 4
5 Database objects An Access database can be perceived as a file in which different database objects can be stored. The most fundamental object is the table object: this is where the data is stored in the database. The other database objects, listed below, are tools that allow the user to manipulate the data held in the table. A query is a tool that allows the user to request specific data to be gathered from the database. A form provides the user with an alternative interface for entering, editing and viewing data. A report is a tool for producing formatted printed output from the database. A macro is an Object that allows the database to be automated without the need for programming. A module is an Object that stores Access code written by the user. In this course we will be looking at the table, query, form and report objects. Tables, fields and records A table is a collection of related data. Tables organise data into columns (called fields) and rows (called records) as shown below. Each record relates to a single entity (in this example, to a single customer); and each field is used to store a particular piece of information about that customer (in this example, the company name, contact name etc.). Fields Records Relationships The tables in a database may be linked to each other by the creation of relationships between specific fields in the database. These relationships can be viewed in the Relationships window: Select Relationships on the Database Tools tab 5
6 Opening objects Each Object you open in a database appears as a separate window within Access and you can have multiple objects open at the same time. You can use the Switch Windows button on the Home tab to arrange the windows in different ways. To open an Object: Double click the object in the navigation pane. This opens the object in the view which allows you to see the data (see below for more details). Views Objects can be opened in two or more views. The Design view is used for creating and modifying objects. The other views vary according to the type of object. All the objects we will be working with use these other views for viewing data. Opening an object by double clicking opens them in the default view for navigating, entering or modifying data. In the case of a table, this is the Datasheet view and in a form, Form view. To open an object in Design view, right click on the Object and select Design View. To switch views in an open Object: Working with objects Use the View button on the Home tab. Click on the button to toggle between Design View (left) and Datasheet view (centre) or Form view (right) or use the dropdown arrow for more options. Access has two different options for working with multiple object windows: Overlapping Windows and Tabbed Documents. It is recommended that you use the Tabbed Documents option. When you open additional Objects, these appear as tabs below the ribbon. Click on an Object s tab to view it. Click on the cross on the grey bar to close the current Object. Helpful hint: Databases created in Access 2003 or earlier will use Overlapping Windows not Tabbed Documents. To change to Tabbed Documents: 1. On the File tab, select Options and then Current Database. 2. Under Document Window Options select Tabbed Documents and tick the Display Document tabs check box. You will need to close and re-open the database to see the changes. Saving in Access The Save command is accessed as in other Microsoft Office applications, by using the button on the Quick Access Toolbar or pressing Ctrl + S. However, it works slightly differently in Access. Access automatically saves the data in a record when the focus leaves it. In other words, Access saves a record s data when you move to a new record; close the active form, table or database; or exit Access. 6
7 The Save command does not save data. It is used to save and name new database objects, such as Tables, Forms and Queries. It is also used to save the design, layout, or structure of a database object and replace any previous version. Save As command These are in the Backstage View, accessed by clicking on the File tab. Save Object As command can be used to save a copy of the active database object under a different name. The Save Database As command can be used to make a copy of the current database. Copying database objects As well as being able to use the Save As command to create copies of objects, you can also create copies of objects using the Copy and Paste commands: 1. Right-click on the object you wish to copy. 2. Select Copy from the pop-up menu which appears. 3. Right-click on a blank area of the database window. 4. Select Paste from the menu. 5. Type a name for the copied object and click OK. Closing a database It is always good practice to close any objects in a database when you have finished working on them and before closing the database. Access does not allow more than one database to be open at a time. To close an object: Click on the cross in the top right corner of the window. Closing the database: Click on the File tab and click on Close database. Renaming database objects Database objects can be renamed Navigation Pane: 1. Right-click on the object you wish to copy. 2. Select Rename from the pop-up menu which appears. The object s name will be selected and editable. 3. Type the new name for the object. 4. Press the Enter key to confirm the new name. Helpful hint: 1. An object cannot have the same name as an existing object of the same type. 2. An object cannot be renamed while it is open. 7
