Ohio University Computer Services Center July, 2004 Microsoft Access 2003 Reference Guide

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1 Ohio University Computer Services Center July, 2004 Microsoft Access 2003 Reference Guide Overview Access is a relational database management system (RDBMS). This is a type of database management system that stores data in the form of related tables. Typically, an Access database has these parts: Tables usually several tables in which all the information in the database is stored. Queries used to extract records containing certain information from the data stored in the tables. For instance, we might write a query that will look for all records with OH in the state field. Forms a convenient, customizable format for entering and viewing information in the database s tables. Reports used to display the data in tables or the data that results from a query. Home button The Home button in the New File pane 2. In the Getting Started pane, look in the Open section at the bottom and click the Create a new file link. Create an Access Database Using the Database Wizard 1. Start Access and note the Getting Started pane at the right side of the screen as shown below. If the Getting Started pane does not appear, follow step a) below. Create a new file 3. The New File pane will appear. NOTE: If the Create a new file link doesn t appear in the Task Pane, click the small arrow at the bottom of the Getting Started pane, as shown in the next illustration. 4 a) To make the Getting Started pane appear, click File, then New to see a New File pane as shown next. Note the 3 icons at the top of the New File pane. Click the Home button (right-most button) to display the Getting Started pane. 1

2 8. Select the location where you want to store the database in the Save In line at the top of the dialog box, and type a name for the database in the File name line at the bottom of the dialog box as shown below. 9. Click the Create button to start the Database Wizard. Save in line Click the arrow to see more options 4. In the New File pane, look in the Templates section. 5. Click the On my computer link. The Templates selection screen will appear. File name line The File New Database dialog box 10. When the database wizard has started, read the description on the first screen of the wizard (see below) to see if the database will store what you need. 6. In the Templates selection screen, click the Databases tab. Databases tab of the Templates selection screen 7. Select a template, then click OK to see the File New Database dialog box. 11. Click Next, then examine the fields to be included in the database by clicking a table name on the left and viewing fields in that table on the right, as shown next. Field names that are listed in italics may optionally be added by placing a checkmark in the checkbox next to the field name. Click Next when the fields you want have been selected. 2

3 Click a Table Name. to see the fields in the table. Italicized field name can be added as an option. 14. Accept the proposed name for the database or type a new name for the database in the What would you like the title of your database to be? line, shown next. Click Next when the database has been named. Selecting fields from the tables 12. Select a style for screen displays by clicking a style name on the right and viewing a sample of that style on the left. When you ve selected a style, click Next. 15. Put a check mark in the Yes, start the database checkbox, then click Finish. Screen style dialog box 13. Select a style for printed reports. Click a style name on the right to view an example on the left as shown below. Click Next when you ve made a selection. The database wizard will build the database. You might see horizontal progress bars as the database is being built. Reports style dialog box 3

4 Create an Access Database Without a Wizard 1. Start Access and note the Getting Started pane at the right side of the screen as shown next. If the Getting Started pane does not appear, follow step a which follows the screen picture. The Create a new file option 2. Now you ve caused the Getting Started pane to appear, and you ve selected Create a new file from that pane. The New File pane should appear. 3. In the New File pane, select Blank Database, as shown below. b) To make the Getting Started pane appear, click File, then New to see a New File pane as shown next. Note the 3 icons at the top of the New File pane. Click the Home button (right-most button) to display the Getting Started pane. The Home button in the New File pane 2. In the Getting Started pane, look in the Open section at the bottom and click the Create a new file link. 4. In the resulting File New Database dialog box, select the location where you want to store the database in the Save In line at the top of the dialog box, and type a name for the database in the File name line at the bottom of the dialog box (see example on first page). Once the database is named and saved, Access will display the Database Window (shown on next page). Note that the database window has the database s name in the title bar, and a set of buttons down the left side representing objects in Access such as tables, queries, and reports. 4

5 Object buttons The database window. (Notice that it resides within the Access screen.) 5. To include a field in your table, move field names from the Sample Fields area to the Fields in my new table area using one of two methods: Highlight a field name in the Sample Fields box, then click the rightpointing arrow. Double click a field name in the Sample Fields box. The database window Create a Table Using the Table Wizard 1. Click the Tables object 2. EITHER double-click Create table by using wizard OR click once on Create table by using wizard, then click the OPEN button. 3. The table wizard dialog box will appear (below). Double-click or use arrow to include a field (Fields can be removed from the Fields in my new table window by double-clicking a field name, or by highlighting a field name, then clicking the left-pointing arrow. Move ALL fields from one area to the other by clicking a double arrow key.) 6. When you ve selected the fields you want to include in your table, click the Next button. 7. Type a name for your table on the line at the top of the dialog box, then decide whether to let Access add a primary key to your table. Click the radio button that reflects your choice, then click Next. Selecting fields to include in your database 4. Look at sample table names to find a sample table that s likely to contain many of the fields you need. Note that you can view tables in both Personal and Business categories by clicking the radio buttons at the middle left of the dialog box. When a table name is clicked, the table s fields appear in the Sample Fields area of the dialog box in the center. Name the table and make choice on primary key 5

