States Environmental Monitoring at Nuclear Power Plants

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1 States Environmental Monitoring at Nuclear Power Plants Alice Hamilton Rogers, P.E. Chair, Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (Texas Department of State Health Services)

2 Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) Membership: State, Federal, Private Radioactive Materials Machines Homeland Security Emergency Response A Partnership Dedicated to Radiation Protection

3 Environmental Monitoring at Nuclear Power Plants Background States that Do Independent Monitoring What Texas Does Other Monitoring Efforts

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6 Background Some states did environmental monitoring as new projects were planned In Texas as far back as mid-70 s NRC funded environmental monitoring at nuclear power plants from Ceased funding because was redundant of required monitoring by the utilities

7 Background After NRC ceased funding, many states continued. (TX, IL, WA, PA)

8 Monitoring Performed at Operating Power Reactors Direct radiation Vegetation Gaseous effluents Vegetation for Milk Radioiodine Leafy vegetation Radioactive Particulates Pecans Seafood Liquid effluents Fish/invertebrates Surface water Soil/Sediment Discharge Milk

9 Operating Nuclear Power Plants in Texas Comanche Peak South Texas Project

10 Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Glen Rose, Texas

11 South Texas Project Bay City, Texas

12 Direct Radiation Primarily use Lithium Fluoride (LiF: Mg,Cu,P) Thermo- luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs) Multiple locations in 10-mile emergency planning zone (EPZ). Locations are in approximate locations related to the 16 sectors, 22.5 degrees with first sector centered on north cardinal point. The locations are in three rings within 2 miles within 5 miles but greater than 2 miles within 10 miles but greater than 5 miles.

13 Direct Reading Continued Optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) Dosimeters are used at a few locations Currently at sites where State measures for Neutron Doses Neutrons measured at some licensees by use of poly-allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) track etch detectors TLDs, OSLs, and CR-39 Dosimeters are exchanged and read quarterly

14 Environmental Monitoring Equipment

15 CPNPP 10-mile EPZ STP 10-mile EPZ

16 CPNPP

17 STP

18 Gaseous Effluent Two Air stations at each plant Constant airflow samplers (AVS-28a) Collected weekly and sent to DSHS lab by overnight mail measure for radioiodine and particulate activity

19 Gaseous Effluent (Cont.) Glass Fiber Filter both pre-filter for radioiodine cartridge and monitor for particulate activity Counted for gross beta activity by gas-flow proportional counter upon receipt Collected quarterly by locations and counted by Gamma Spectroscopy compared to Reactor Library Radioiodine 20x30 mesh TEDA treated charcoal Counted by Gamma Spec upon receipt for radioactive iodine (I-131, 129, 133m)

20 Gamma Spectroscopy Nine 30-80% High Purity Germanium (HPGe) Detectors Genie 2000, APEX software, The LYNX hardware Two in main lab have low-energy counting capabilities (Beryllium or thin aluminum entrance windows) Two in new Mobile Laboratory available for Lab overflow Two in old Mobile Lab in standby but can be used for additional sample volume if needed (~12 hrs for cool down) Reactor Library contains Mn-54, Co-58, Fe-59, Co-60, Zn-65, Nb-95, Zr-95, I-131, Cs-134, Cs-137, Ba-140, and La-140

21 DSHS Laboratory Equipment 16 Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon (PIPS) Detectors used for Alpha Spec. 3 Liquid scintillation detectors gas-flow proportional counters primarily gross beta but several setup for gross alpha/beta counting Nine HPGe detectors five in main lab

22 Liquid effluents Four liter grab samples of surface water are collected from Reservoirs monthly For STP sample also collected at Colorado River monthly Samples measured by gamma spec and compared to Reactor Library Counted for gross beta by EPA method 900 Quarterly samples are combined by location and measured for Tritium (H-3) by liquid scintillation

23 Other Samples Vegetation Several samples collect within EPZ monthly At STP sample locations are in gardens near air sampling stations. At CP samples are at Squaw Creek park on Reservoir and near sampling station outside EZP and once a year, at harvest, pecans are sample from local orchard. All samples are measured by gamma spec. and compared to Reactor Library

24 Other samples taken by the State within the 10-mile EPZ Semi-annually fish/invertebrate samples are collected in reservoirs and in Colorado river. Samples are processed and counted by gamma spec. and compared to Reactor Library annual sediment sample from reservoirs Water samples are taken at Brazos River (upstream of CPNPP), Lake Granbury, Colorado River up and down stream of STP, and Inter coastal waterway Historically other samples a have been taken such as milk and soil samples within the 10-mile EPZ

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27 Monitoring Performed at Research Reactors Direct radiation Liquid effluents Surface water Sewage Discharge Vegetation Milk Soil/Sediment Zachry Engineering Building TAMU, College Station

28 Uranium Recovery Exxon Ray Point Everest Exploration Conoco Chevron (RGR) Solution Engineering (UMTRICA Title I Site) Uranium Resources Inc. US Steel Westinghouse (Cogema Mining, Inc ) Intercontinental Energy Corp.

29 Radioactive Waste Proposed Low-Level waste site (Sierra Blanca) Pearland-Manvel Solid waste Facility (Hastings) UT Balcones Research Center Waste Burial Site UT Interim Storage Site (Ft. Stockton)

30 Radioactive Waste Processors TN Technologies (Thermo Round Rock) Nuclear Sources and Services, Inc. Iso-Tex Gulf Nuclear (Odessa) Waste Control Specialist

31 Monitoring Performed Direct radiation Gaseous effluents Radioactive Particulates Liquid effluents Surface water Sewage Discharge Ground water Monitor wells Vegetation Milk Soil/Sediment Others as needed

32 Other Facilities Pantex Gamma Industries Texcor Gammatron Gulf Nuclear, Inc. (Houston and Webster) R/A Services Tracer Laboratories Rhone-Poulenc (Rhodia) Iso-Tech Laboratories FM 518 Site (Hastings) Hastings Radiochemical Works Cardinal Surveys Diagnostic Systems Laboratories Sims Bayou Wastewater Treatment Plant Webster Wastewater Treatment Plant

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34 Texas EPA RadNet Sites Amarillo Lubbock San Angelo Corpus Christi Laredo Harlingen

35 Texas EPA RadNet Sites Amarillo Near-Real-Time Austin Near-Real-Time Laboratory: Precipitation Drinking Water Corpus Christi Near-Real-Time Dallas Near-Real-Time Laboratory: Milk El Paso Near-Real-Time Ft. Worth Near-Real-Time Harlingen Near-Real-Time Houston Near-Real-Time Laredo Near-Real-Time Lubbock Near-Real-Time San Angelo Near-Real-Time San Antonio Near-Real-Time Laboratory: Milk

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