8 Customising and grouping You can organise different types of Access objects into a Group. For example, you can create a group for any objects you use to complete a particular set of tasks or that are used by a particular person. You can also create a group for your favourite objects that you use most often. A Group consists of shortcuts to the database objects that belong to it. Adding an object to a group does not change that object's original location and all objects of a particular type will still appear when you click on that object type in the Navigation Pane. For example, when you click on Tables in the object list, all Tables will be displayed even if they are also part of a group. Deleting a database object shortcut from a group does not delete the object itself. For example, if you delete a form shortcut from your group, and then view Forms in the Navigation Pane, that form still appears in the list of all forms. To create a group: 1. Click on Custom on the Navigation Pane drop-down menu. A new group called Custom Group 1 will be created. 2. Right-click on the Group and select Rename to change the name (e.g. Favourites) 3. Drag objects from the Unassigned Objects list onto the name of the Group to add shortcuts to it. The process above creates groups on the Custom category but you can also rename Custom and create further categories and then create groups within these categories. To create additional categories and groups: Right-click on the top bar of the Navigation Pane and select Navigation Options. From here you can rename the Custom group, create additional categories and create additional groups within these. 8
9 Data navigation and entry Data navigation This section looks at some of the different ways to navigate through your data. Differences between form and table navigation will be highlighted in this section. As you move from record to record in a table, the record selector for the current record and the field name(s) for the current fields are highlighted in yellow. The specific cells that are selected are shaded in blue with a yellow highlighted border. Using Go To This allows you to move straight to the first, last, next, previous, or a new record. 1. Click on Go To on the Home Tab. 2. Select the option you require from the submenu. Using the navigation bar One of the most efficient ways to move between records in large databases is with the navigation buttons in the lower left-hand corner of the window: First record Previous record Last record Click here (or press F5) and type the record number you want and press Enter. Using the keyboard Next record You can use various keys on the keyboard to move around the datasheet or form: Keys Table action Form action New record, Tab, Enter One field at a time: Field above Previous field Field to the right Next field Next field One field at a time* Previous field Previous field Next field Next field - End Home Ctrl + End Ctrl + Home Move to last field in current record. Move to first field in current record. Move to last field in last record. Move to first field in first record. 9
10 Helpful hint: When viewing a form in Form view, the order of movement between fields is governed by the tab order which forms part of the Form design. Navigation and Editing modes There are two modes available in the Datasheet view, Navigation mode and Editing mode. Navigation mode In Navigation mode, the cursor keys on the keyboard will move you from cell to cell, selecting the entire contents of each cell (see below). Editing mode In Editing mode the insertion cursor appears, and the same keys will move you from character to character within a cell (see below). When you click with the mouse in a cell you are in Editing mode by default. You can toggle between the two modes by pressing the F2 key. If you are in Editing mode in a cell you will be returned to Navigation mode when you leave the cell. Data entry This section covers techniques for entering new records in forms and tables. To follow the steps below, you will first need to open a form in Form view or a table in Datasheet view. See previous sections for more details. Adding a new record Every form or datasheet has a blank record which follows the last existing record. If there are no records, the blank record is the only record. This blank record is reserved for new data. There are a number of ways to navigate to the new blank record at the end of your data including: Click on the New Record button in the Navigation bar (see Record selector symbols below) or Click on Go To on the Home Tab and select New Record or Type your data in the first field and press Tab to move to the next field. The record selector symbols change as you work. (See Record selector symbols below for a key to the symbols). Repeat the step above until you reach the last field. Pressing Tab from the last field automatically moves to the first field of the next record and automatically saves the record. 10