6 a. If you selected No, I ll set the primary key : 1. Tell Access which field should hold the primary key by selecting that field name in the What field will hold data that is unique for each record? line. Next, determine what kind of primary key you d like (Autonumber, Numerals, or Alphanumeric - see next picture). Tell Access which field you want to use as the Primary Key. Autonumber data type Numerals only Alphanumeric - alphabetic characters or numerals 2. Click Next. If other tables exist in the database, you ll see a window showing the current relationship among tables (as shown next). If the current relationship shown is correct, click the Next button. If the current relationship is not correct, click the Relationships button. 4. Tell Access that the tables are not related, or select one of the possible relationships listed. Then, click OK to return to the dialog box with the Relationships button. 5. Click Next. 6. Tell the Table Wizard whether you want to modify the table design or start entering data, then click Finish. b. If you selected Yes, set a primary key for me ; If other tables exist in the database, you ll see a window showing the current relationship among tables (as shown next). If the current relationship shown is correct, click the Next button. If the current relationship is not correct, click the Relationships button. 3. If you clicked the Relationships button in step 2, the Relationships dialog box will appear, as shown next. If no other tables exist in the database, the Table Wizard will skip the screen above. 6

7 1. Tell Access how the table you re creating should be related to other tables by clicking the Relationships button, shown next. Field Name Data Type Description The Table Design screen 3. Click in the Data Type column of any row. 4. Click the down-arrow at the right end of the Data Type column to see a list of available data types. 2. After clicking the Relationships button, use the Relationships dialog box to describe how the tables are related; either they re NOT related, or they re related in one of two One-To- Many relationship configurations, as shown next. Click OK when you ve described the relationship. 3. Click Next to leave the Relationships window. 4. Tell the Table Wizard whether you want to modify the table design or start entering data, then click Finish. Create a Table in Design View 1. Click the TABLES object button. 2. EITHER double-click Create table in Design view OR click once on Create table in Design view then click the OPEN button. The table design screen will appear. 7 Selecting a data type 5. Note that there are nine data types as shown in the following chart. Data Usage Size Type Text Alphanumeric data Up to 255 characters Memo Alphanumeric data; sentences and Up to 64,000 characters paragraphs Number Numeric data 1,2,4, or 8 bytes. Date/ Dates and times 8 bytes Time Currency Monetary data, stored 8 bytes with 4 decimal places of precision Auto- Number Yes/No OLE Object Unique value generated by Access for each new record Boolean (true/false) data Pictures, graphs, or other ActiveX objects from another Windows-based application Click this down-arrow. 4 bytes 1 bit Up to about 1 gigabyte

8 Hyperlink A link address to a document or file on the Web, local network, or on your computer Up to 2048 characters Data types available in Access 6. Type a field name in the first Field Name cell, then press the TAB key to enter the Data Type column. 7. Click the down-arrow at the right end of the Data Type cell, then select an appropriate data type for the field. 8. Optionally, Tab to the Description field, and enter a description that will serve as a guide for those who will enter data in the completed table. This description, if present, will appear in the status line at the bottom of the table as data is being entered. 9. Add additional fields in the same manner. 10. Click File then Save when all fields have been entered, then type a name for the table. 11. Click OK. If you didn t set a primary key, Access will display the following alert: 1. Open a table in Design view. 2. Add a field which will have limited values (such as Freshman, Sophomore, Junior, Senior or small, medium, large ) to the table, then select lookup wizard as the Data Type. The Lookup Wizard dialog box will start. 3. Select I will type in the values that I want then click Next. First screen of the Lookup Wizard 4. Enter the number of columns you want to display in a drop-down list, then TAB to the first empty field and type the first of the values that will be choices for this data field. For example, for a State field, type state abbreviations such as OH, WV, PA, and KY. Press TAB to move to a new cell for each state. Click Next. Click YES to have Access add an AutoNumber primary key in a new ID field. Click No to return to the Table Design screen. 12. Click File, then Save when all fields have been entered, then type a name for the table. Create a Lookup Field Entering the values to display in a lookup field One of the possible data types is the Lookup Field data type. Instructions for its use follow. 8

