TOWARDS THE 6 TH BRICS SUMMIT

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1 BRICS ACADEMIC FORUM 2014: THE ELEPHANT IN THE ROOM: PEACE AND SECURITY IN THE BRICS PARTNERSHIP TOWARDS THE 6 TH BRICS SUMMIT Dr Candice Moore Senior Researcher (ACCORD) and Research Associate (UJ, Faculty of Humanities) 19 June, 2014 HSRC

2 OUTLINE Introduction Peace, security and development in BRICS A question of strategic culture Limited scope for cooperation, but opportunities do exist Initiatives to deal with terrorism Cybersecurity BRICS armed forces greater opportunities in diplomacy

3 INTRODUCTION 20 years of democracy for South Africa 20 years of commitment to Africa ethekwini Summit, 2013 included the participation of African regional organisations Long history of searching for peace, security and development for each of the BRICS states Lula da Silva: There will only be security in a world where all have the right to economic and social development. The true path to peace is shared development. If we do not want war to go global, justice must go global. South Africa s position on UN reform. Pluralist international society The issues earmarked for discussion this year echo issues raised by BRICS National Security Advisers in January 2013 Should not be considered in isolation from other pressing issues in the global peace and security sphere

4 PEACE, SECURITY AND DEVELOPMENT IN BRICS - shared commitment to inclusive and sustainable development - to this end, a strong commitment to multilateralism and especially to the UN, as the foremost international institution entrusted with bringing hope, peace, order and sustainable development to the world. (BRICS Declaration, 2013) - Challenge issued by Min. Nkoana-Mashabane in October 2013 that: the UN membership celebrate the 70 th anniversary of the United Nations in 2015, with a reformed, more inclusive, democratic and representative UN Security Council (Mail and Guardian, 8 October, 2013)

5 A QUESTION OF STRATEGIC CULTURE oto paraphrase Almond and Verba (1960), that subset of beliefs and values of a society that relate to the [international] political environment. osemipermanent, a world view that limits one s perspective on the complete realm of reality; strongly influenced by history; beliefs about the roles of different actors in the making of policy (Snyder, 1977) odo these states share similarities in terms of how threats are framed and assessed? ohow does each state secure itself against threats? owhen should a state resort to war? Which are the best means to pursue wars? oexperiences at BRICS Academic Forum 2014, Rio de Janeiro in the wake of annexation of Crimea

6 INITIATIVES TO DEAL WITH TERRORISM South Africa s domestic position and compliance with international obligations South Africa is a party to all 14 UN conventions that govern terrorism Main threats to date have been from urban terrorism 2005 Protection of the Constitutional Democracy Against Terrorist and Related Activities Act South Africa s position is that the fight against terrorism requires a multilateral approach and should be conducted with due regard to international human rights law and respect for the sovereignty of states.

7 INITIATIVES TO DEAL WITH TERRORISM Changing terrorist threat needs to be met with new responses A more holistic approach than the current sectoral approach is needed BRICS 2013 Summit Declaration: We reiterate our strong condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and stress that there can be no justification, whatsoever, for any acts of terrorism. We believe that the UN has a central role in coordinating international action against terrorism within the framework of the UN Charter and in accordance with principles and norms of international law. In this context, we support the implementation of the UN General Assembly Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy and are determined to strengthen cooperation in countering this global threat. We also reiterate our call for concluding negotiations as soon as possible in the UN General Assembly on the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism and its adoption by all Member States and agreed to work together towards this objective.

8 INITIATIVES TO DEAL WITH TERRORISM Growing threat in Africa How South Africa is affected BRICS can: Foster regional cooperation for success in thwarting terrorists and apprehending them Information-sharing Cooperation between law-enforcement agencies, intelligence, financial institutions Creation and funding of a centre for the study of terrorism

9 GROWING TERROR THREAT IN AFRICA Source: Inter-University Centre for Terrorism Studies, accessed online.

10 CYBER SECURITY Growing recognition of BRICS role The year 2013 (was) a pivotal moment for the Internet as cyberspace becomes an increasingly contested area. The economic and political stakes involved have transformed cyberspace from an issue of low to high-level politics, and the BRICS countries will play a critical role in determining its outcome. (Ebert and Maurer, 2013). ethekwini Declaration and BRICS Foreign Ministers meeting (September, 2013): We recognize the critical positive role the Internet plays globally in promoting economic, social and cultural development. We believe it s important to contribute to and participate in a peaceful, secure, and open cyberspace and we emphasise that security in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) through universally accepted norms, standards and practices is of paramount importance.

11 CYBER SECURITY Alternative internet infrastructure Perhaps not a long-term solution Improved, inclusive governance of cyberspace is needed. Much work also needs to be done at national levels: peer-learning is useful here. Recommendations: Information sharing about good practice; building of skills capacities to thwart attacks and respond to crises Closer collaboration between national agencies BRICS Business Forum engagement

12 BRICS ARMED FORCES BRICS changing role Incrementalism and gradualism Maritime cooperation potential Centrality of the UN BRICS role on Syria Broader issues of humanitarian intervention, sovereignty, and alternative modes of engagement > can BRICS contribute to the debate by engaging in it?

13 BRICS ARMED FORCES Country Armed forces personnel, total Military expenditure, 2012 (% of GDP) Brazil 713, % 64 Russia 1,364, % 8 India 2,647, % 32 China 2,945, % 41 South Africa 77, % 89 Source: CIA World Factbook and World Bank Data (World Development Indicators) World Ranking

14 BRICS CONTRIBUTIONS TO UN MISSIONS Country Contributions to UN Missions as at 31 January, 2014, Police/Military Experts Brazil 15/24 1,716 Russia 36/63 4 India 972/51 6,814 China 171/35 1,980 South Africa 61/21 2,105 Contributions to UN Missions as at 31 January 2014, Troops Source: UN Peacekeeping Office, accessed online

15 CONCLUSION Sought to highlight some of the enduring frames for examining security cooperation within BRICS Security/development nexus; ideal of a pluralist international society Incrementalism has been the key word to date, but there exist many potential opportunities for cooperation

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