11 Data Entry Tips AutoNumber field (contains the word (New) in a new blank record) Check box Enter the current date Enter the current time Press tab to skip data entry in this field as Access will automatically create a value in this field. Press the space bar to check or uncheck the box. CTRL + ; (semi-colon) CTRL + SHIFT + ; (semi-colon) Record selector symbols Access displays the following symbols in the record selector (the grey area to the left of each record): Indicates the blank new record Indicates the current record when it is being edited (changed). Helpful hint: Depending on the design of the form, the record selector symbol may not be visible. Saving a record As you move from one record to another, the data in the previous record is automatically saved. This also applies if you leave the record at any time, for example if you use the mouse to click on a nonadjacent record. Quitting a record without saving You can use the Esc key to cancel the current entry if problems arise when inputting data, for example if you receive an error message or make a mistake. Press once to leave the current field without saving any changes. Press twice to leave the current record without saving any changes. Data types The data you may enter in a specific field will depend on the data types and properties of the field. The following information covers some of the common restrictions. Access will display an error message dialog box if you try to break the data entry rules. Primary key fields Each record in a database must have a value which is unique to that particular record. This ensures that the record is uniquely identifiable. For example, if the Employees Table had two employees with first name John and last name Smith, the Employee ID would act as a unique reference or ID number. This is known in database terminology as a primary key. In some cases, this field might be set to be an Autonumber. In this case, Access automatically creates a number to identify the record, starting from the number 1 and working upwards, never using the same number twice. When entering a new record, Autonumber fields can be ignored: Access will automatically create an Autonumber as soon as you begin entering data in the record. Foreign key fields These are fields which are linked to a field in another table in order to create a link or relationship to records in that table. For example, the Orders Table contains a CustomerID Field which must contain a CustomerID from the Customers Table. This enables us to know which customer has placed the order and 11
12 what their details are. It many cases, data entry in a Foreign key field is limited to a value in the field it is related to. In the example above, the CustomerID field in the Orders Table must contain an existing CustomerID from the Customers Table and no other values may be entered. Date/time fields Data entered in these fields should be in a standard date or time format, e.g. 31/10/04 or 16:30. A calendar icon appears next to date/time fields to allow you to pick a date from the calendar. Drop-down lists Some fields may be set up as drop-down lists known as combo boxes. In this case, you can select an item from the list by clicking on the drop-down arrow or you can type in your entry and Access will offer to complete the entry for you. In some cases the field may be set up to restrict data entry to the dropdown list, in which case you must choose one of the entries on the list. Required fields The property for a field may be set to be required, in which case the field cannot be left blank. 12
13 Data selection and editing Selecting data in tables Areas that have been selected are highlighted in yellow. Once an area has been selected it can be edited or deleted as described in the next sections. Selecting records To select a single record click on its Record Selection button (see below) To select multiple adjacent records, click and drag the pointer down across the record selectors as required (see below). To select all records, click on the Table Selector button at the top left corner of the table (see above). Table selector button Record selector button Selecting a cell Position the pointer at the start of the field and, when the pointer is shaped like a white cross, click with the mouse. Notice that the complete cell, not just the cell contents, is selected. Selecting data in forms Selecting records can be done using the Select drop-down on the Home tab. To select a record: From the Select drop-down list choose Select All. If it is visible, click on the Record Selector button at the left-hand side of the form (see Record selector symbols section). To select all records: From the Select drop-down list choose Select All. Editing data This section covers making changes to existing data in a table or form. When completing the following section, refer to the section on Data navigation, particularly Navigation and Editing modes (page 10). Part of a field To replace part of the contents of a field: 1. Navigate to the field using any method. 2. If you are in Navigation mode (i.e. the contents of the field is selected): Switch to Edit mode by pressing the F2 key. 13
14 3. Navigate to the part of the cell you wish to modify and modify the data using the keyboard as detailed below: Keys to move/edit data within a field in Edit mode Delete Backspace / Ctrl + Ctrl + End Home Remove one character to the right. Remove one character to the left. Move one character left/right. Move one word to the left. Move one word to the right. Move to the end of the line. Move to the beginning of the line. Entire field To replace the entire contents of a field: 1. Navigate to the field using any method except the mouse. The contents of the field will be selected. 2. Type to replace all existing data in the field. Helpful hint: If you use the mouse to click in the field, the cursor will be displayed (Edit mode). Press F2 to select the contents (Navigation mode). Copying and moving data Single field or part of a field You can copy and paste all or part of the contents of a field just as you would in any other Microsoft Office application: 1. Click and drag the mouse across the text to select all or part of a field. 2. If you are in Navigation mode the entire contents of the field will already be selected. 3. On the Home tab select Copy to copy data or Cut to move data. 4. To insert the text, move the cursor to a new position, or to replace existing text, select any text you wish to replace. 5. On the Home tab select Paste. Copying an entire cell 1. Select the entire cell (see Selecting a cell on page 13). 2. Select Copy to copy the cell. 3. Select another cell. 4. Select Paste. 14