9 5. Enter a label for your lookup list. The label will appear as a column header in the datasheet. Click Finish. Primary Key icon in the design screen row header 5. Save the table to save the primary key. Add a Pre-defined Input Mask to a Field Label chosen here will become a column header 6. Click the diskette icon to save the changes to the table. 7. Click the View button (see picture below) to return to Datasheet view, then click in any cell in the field for which you created a lookup. Note that the drop-down list contains only the list of possibilities you entered. 1. Open a table in Design view. 2. Click in a field for which you d like to create an input mask. 3. In the Field Properties section at the bottom of the screen, click in the Input Mask line and notice the Build button that appears at the right end of the line (see below). Build button 4. Click the build button to start the Input Mask Wizard (shown below). The View button (the table s window is maximized in this picture.) Setting a Primary Key The primary key is the unique identifier for each record in a table. Access will not allow duplicate entries in a primary key field. 1. Open the table in Design view or return to Design view by clicking the View button. 2. Click anywhere in the row containing the field you wish to use as the primary key. 3. Click the primary key button in the menu bar. 4. The primary key symbol will appear in the gray row header at the left end of the field. The Input Mask wizard 5. Select the appropriate input mask, then click Next. 9

10 6. Click Next for additional screens on which you can set options for the input mask. 7. Click Finish on the last screen of the input mask wizard. 8. Click the View button to return to Datasheet view, then add a record and observe how the input mask works. Tip: to force the Proper name format for a field, type >L<???????????????? onto the input mask line as shown below. The Proper name format will change smith to Smith after you enter the characters and leave a cell. Note that this WILL LIMIT the size of the name that can be entered to as many question marks as you type question marks in input mask = 16 character limit for the field 5. Click the View button to return to Datasheet view. Enter a record and observe the formatting changes. The format will only appear when you TAB or click out of the field. Viewing and Navigating Tables (datasheets) 1. Select the TABLES object. 2. EITHER double-click a table s name to open the table in Datasheet view OR select the table name and click the Open button in the Database Window toolbar. 3. Use the the arrows at the bottom of the table to navigate among records. From left to right, the arrows represent: First record, Previous record, Next record, Last record, New record. Modify Field Properties 1. Open a table in design view, or click the View button (see picture below) to switch an open table to design view. The View button. The button s appearance changes according to whether you re in Design view or in Datasheet view. 2. Click in any field with a text data type, then look at the Field Properties section at the bottom of the screen. 3. Click the Format line in the Field Properties section, then type a greater than symbol (>). This will force any text entered in this field to be displayed in upper case. 4. Save the changes by clicking the Save icon (diskette icon). 10 The record selector shows which record is active. The pencil icon is displayed when a record is being written. Notice that the total number of records in the table is shown at the right end of the navigation arrows. Depending on the table s size, there may be vertical and horizontal scroll bars that can be used to navigate, too. A particular record can be accessed directly by typing its number into the text box in the middle of the navigation arrows (as shown next) then pressing the ENTER key.

11 Formatting Datasheets 1. Open a table in Datasheet view. 2. Click Format in the menu bar 3. Click Font in the resulting menu 4. Change Font, Font style, and Size in the Font dialog box (shown next). Preparing to movie the City column note thick vertical line at left edge of the column 5. Drag the mouse to the right or left to drag the thick vertical line to the position where the column should be placed: Thick line is now where the City column will be positioned when the mouse button is released The Font dialog box Moving a Column in a Table 1. Open a table in datasheet view. 2. Move the mouse pointer into the gray column header at the top of the column you want to move. The mouse pointer will become a black arrow that points down (see below). 6. Release the mouse when the thick line is positioned where you d like to position the column. The column will remain where the thick line had been: After mouse button is released City column is where thick line had been positioned Freezing a Column in a Table Initial placement of mouse pointer 3. While holding the mouse pointer in the gray column header, click and release the left mouse button to highlight the entire column. 4. Keep the mouse pointer in the gray column header, then click and hold the left mouse button and note the thick vertical line that appears on the left edge of the column. 1. Click the column header for the row you want to freeze. The entire column will become selected. 2. Click Format, then select Freeze Columns. The frozen column will move to the left-most position and will stay there. Sort Records in a Table 1. Select the field you want to sort by clicking in any filled cell in that field s column. 2. Click either the Sort Ascending or Sort Descending icon. 11

12 Multi-level Sort in a Table To sort one field within another, perform a multi-level sort. For example, a table can be sorted by state, and within each state, an additional sort can sort zip codes. 1. Arrange the columns of the datasheet if necessary to position the fields which will determine the sort in left to right order. (See the section Moving a Column in a Table above) In the example mentioned above, the state and zip code fields can be anywhere in the datasheet AS LONG AS they are adjacent with the state field (the first field to be sorted) being located on the left and zip code on the right. 2. Click in the column header for State, then, while holding the mouse button, drag across to the column header for Zip Code. This should highlight both columns. (Another way to select two columns is to click in the column header for the field located on the left, then hold the Shift key and click in the column header for the field on the right.) 3. With both columns highlighted, click either the Sort Ascending or Sort Descending icon. Filter Records with Filter By Selection 1. Open a table or recordset 2. Select a value by clicking in the cell containing that value. In the example below, we ve clicked in a cell containing the state abbreviation OH. 3. Click the Filter By Selection icon in the menu bar. OR, click Records, then Filter, then select Filter By Selection. 4. Click the Remove Filter icon to restore the entire table or recordset. Filter by Selection Using Partial Field 1. Open a table or recordset 2. Select a partial field value such as St in the last name Stukey (see next). Selecting a part of a field 3. To see all last names that start with St, click the Filter by Selection icon. Table filtered to show names that start with St 4. Click the Remove Filter icon to restore the entire table or recordset. Filter Records with Filter By Form 1. Open a table or recordset. 2. Click the Filter By Form icon in the menu bar to display a filter form as shown next. Note the presence of the Look For and Or tabs at the bottom left of the form. Selecting data for Filter by Selection 12