15 Helpful hint: It is not possible to Cut and Paste an entire cell. Whole record(s) You can copy and paste one record or multiple records, either to append as new records in your table or to replace existing records. 1. Select the required record(s) (see Selecting data in tables section for more details). 2. Select Copy to copy the record(s). 3. To replace existing records, select the records you wish to replace, or to append the record, click on the New Record selector. 4. Select Paste. Helpful hint: When replacing multiple records, there must be the same number of records in the copied selection and the records being replaced. Deleting records 1. Select the required records. 2. On the Home tab select Delete or use the Delete key on the keyboard. 3. Click on the Yes button in the dialog box which appears to confirm the deletion. Helpful hint: Once you have deleted a record or group of records, you will not be able to retrieve it. For this reason Access displays a warning message when you delete records. Using the undo facility Access provides the facility to undo the last change made to the data. The command may vary according to the change just made e.g. Undo Typing, Undo Current Field, Undo Current Record, Undo Saved Record. Note that for some operations (deleting records is one example), the Undo facility is not available. However Access will warn you if what you are about to do is irreversible. From the Quick Access Toolbar (top left of the Access window) select Undo keyboard shortcut CTRL + Z. or use the 15
16 Customising datasheets Changing the appearance of a datasheet You can change the appearance of a table in Datasheet view to make it easier to read and to distinguish one table from another. These are available in the Text Formatting part of the Home tab. Colour alternate rows (select No colour to use background colour for all rows) Click here for more options Re-organising fields Turn gridlines on and off There are a number of ways to reorganise data to make records easier to view. This section covers customising the layout of a table and sorting records. You can move fields, adjust field width and row height, and freeze or hide field display in the Datasheet view. You may also sort the contents of two or more adjacent fields. Selecting a field or fields To select a single field (as shown below), click on the Field Selector (the top of the column containing the heading). To select multiple fields, click on the first field s field selector and, without releasing the mouse button, drag the pointer across the field selectors of the other fields required. Helpful hint: only adjacent fields can be selected simultaneously. Moving fields 1. Select the field or fields you wish to move. 2. Click and drag left or right to the new position. A bold vertical bar appears to show the position of the field as you drag. 3. Release the mouse button when the vertical bar is in the position you require for the field. 16
17 More field and row options You can change the appearance of fields and rows and subdatasheets using the More button on the Records part of the Home tab. Changes the row height for all rows in the table Change the behaviour of the subdatasheet Changing field width or row height Fit to a specific width/height: Navigate to any cell in the field or row to be changed or select the fields to be changed. Click on the More button on the Records part of the Home tab. Note that changes to row height affect all rows. Click and drag to new width/height: 1. Position the pointer in the border to the right of the field to be changed (or in the lower border of the row to change the row height). The pointer changes shape to a double headed arrow. 2. Click and hold down the left mouse button, drag the pointer to the height or width required and release the mouse button. Field width best fit: 1. Position the pointer on the right border of the field heading, as above. 2. Double-click the left mouse button. The width will be set automatically to fit the widest cell entry currently visible on screen. Please note, that no best fit method is available for row height. Freezing and unfreezing fields In a large table when all fields cannot be viewed on the screen at one time it is possible to freeze fields so as to prevent them from scrolling off the screen. Freezing fields 1. Select the fields to be frozen. 2. Click on the More button on the Records part of the Home tab. 3. Select Freeze Fields. The frozen fields will automatically be moved to the far left of the table. 17
18 If no fields are selected when you select this command, Access freezes the field containing the insertion point. Helpful hint: To move a field which has been frozen it must be unfrozen first. Unfreezing fields Click on the More button on the Home tab and select Unfreeze All Fields. Hiding or showing fields It is also useful to be able to hide fields, to make it easier to focus on the fields (fields) of particular interest. Hiding a field 1. Select the field(s) to be hidden. 2. Click on the More button on the Home tab and select Hide Fields. Showing hidden fields 1. Click on the More button and select Unhide Fields. 2. Tick in the fields boxes to be unhidden (displayed) as shown left. Adding Totals to a datasheet Totals enable you to count the number of records in a table and perform other aggregate functions such as finding the sum of values in a column or the minimum, maximum or average value in a column. To add Totals: 1. Click on the Totals button in the Records group on the Home tab. A new row will appear below the new record row of your datasheet. The word Total will appear in the first column in the new row. 2. Use the drop down arrows in the Total row to add specific aggregate functions to a particular field. The aggregate functions available will depend on the data in the column. For example, columns containing text can only use a Count function. The screen capture below shows Totals on the Product table where a count has been added to the Product Name field and the drop-down options are displayed for the Unit Price field. 18