13 3. Delete any unwanted information from the Filter by Form screen. (Usually, at least one field is filled with information from a previous Filter by Form OR by a previous Filter by Selection.) 4. Click the Look For tab, then type a criterion in the appropriate field. For example, type Smith in the Last Name field on the form. To look for an additional criterion, click the Or tab, then enter a different name in the Last Name field, or enter a criterion in a different field. 5. Click the Apply Filter icon to see the filtered records. 6. Click the Remove Filter icon to restore the entire table or recordset. (Note: With Filter by Form, the Apply Filter icon is the same as the Remove Filter icon. The action that will be performed by the icon toggles back and forth between Apply Filter and Remove Filter.) Using the Find Tool in a Table 1. Click in any occurrence of the field in which you expect to find a value. If you want to find a particular last name, for example, click in ANY existing last name field. 2. Click the Find (binoculars) icon to display the Find and Replace dialog box. The Find and Replace dialog box 3. Type the value you wish to find in the Find What line. 4. Click the drop-down arrow at the right end of the Look In line and select the field in which you expect to find your value. 5. Click the Find Next button to find either the first or subsequent occurrences of your value. Using Wildcards with the Find Tool Wildcards can be used in a search when you re unsure of part of the text string you seek. Embed the wildcard character in the Find What: line as shown in the Example column in the chart shown next. Characterr Usage * Matches any number of characters. It can be used as the first or last character in the character string.? Matches any single alphabetic character. [ ] Matches any single character within the brackets.! Matches any character not in the brackets. - Matches any one of a range of characters. You must specify the range in ascending order (A to Z, not Z to A). Example wh* finds what, white, and why B?ll finds ball, bell, and bill B[ae]ll finds ball and bell but not bill b[!ae]ll finds bill and bull but not bell b[a-c]d finds bad, bbd, and bcd 13

14 Using More Than One Table Typically, a database will have more than one table. For example, in a registration system, one table might contain information about each individual student, and another table might hold information about which several classes each student has enrolled in. In order for Access to be able to assemble the information from these two tables, a relationship has to be established between the two tables. One type of relationship is the one to many relationship, which is illustrated here. Creating a Relationship Between Tables 1. Click the Tools menu item, then select relationships. Or, click the relationships icon in the toolbar. 2. If the Show Table dialog box doesn t appear in front of the gray Relationships window, click the Show Table icon. Field lists for tables in the Relationships window 4. Left-click and hold the mouse button on the field name you want to relate to a field in another table. Below, Social Security # is the field that will relate one table to the other. The relationships window The Show Table dialog box. Click and hold the primary key in the parent table 5. Drag the mouse from the primary key in the first table towards the related field in the second table (the foreign key). As soon as you drag the mouse, the pointer will change to a small horizontal box as shown below. Relationships screen with Show Table box displayed 3. Double-click each table you d like to include in the relationship. (Alternatively, select a table you d like to include, then click the Add button.) This will place representative field lists on the relationships window, as shown next. Asdf Mouse pointer changes to horizontal shape when dragged Drag the primary key field toward the foreign key 14

15 6. As the mouse passes through the space between tables an illegal operation symbol will briefly appear. Ignore the symbol and continue to drag the mouse pointer toward the chosen field in the second table. 9. Click in the Enforce Referential Integrity check box. Referential Integrity is discussed in the next section. 10. Click the Create button. The relationships window will show a line between the related fields as shown on next page. On one end of the line is a 1 indicating the one side of a one-to-many relationship. The other end of the line will have an infinity symbol next to it to show that there are potentially many entries on the many side of the one-to-many relationship. Symbol appears as mouse is dragged between tables 7. When the mouse pointer is over the chosen field in the second table (the foreign key), the pointer changes again into a horizontal shape. Relationship diagram showing one to many relationship (one student, many classes). 11. Click the Save button to save the relationship. 8. Release the mouse button to display the Edit Relationships dialog box. Asdf Mouse pointer changes to horizontal shape again when it reaches the chosen field in second table. 15 Referential Integrity The one side of a relationship is represented by a table which is considered the parent table. A primary key in this table is called the Primary Key. The many side of the relationship is considered to be the child table (a parent can have many children). A primary key in this table, if a one-to-many relationship exists, is called the Foreign Key. Enforcing referential integrity ensures that the following three rules will not be broken: Do not enter a value in the foreign key field of a child table if that value doesn t exist in the primary key of the parent table. Do not delete a record from a parent table if matching records exist in a related table. Do not change the value in the primary key field if that record has related records in another table.