19 The Total row is not considered to be one of the records and is therefore not included when records are sorted. If you apply a filter to your records, the result of the functions will reflect the filtered data. So, for example, if you add an Average function to the Unit Price column and then filter products to only show Beverages then the Total row will display the average price of Beverages only. Sorting records Sorting records in a table In a datasheet you can sort by just one field or by two or more adjacent fields in a single action. Access always sorts records starting with the left-most field. 1. If necessary move a field or fields so that they are in the correct sort order (left to right). 2. Select the field or fields you wish to sort on. 3. Select either Ascending or Descending Example The example below shows the Customers Table sorted first by Contact Title (Primary Sort) and then by Company name (Secondary sort) in ascending order. Customers are sorted alphabetically by Contact Title so that all customers with the same contact title appear together. Within each set of records with the same contact title, records are sorted by company name. Helpful hint: The Contact Title field has been moved so that it is to the immediate left of the Company Name field. 19
21 Sorting records in a Form In a Form you can sort by one field only: 1. Click in the field you want to sort by in any record. 2. Select either Sort Ascending or Descending Saving the datasheet layout When you close a table you are prompted to save the layout. Saying yes will save any changes using the features described in this section (Customising datasheets) will be saved for the next time you open the table. 21
22 Finding Records In a small database, data may easily be located by navigation, but in a larger database a search method is required. Access provides two methods for finding data in Tables and Forms: Search: Find: Filters: Search to quickly find a specific string of text used to locate a record that matches certain values used to extract temporarily records matching specified criteria This feature allows you to quickly find specific data. 1. Click in the Search box to the right of the Navigation bar. 2. Type the text you wish to find. The first instance of this text in the table will be highlighted. 3. Press Enter to move to the next instance. 4. Keep pressing Enter to jump to further instances of the text. Find and Replace Locating data using Find 1. Click on the Find button on the Home tab. The Find dialog box will be displayed: 2. Type what you are looking for in the Find What box (see below). 3. Click on the Find Next button. 4. Repeat the step above to scroll through all matching records. Other options in the Find dialog box Look In: Allows you to specify which part of the database to search (select the field name to search the field or the table or form name to search all records). Match: Allows you to specify whether to match Whole Field (the entire contents of the Find What box must exactly match the entire contents of the field) or Any Part of Field (contents of the Find What box must exactly match any part of the field) or Start of Field (the contents of the Find What box must exactly match the beginning of the field). Match Case: Tick this to find only records where upper and lower case letters match corresponding letters in your Find What box. 22
23 Search: Specify whether to search Up (records previous to the current record), Down (records following the current record) or All. Replacing field contents It is possible not only to search for your data but also to replace that data with an alternative. This allows changes to be made quickly and easily. 1. Click on the Replace button on the Home tab. The Replace dialog box will be displayed (see below). Notice the similarities with the Find dialog box. 2. Complete the dialog box as for the Find dialog box (see previous page) to specify the text you wish to find. 3. Enter the new text (with which to replace the text in the Find What box) in the Replace With box. 4. To replace specific instances of the search term: Use the Find Next button to scroll through your records. For each item you wish to change, click on Replace. To replace all instances of the search term: Click on Replace All. Helpful hint: Use the Replace All command with extreme caution. You cannot undo the Replace All command. 23
24 Filtering records in a table or form Filters and queries are tools that can be used to create a custom view of your data that includes or excludes records according to specific criteria. A Filter can be used to temporarily change the set of records you are viewing while a table or form is open. Filters are temporary and are not saved with the table or form. Unlike the Find function, which only operates on one criterion, Filters enable you to generate lists of records based on several criteria in one or several fields. All the Filter commands are available in the Sort and Filter group on the Home tab. Filter by selection This Filter displays only those records that have a specific value in a particular field. 1. Select all or part of the text in a specific cell. 2. Click on the Selection drop-down list. Different options are displayed depending on what type of data is selected. These options allow you match or partially match text or match a specific number or date or a range of numbers and dates. 3. Select an option. Only records which meet the criteria you specified will be displayed and all other records will be hidden. When records are filtered, a symbol appears indicating which field(s) contains the filter criteria and a filter symbol and the word Filtered appears to the right of the Navigation bar. Text field example Select the word Sales in a cell in the Contact Title field of the Customers table and choose Contains Sales from the Selection drop-down list. Only records with the word Sales in the Contact Title field will be displayed. Date field example Select a date in the Order Date field in the Orders table and choose On or Before from the Selection drop-down list. Orders placed on or before the selected date will be displayed. Filter by form Here you enter criteria in the required fields to filter data in several fields. 1. Click on the Advanced drop-down list and select Filter By Form. 2. A datasheet (when filtering a table) or form (when filtering a form) will appear with a Look For tab at the bottom. 24
25 3. The filter form will usually display the most recent criteria entered. To ensure that all previous criteria have been cleared before creating a new filter, select Clear Grid from the Advanced dropdown list. 4. Type any criteria you want to match in the relevant fields. Typing criteria in more than one field will mean that records will have to match all the criteria you enter. 5. To add alternative criteria that the records could match, click on the Or tab at the bottom of the form or datasheet. A second form or datasheet will appear for you to enter additional criteria. 6. From the Advanced drop-down list select Apply Filter/Sort or click on the Toggle Filter button. The records that match the criteria you have specified will be displayed. Example 1. Click on object forms and open the form Customers. 2. Select Filter By Form from the Advanced drop-down list. 3. Type Sales Representative in the title field and Germany in the country field (see the screen capture above). 4. Click on the Or tab and type UK in the country field. 5. Select Apply Filter/Sort from the Advanced drop-down list. This Filter will display sales representatives from Germany and all customers from the UK. Helpful hint: Access automatically places double quote marks around criteria in a text field and hash marks ## around criteria in a date/time field. For more information about using criteria, see Criteria on page 26. Toggle Filter Click on the Toggle Filter button to apply/remove the most recent filter criteria you have created. 25
26 Criteria Given below are a range of some of the possible criteria that can be used in queries and filters. This is by no means an exhaustive list see Access Help for more information. Note that in certain fields it is only possible to define criteria matching the data type in that field. For example, it is only possible to specify a particular date or range of dates in a date field and to specify a particular number or range of numbers in a number field. Access will warn you if you attempt to enter an inappropriate criterion in a field. Dates and numbers To find records matching a specific date or number or a range of dates or numbers: To find: Type: Example Displays: Exact match [date or number] 14/02/03 14/02/03 Greater than >[date or number] > and up Less than <[date or number] <100 up to 99 Greater than or equal to Less than or equal to >=[date or number] >=14/02/03 after and including 14/10/03 <=[date or number] <=100 up to and including 100 Within an inclusive range between [date or number] and [date or number] Between 1 and 5 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Text To find records which contain certain text (a particular word or words or combination of letters). To find: Type: Example Displays: Exact match [text] Cat Cat Text begins with [text] followed by any letters. Text occurs anywhere within the field [text]* Ca* Cat and Canary *[text]* *Sales* Assistant Sales Agent, Sales Manager etc. Null fields To find records for which a certain field is blank: Type Is Null in the relevant field. To find only records for which a certain field contains data (isn t blank): Type Is Not Null in the relevant fields.
27 Exclusion To find fields which don t match certain criteria add Not to the front of the criteria. This can be used for text, dates or numbers. Examples Not *Manager*:Finds records for which a field doesn t contain Manager anywhere in the field. Not 14/10/03: Finds records for which a field doesn t exactly match the date 14/10/03. Acceptable syntax Access automatically places double quote marks around text and hash # symbols around dates entered in the criteria line, but numbers are not changed. Access will also add the word Like to any expressions including an asterisk *. To save time when creating queries it is more usual to leave out these symbols and allow Access to add them. To ensure that Access recognises dates correctly, they should always be written in an acceptable format. Access recognises dates in a number of formats but it is recommended to use dd/mm/yy (e.g. 25/12/03) or dd/mm/yyyy (e.g. 25/12/1795) as standard.