16 Working with Related Tables Go to the tables object in the database window, and open the table that s represented on the one side of the relationship. Notice that there are expand buttons next to each record as shown below. point for making a table comply with the characteristics of Second Normal form. We ll make our table fit the characteristics of First Normal Form. First Normal Form A table is in the first normal form when: 1. It does not contain fields with values that can be further broken down into smaller meaningful parts. For example, a field called Name can be broken down into two fields; First Name and Last Name. The expand button (circled) When the expand button is clicked, the related information in the second table is shown. When entering data, the fields for the related table can be filled after the expand button is clicked. Such a table is shown below. Breaking a field into its smallest components And, a second characteristic of a table in first normal form is: 2. It does not contain similar information in several fields. Notice that the table pictured next violates this characteristic because it has CLASS information listed in three fields; Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3. After the expand button is clicked Database Normalization To make the most efficient use of your database, you need to eliminate redundant data by dividing the database into several related tables. The process of doing so is called normalization. Normalizing a database simplifies its structure and increases the functionality of its data. To normalize tables, you must follow data design standards called normal forms. There are several normal forms. Each form requires a table to have satisfied the preceding normal form. For example, a table must be in First Normal form as the starting Multiple Class fields violate First Normal Form characteristics To normalize, make a separate table for Classes, as shown on next page. Then, create a relationship between the tables as described next. 16

17 wasn t correctly positioned before rightclicking.) OR, double-click on the line between the two field lists to go directly to the Edit Relationships dialog box. 4. Select Edit Relationships. The Edit Relationships dialog box will appear. Create a relationship between the tables using ID Number as the Primary key in the table containing names, and use the ID Number field in the Classes table as the Foreign key. The relationships window will be similar to the one shown next. 5. Make needed changes in the Edit Relationships dialog box. Parent table Relationship between Primary key in Parent table and Foreign key in Child table Editing a relationship 1. Click the Tools menu item, then select relationships. Or, click the relationships icon in the toolbar. 2. Place the TIP of the mouse pointer directly on the line between two field lists, and near the halfway point between the field lists, as shown in the next illustration. Correct mouse position Child table Incorrect mouse position 3. Right-click the mouse to see a shortcut menu that will include Edit Relationship and Delete. (If your menu includes Show Table and Show All, the mouse probably 17 Cascade Update Related Fields: This option requests that Access automatically update any foreign key values in the child table (the many table in a one-to-many relationship) if you change a primary key value in a parent table (the one table in a one-to-many relationship). For example, if this option is selected, you can change a primary key such as a social security number in the primary table (also called the parent table) and Access will update the social security (the foreign key) fields for related records in the child table. Cascade Delete Related Records: This option requests that Access delete child rows in the child table when a parent row is deleted. For example, if you remove a customer from a database, it s a good idea to also remove that customer s orders. The customer record will be removed from the parent table, and the related orders will be deleted from the child table when this option is selected.

18 Creating and Modifying Queries You can design your own queries or use an Access Query Wizard which will guide you through the steps to create a query. At least one table must exist before queries can be written. Using the Simple Query Wizard 3. If needed, select additional tables or queries and add their fields to the Selected Fields box. 4. Click Next when all fields have been selected. 5. Determine whether you d like to see a detail or summary query by clicking the appropriate radio button (shown below) then click Next. 1. Move to the Queries object. 2. Start the query wizard one of three ways: Select Create query by using wizard, then click the Open button. Double-click Create query by using wizard. Click the New button, then select Simple Query Wizard. The simple query wizard will start. Choosing a detail or summary query A. If Detail is chosen in Step 5. i. Type a name for the query on the top line ii. Choose either to: a. Open the query to view information c. Modify the query design iii. Click Finish First screen of the Simple Query Wizard 1. From the Tables/Queries drop-down box, select a table or query containing fields to include in the query. 2. Select fields to include in the query from the Available Fields list by either doubleclicking a field name or by selecting a field name and clicking the right arrow button. These fields will then show in the Selected Fields box on the right. Name the query and elect to open the query to view information or to modify the query design 18