28 Exercises Task 1: Data navigation and entry in tables When navigating around the database, use the method indicated in brackets. 1. Open Northwind.mdb. 2. Open the Customers table. 3. Go to the first field in the first record of your table. (using the keyboard.) What Country does the customer live in? 4. Navigate to a new blank record. (using the navigation bar.) 5. Enter a new record as detailed below: Customer ID Company Name Contact Name Contact Title BALGR Big Al s Groceries Al Malone Owner Address City Region Postal Code Country Phone Fax 354 Rodeo Dr. Salt Lake City UT USA Task 2: Data navigation and entry in forms 1. Open the Products form. 2. Go to the last record on the form (using the navigation bar.) What is the Unit Price of this product? 3. Go to a new blank record on the form. (using the navigation bar.) 4. Enter a new record as detailed below: Product Name Supplier ID Category ID Quantity Per Unit Gumbo Mix New Orleans Cajun Delights Seafood g pkgs Unit Price Units In Stock Units On Order Reorder Level Discontinued Yes 5. Go back to the first record on the form (using the keyboard.)
29 Task 3: Data selection and editing in tables 1. Open the Products table. 2. Go to record number 35 and copy the contents of the cell containing Supplier. 3. Go to the first record and replace the contents of the cell containing Supplier with the copied data. 4. Close the Products table. 5. Open the Order Details table. 6. Select and delete all records with Order ID Change the contents of the Quantity field in record number 50 to Use the Undo command to restore the original contents of the field. Task 4: Data selection and editing in forms 1. Open the Suppliers form. 2. Select record number Copy and paste record number 25 as a new record. Notice the Supplier ID for this new record. Why has it changed? 4. Modify the new record: Replace the Contact Name with Guy Saint Modify the Contact Title to Sales Manager. 5. Close the Suppliers form. Task 5: Reorganising data in tables 1. Open the Suppliers table. 2. Move the Contact Title column so that it is between Company Name and Contact Name fields. 3. Freeze the three columns mentioned above. Notice what happens to the Supplier ID column. 4. Scroll to the last field in any record to see the result of freezing the columns. 5. Hide the Contact Title and the Supplier ID columns. 6. Close the Suppliers table, saving the changes you have made. 7. Open the Customers table. 8. Change the width of the Contact Name column using the Best Fit method. 9. Sort the table by Contact Title in ascending order. 10. Notice that the Contact Name column is no longer wide enough to display all the data. Use the mouse to change the width so that all contact names are fully visible. 11. Close the Customers table. 12. Re-open the Suppliers table.
30 13. Unhide the Contact Title column. 14. Unfreeze the columns. 15. Open the Orders table. 16. Sort the records so that records are sorted by Employee and for each employee are sorted alphabetically by Customer. 17. Close all open tables. Task 5: Reorganising data in forms 1. Open the Products form. 2. Sort the products by name. 3. Scroll through the records to view the sorted results. 4. Close the Products form. Task 6: Locating data in tables Using filters and sorting: 1. Open the Products table. 2. Use a filter to display all Beverages with a unit price of more than $18. Note: do not include the dollar sign [$] in your criteria. 3. Sort the filtered records to check that your filter has worked. How many records are displayed? 4. Modify the filter to show Beverages with a unit price of $18 or less. How many records are displayed now? Using Find: 1. Open the Customers table. 2. Find a contact with the surname Camino. What is the record number? 3. Find a customer living in Brazil. Task 7: Locating data in forms Using Find and Replace: 1. Open the Customers form. 2. Replace the following: Find Contacts with Contact Title: Sales Agent Accounting Manager Change their Titles to: Sales Associate Accounts Executive (unless they live in Brazil)
31 Using a filter: 3. Filter the records to display only customers who live in Brazil. How many are there? 4. Remove the filter. 5. Open the Employees form. 6. Find the record for the employee Michael Suyama. 7. Filter the records to display all employees who have worked at the company longer than Michael. 8. How many staff are there in your result? 9. What criterion did you use to display the records? Extra Exercise - Revision 1. Open the Northwind database and open the Suppliers table. 2. Move the Country field to the far left of the table (make it the first column). Make the City field the second field in the table. 3. Search for Ltd in the Company Name field and replace it with plc. 4. Check record 10 and ensure the company name is still Refrescos Americanas LTDA, ie, check that LTDA has not been changed to PLCA. 5. Apply a filter where the criteria is all the contact names starting with Ch. How many records are there? Remove the filter. 6. Hide the Phone and Fax fields. 7. Change the row height to Remove the horizontal gridlines. 9. Change the colour of the background and the vertical gridlines. 10. Change the font and change the point size to Apply a filter for all records where the country is USA, listing the result in alphabetical order of City. Which is the last city? 12. Use Best Fit to set the width of the columns. 13. Change the font to Arial Narrow and point size to Use the Best Fit option again to change the Column Width. 15. Check to ensure the Phone and Fax fields are still hidden. 16. Remove the filter and unhide the phone and fax fields. Close the Table without saving your formats. 17. Open the Orders table. 18. How many records have the employees with surname King and are shipping Via "Speedy Express"? 19. Remove from the view of the table, all the records where the Ship Country is France, Germany, or Italy. How many records are left? Remove the filter. 20. List all the records that do not contain a Ship Postal Code. How many are there? 21. Remove the filter and close the table without saving.
32 Reference list Using the keyboard You can use various keys on the keyboard to move around the datasheet or form: Keys Table action Form action, Tab, Enter One field at a time: Field above Previous field Field to the right Next field Next field One field at a time* Previous field Previous field Next field Next field - End Home Ctrl + End Ctrl + Home Move to last field in current record. Move to first field in current record. Move to last field in last record. Move to first field in first record. Data Entry Tips AutoNumber field (contains the word (New) in a new blank record) Check box Enter the current date Enter the current time Press tab to skip data entry in this field as Access will automatically create a value in this field. Press the space bar to check or uncheck the box. CTRL + ; (semi-colon) CTRL + SHIFT + ; (semi-colon) Criteria Given below are a range of some of the possible criteria that can be used in queries and filters. This is by no means an exhaustive list see Access Help for more information. Note that in certain fields it is only possible to define criteria matching the data type in that field. For example, it is only possible to specify a particular date or range of dates in a date field and to specify a particular number or range of numbers in a number field. Access will warn you if you attempt to enter an inappropriate criterion in a field.
33 Dates and numbers To find records matching a specific date or number or a range of dates or numbers: To find: Type: Example Displays: Exact match [date or number] 14/02/03 14/02/03 Greater than >[date or number] > and up Less than <[date or number] <100 up to 99 Greater than or equal to Less than or equal to >=[date or number] >=14/02/03 after and including 14/10/03 <=[date or number] <=100 up to and including 100 Within an inclusive range between [date or number] and [date or number] Between 1 and 5 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Text To find records which contain certain text (a particular word or words or combination of letters). To find: Type: Example Displays: Exact match [text] Cat Cat Text begins with [text] followed by any letters. Text occurs anywhere within the field [text]* Ca* Cat and Canary *[text]* *Sales* Assistant Sales Agent, Sales Manager etc. Null fields To find records for which a certain field is blank: Type Is Null in the relevant field. To find only records for which a certain field contains data (isn t blank): Type Is Not Null in the relevant fields. Exclusion To find fields which don t match certain criteria add Not to the front of the criteria. This can be used for text, dates or numbers. Examples Not *Manager*:Finds records for which a field doesn t contain Manager anywhere in the field. Not 14/10/03: Finds records for which a field doesn t exactly match the date 14/10/03.
34 Acceptable syntax Access automatically places double quote marks around text and hash # symbols around dates entered in the criteria line, but numbers are not changed. Access will also add the word Like to any expressions including an asterisk *. To save time when creating queries it is more usual to leave out these symbols and allow Access to add them. To ensure that Access recognises dates correctly, they should always be written in an acceptable format. Access recognises dates in a number of formats but it is recommended to use dd/mm/yy (e.g. 25/12/03) or dd/mm/yyyy (e.g. 25/12/1795) as standard.
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