19 If you elected to Open the query to view information, you ll see every record because no criteria to limit the query were specified. In step 5 of the Simple Query Wizard, we chose to see a detail query, and we ve just looked at some results. Now, let s examine the Summary query option. B. If Summary is chosen in Step 5. i. Click the Summary Options button Recordset produced when Open the Query to View information is selected. If you elected to Modify the query, the query design screen appears as shown below. Query design screen appears when Modify the Query option is chosen ii. Numeric fields will be displayed. Determine what type of summary you want to show for fields that can be summarized as shown below. Modify the query by typing criteria on the criteria line, as shown below. Query modified to show only records with OH in the State field Recordset produced when OH is specified as the criterion for the State field. Click OK. Click Next. Type a title for the query, then decide whether to: Open the query to view information (with no limiting criteria) Modify the query (and specify criteria for the query). 19

20 Show table dialog box Recordset of Summary query when Open the Query to View Information option is chosen. The Sum Of Credits field is a result of making a selection in the Summary Options dialog box. Creating a Query in Design View 1. Close any open tables. 2. Go to the Database Window (EITHER press the F11 key OR click Window, then select the name associated with the word database ). Select the database entry to return to the Database Window The query design screen with the Show Table dialog box displayed 5. Add one table or several tables containing fields to include in the query by highlighting the table name in the Show Table dialog box, then clicking the Add button. The tables will now be represented in the upper part of the Query Design Screen by boxes containing the tables fields. These representations of the tables are called Field Lists. Although just one table is shown here, it is common for many tables to be included in a query. 6. When all tables containing fields to be included in the query have been added to the design screen s field list area at top, click the Close button in the Show Tables dialog box. Navigating to Database window with the Windows menu 3. Select the Queries object. 4. EITHER double-click Create query in Design view OR highlight Create query in Design view and click the Open button. The query design screen and a Show Table dialog box should appear (see top of next column). If the Show Table dialog box does not display, click the Show Table icon. 20 Field list of a table The query design screen 7. Add fields to the design grid by doubleclicking on field names in the field lists in the upper part of the screen. The doubleclicked field will insert itself into the Field row in the design grid, and Access will fill in the Table Name row. Other ways to add field names to the design grid are: a. Click, HOLD, and drag a field name from a field list into an empty cell, then release the mouse button.

21 b. Click in an empty field cell, then click the down-arrow at the right end of the cell. Select a field from the dropdown list. A criterion entered in the Criteria row Fields from the field list placed into the Field cells 8. Optionally, click in the Sort row of a field, click the down-arrow, then specify that the sort be in Ascending or Descending order. 10. Save the query if desired. 11. To execute the query, click the RUN icon in the toolbar. 12. The result of a query is called a Recordset. A recordset can be sorted, printed or filtered in the same manner as a table. Using the Zoom Box for easier viewing 1. Start typing in the criteria cell 9. Ensure that there s a check in the check box in the Show row for each field you want to see in your results. Take the check mark out of the Show row for any field you do not want to be displayed in the query s recordset. 10. Determine which records will be displayed by the query by clicking in the Criteria row of the Query Design Screen and typing the value that must exist in the selected field. For instance, in the State field s column, click in the Criteria row and type OH. This will limit the records that the query will display to just those records that include the text OH in the State field. (When you tab out of that cell, Access will put quotes around your criterion.) 2. HOLD the SHIFT key, then press the F2 key at the top of the keyboard to see the Zoom box. (Note that font attributes can be changed by clicking the Font button.) 21

22 Additional Query Examples Using OR in a Query Note that the row below the Criteria row in the query design screen is an or row. The additional rows below are all or rows also, even though they re not labeled as such. The or rows would be used if we wanted the query to find either OH or WV or PA or KY. For this query, type a state abbreviation in the first four or lines. Additional or rows. The Or rows in the query design screen Using AND in a Query Show records which contain OH or WV or PA or KY in the State field. To write a query that will show records in which one condition is true AND another condition is also true, type two criteria in the Criteria line in different columns. For example, to find all students from Ohio who are freshmen, type OH in the criteria row in the State column, and type Freshman in the same criteria row, but in the Class column, as shown below. Using AND and OR in a Query To find records for Freshmen from Ohio OR students of any rank from KY, WV, or PA, type Freshman and OH on the criteria row to find freshmen from Ohio, then type the other state abbreviations on the OR lines as shown below. The query will return records of a. students who live in Ohio AND are in the freshman class. b. students who live in KY, WV, or PA, regardless of class rank. Query for students from Ohio who are freshmen and students from three other states regardless of class rank. More Query Examples Following are some examples of different ways to write criteria. 3 ways to find Credits greater than 3 and less than 6: Query for records with OH AND freshman 22

23 To find all first names starting with j: Type j* in the criteria row in the First Name column as shown below. This means anything that starts with j followed by any other character(s). Creating and Using a Parameter Query A query can be written to find only those records in which a student s class rank is Freshman as shown below: When you press the TAB key to leave that criteria cell, Access changes the criterion to Like j* as shown below..and a query can be written to find only those records in which a student s class rank is Sophomore as shown below: Query will find names like Jason, Jerry, and June To find all first names starting with jo: Type jo* in the criteria line. When you tab out of the criteria cell for First Name, Access will change your criterion to Like jo* as shown below. An alternative to writing several such queries (including queries for Junior and Senior) is to create a Parameter Query. In a parameter query the criterion written on the criteria line is actually a prompt to the user of the query to type in a criterion. The prompt must be enclosed in square brackets (located above and to the left of the ENTER key) on the criteria line. When executed, the query will display the prompt, and the user will enter the criterion he or she wishes to use. An example is shown below. This query will find first names that start with the letters jo. 23

24 When the parameter query is run, the prompt written on the Criteria line will display as shown below. when the State prompt is answered, the query will ask for a class rank. First prompt To finish the query, the user types either Freshman, Sophomore, Junior or Senior, then clicks OK. Second prompt The query will return records in which the Class field matches the class rank that the user entered. Using a Calculated Field in a Query A query can be used to perform calculations. For instance, if a PAY RATE field is included in a table, a query can be used to multiply that pay rate by 1.5 to calculate an overtime rate. 1. Click in the next empty Field cell. 2. Click the Build button in the toolbar. The Expression Builder dialog box will appear. Result of the parameter query The same query can be run to find other class ranks, too. When the query is run, the parameter query s prompt will display, and the user will enter whichever class rank he wishes to find in the records. Multiple prompts may be used in a parameter query, too, and will show in left-to-right order. For example, the next query shown will ask for a State first, then The Expression Builder dialog box 24

25 3. In the left-lower pane, double-click Tables. A list of tables in the database will appear. Pay rate field name double-clicked to start expression in top pane of Expression Builder Tables object clicked to see table names. 4. Click the name of the table containing the field you want to use for calculations. The fields in that table will appear in the center pane of the Expression Builder as shown next. In this example, the value of a field will be multiplied by a constant value. 6. Click the multiplication symbol (*) and note the change in the top pane. 7. Type the amount by which the rate will be multiplied. Note that the top pane now shows a field name multiplied by the value you chose. Clicking a table name reveals field names 5. Double-click the field name that will be included in the calculation and note that the field name appears in the top pane of the dialog box. This is the start of the expression you ll create. Note that the syntax of the expression is [table name]![field name]. The expression in top pane. Still needs field name. Now the expression is created, but its field name will be something generic like Expr 1 when the query is eventually run. Follow the next steps to assign a descriptive field name to the calculated field. 25

26 8. Move your cursor to in front of the expression in the top pane (either use the arrow keys to move the cursor left to the front of the expression, or press the Home key). 9. Type a field name to represent the result of the expression followed by a colon. For example, type Overtime rate: (note the colon). Select the tab that contains the tables or queries from which you want to make a new table. (If the Show Table dialog box doesn t appear, click the Show Table icon in the menu bar.) Newly-created field name (Overtime Rate) and calculation 10. Save the query, then run the query. Note that the Overtime Rate field shows the result of the calculation you created. Apply a Format to the Calculated Field. 1. Return to Design view, then click in the calculated field (Overtime rate). 2. Click the Properties button, then click on the Format line. Select Currency from the drop-down list. 3. Close the Properties box and run the query. The Show Table dialog box 4. Double-click each table or query that has fields you want to include in the new table. This will place those tables field lists in the field list section of the query design screen. Field lists in upper area of query design screen Selecting the currency fomat for a field. The Make Table Query 1. Move to the Queries object in the database window. 2. Double-click Create query in Design view. 3. In the Show Table dialog box, note three tabs at top left for tables, queries, or both Close the Show Table dialog box. 6. Double-click the fields in the field lists that you want to include in the new table. This will add the fields to the Field row in the query design grid. 7. With the desired fields in the query design grid, click the down-arrow next to the Query Type icon

27 8. From the drop-down list, select Make Table Query. 16. Click Yes if you re comfortable with the information provided by the message. The query design screen will appear without any extra dialog boxes when the Make Table query has created the new table. 17. Move to the Tables object in the database window and examine the new table. The Append Query 9. The Make Table dialog box will appear. In the Table Name box, enter the name of the table you want to create. (Or, if you re replacing a table, enter the name of the table you want to replace.) 10. Select either Current Database or Another Database. The append query is used to append the contents of one table to another table. Consider the following two tables which both contain a different set of four states. The table shown below has data for IN, KY, ME, and NY. Notice the order of the fields in the gray column headers. This is TABLE 1. Select name and location for new table 11. Click OK 12. Add critieria to the query if desired. 13. Save the query if desired. 14. Click the Run button. A message will appear to tell you how many rows will be pasted into the new table. Note that the message warns that the changes can t be reversed with the UNDO command. Table 1 information for four states The table below has data for four different states: OH, PA, RI, and WV. Note that the order of the fields in the column headers is the same as the table above. This is TABLE 2. Table 2 information for four different states 27

28 Use the append query to append the contents of TABLE 2 to the contents of TABLE 1 using the following directions. Using the Append Query 1. Select the Queries object in the database window. 2. Double-click create query in Design view. 3. If necessary, click the Show Table icon to display a list of tables in the database. 4. In the Show Table dialog box, select the table you want to APPEND to another table. 5. Close the Show Table dialog box. 6. Double-click the fields from the selected table that you want to append to the other table. Ensure that the column names in the query are arranged in the same order as those in the table you re appending to. 7. Click the down-arrow next to the Query Type icon. 8. Select Append Query The Append dialog box 12. Click the Run button to execute the query. Note the message advising you that you re about to append X number of rows, and that you can t undo this action. The Append warning 13. If you re comfortable with the information contained in the message, click Yes to append one table to the other. Save the query if you want, and close the query. Move to the Tables object in the database window and select the table that you appended records to. Check that the records were appended correctly. Importing Tables 9. In the Append dialog box, use the dropdown arrow on the Table Name line to select the table that you want to append records TO. 10. Click the radio button to select Current Database. 11. Click OK to exit the Append dialog box. External files such as Excel spreadsheets can be imported into Access to be Access tables. 1. Click the button for the Tables object in Access. 2. Click FILE, GET EXTERNAL DATA IMPORT 28

29 3. Specify where the file is to be found in the Look In line at the top of the dialog box. Specify what TYPE of file you re importing in the Files of Type line at the bottom of the dialog box. 6. Tell the Import Wizard whether the first row of the imported spreadsheet contains Column Headings by checking or clearing the First Row Contains Column Headings check box. Click Next. 4. Select the file you wish to import 5. Click the Import button to start the Import Wizard, shown below. 6. If importing a spreadsheet, select whether to show the worksheets or the named ranges in the spreadsheet by clicking the aprpopriate radio button at the top of the dialog box. Click Next. 7. Determine whether to store the imported file in a new table or an existing table. If you plan to over-write an existing table, select its name from the drop-down list. Click Next. 8. Click a column header in the bottom part of the Import Wizard to see Field Options for that field in the top part of the wizard. Make changes in the Field Options section of the wizard if needed, then click Next. The Import Wizard Setting field options for the field which is highlighted in the bottom of the dialog box. 29

30 9. Choose whether to let Access add a primary key, choose the primary key yourself, or elect to have no primary key, then click Next. Exporting Tables 1. Move to the tables object in the database window. 2. Select the table to be exported. 3. Click File, then Export Select table to export, then click File, Export Selecting Primary Key options 10. Type a name for the table that will be created from the imported spreadsheet on the Import to Table line, then click Finish. The newly-created table will appear in the Tables object of the Database window. 4. Choose a location in which to store the exported table in the Save In line at the top of the dialog box. Type a name for the file in the File Name line at the bottom of the dialog box, and choose to save the file as a particular type in the Save as Type line. Click the Save Formatted checkbox to preserve formatting such as hyphens in social security numbers or parentheses in phone numbers. The imported spreadsheet resides as a table in the tables object. Selecting export parameters 5. Click the Export button (shown at bottom right in picture above). 6. There will be no confirmation that the export has finished. Check the result of the export operation by moving to the folder the table was exported to and viewing the exported file. 30

31 Sample Query Criteria Ranges of values (>, <, >=, <=, <>, Between.And) >234 For a Quantity field, numbers greater than 234 < For a UnitPrice field, numbers less than >= "Callahan" For a LastName field, all names from Callahan through the end of the alphabet Between #2/2/1999# And #12/1/1999# For an OrderDate field, dates from 2-Feb-99 through 1-Dec-99 Values that don't match (Not) Not "USA" For a ShipCountry field, orders shipped to countries other than the USA Not 2 For an ID field, the employee whose ID doesn't equal 2 Not T* For a LastName field, employees whose names don't start with the letter "T" Values in a list (In) In("Canada", "UK") For a ShipCountry field, orders shipped to Canada or the UK In(France, Germany, Japan) For a CountryName field, employees living in France or Germany or Japan Text, partial, and matching values "London" For a ShipCity field, orders shipped to London "London" Or "Hedge End" For a ShipCity field, orders shipped to London or Hedge End >="N" For a CompanyName field, orders shipped to companies whose name starts with the letters N through Z Like "S*" For a ShipName field, orders shipped to customers whose name starts with the letter S Right([OrderID], 2) = "99" For an OrderID field, orders with ID values ending in 99 Len([CompanyName]) > Val(30) For a CompanyName field, orders for companies whose name is more than 30 characters long Part of a field's value (like) Like "S*" For a ShipName field, orders shipped to customers whose names start with the letter S Like "*Imports" For a ShipName field, orders shipped to customers whose names end with the word "Imports" Like "[A-D]*" For a ShipName field, orders shipped to customers whose names start with A through D 31

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