Bought a survey on the souvenir market Final Report October 2010

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1 Netherlands Development Organisation Bought in Zanzibar a survey on the zanzibari souvenir market Final Report October 2010 Conducted by: Jana Schrempp Cultural and Social Anthropology University of Tuebingen (Germany)

2 Contents Acknowledgments I. Introduction I.1 Background I.2 Aim of the research I.3 Definitions I.4 Methodology II. Tourist spending patterns Tourist types and spending patterns What do tourists buy? Where do tourists buy? Tourist awareness Tourist spending patterns: Summary of the key findings III. The souvenirmarket in Zanzibar Hotel shops Large souvenir shops Small shops Informal sector High quality shops Coastal area cooperatives The souvenirmarket in Zanzibar: Summary of the key findings IV. Zanzibari products IV.1 Introduction IV.2 Value Chain Analysis of Zanzibari products.. 1. Paintings Spices Ukili products Clothing and textile production Woodcarvings Beauty items Jewellery IV.3 Challenges and opportunities.. 1. Tourist suggestions on how to increase the income of producers Challenges for producers V. Conclusions VI. Abreviations VII. References / Credits

3 Acknowledgments First of all I would like to thank SNV (The Netherlands Development Organisation) for providing the opportunity of conducting this research. Especially Birgit Steck for the confidence and the interesting insights she offered to me. Also I would like to thank Lilian Tilya from the office in Dar es Salaam who supported me two weeks with the Tourist Exit Survey as well as with the producer visits for the Value Chain Analysis. I also have to thank Kenneth Wood, the Project Coordinator for ZEST Project (Zanzibar Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Tourism) under VSO (Volunteer Services Overseas), who gave me a lot of input and designed the methodological framework for the research, especially for helping me to solve tricky issues. In regards to the support in writing this report, gratitude needs to be expressed to Birgit and Ken for their careful proof-read and their helpful comments. The Zanzibar Commission for Tourism was very helpful in assisting me to get access to the air and seaport for the week of the Tourist Exit Survey. I would also like to thank Mr. Badru (Airport manager) and Mr. Basha (Seaport Manager) for their welcoming support in conducting the Exit Survey. And I want to thank all producer groups, shop owners and other people interviewed for trustfully sharing their knowledge and experience. Working together with all of them was the best part of the research. Nitawakumbuka wote! Last but not least I would like to thank all participants for coming to the Stakeholder Meeting on September 15th. It was very rewarding to see so much interest and I take it as a very good sign for the development of the souvenir market on Zanzibar. Validating the findings and receiving more insights and recommendations for the way forward research has been vital for concluding this survey. We all appreciated the fair and open discussion. Asanteni! Jana Schrempp Zanzibar 24th September

4 I. Introduction Tourism in its modern form only started in Zanzibar in the 1980s and since then has grown enormously, from a little less than 20,000 visitors in 1985, when the promotion of international tourism by the government began, to more than 140,000 in The international arrival figures provided by the Zanzibar Commission for Tourism are thought to only show part of the picture with arrivals from Tanzania mainland not featuring. The overall estimate of tourist arrivals in Zanzibar could reach up to 70 % more than the recorded ones, but are not officially available (estimated 310,000 tourists in 2007) 1. The biggest share of tourists comes from Europe. According to the August 2009 Exit Survey, Zanzibar is popular with the Italians who make up 35 % of visitors, followed by UK and Germany (makes 62 % from just 3 countries). The other 38 % include South Africa, which has seen a growth in the number of people coming in to the islands, along with USA and the Scandinavian Countries. There are two high seasons around the European holidays. One peak is around end of December/beginning of January, the other one in August. Tourism in Zanzibar continues to be a major contributor to the National GDP (Gross Domestic Product) with indications that this contribution will continue to increase as the industry is still growing. The importance of tourism to Zanzibar has had a significant impact on the landscape, with Stone Town and the coastal areas in particular being characterised by many souvenir shops. The consumption of goods and places plays an important role in the tourist experience (Cohen 1988) 2 and the buying of souvenirs can be seen as a consumptive appropriation and is generally considered to be an important part of the travel experience. This survey takes a close look at the souvenir market as one subsector of tourism on Zanzibar. 1 See ACORN (2008): Tourism Industry Growth Strategic Plan. Page 6 2 See Cohen, Erik (1988): Authenticity and Commoditization in Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.15 4

5 Introduction I.1 Background In 2009, SNV and VSO, with support from the Norwegian Embassy and ZATI (Zanzibar Association of Tourism Investors) conducted the Tourism Value Chain Analysis (VCA) concerning the whole tourism industry in Zanzibar 3. The VCA follows an approach developed by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) using Value Chain Analysis as a tool for mapping the participation of the poor within the Zanzibar tourism industry, in terms of actual financial flow. The report focuses on the industry as a whole, with broad recommendations for the entire industry. VCA Summary report In 2009, around 172 million US$ were spent in one year on the islands in the whole tourism industry. It was found that the overall benefit of the Zanzibar tourism industry for the local poor was low (10.2 %), meaning US$ million benefiting the poor directly. In the graph the Pro Poor Income (PPI) is shown by subsector. Graph 1: PPI by subsector (SNV 2010: 6) A wide range of research had already been carried out by VSO and others, particularly with supply linkages from the agriculture and fishery industries, with figures regarding employment already available. This reserach on the souvenir market is closing a gap and can be seen as a follow up to the VCA of 2009, to have a closer look at this subsector, for which there is little information to date and which has not been covered by the ZEST programme. While the overall Pro Poor Income (PPI) of the entire tourism industry was found to be 10,2 %, the retail sector seemed to be quite promissing with a PPI of 27 %. Still this subsector takes just a very small market share of 3,7 % of the overall tourism spent on the islands. 3 See SNV, VSO, ZATI (2010): Tourism: More Value for Zanzibar. Value Chain Analysis. Summary Report 5

6 Introduction I.2 Aim of the research The aim of the reserach was to get a further understanding of the souvenir sector within the Zanzibar tourism industry. By focussing very much on the tourist perspective this survey explores the market demands and needs. By understanding the overall system it was then possible to analyse the market opportunities of Zanzibari products. This was to determine an appropriate course of action for increasing benefits to Zanzibaris working in the souvenir subsector. Can Zanzibari souvenir products be promoted to:.. 1. increase income for local people?.. 2. pride local tourism? 3. improve the tourist experience for visitors to Zanzibar? 4. improve the brand image of Zanzibar as a destination? Photo 1: Batik table cloth Birgit Steck 6

7 Introduction I.3 Definitions Within the Tourism Value Chain Analysis in Zanzibar, the poor were defined as stated in MKUZA 4 as the marginalised, primary producers and those from a poor background, the latter taken to include people in non-management level employment and SMEs (Small and Medium sized Enterprises) owners. Contrary to the VCA, this survey will not refer to the term the poor, as the people interviewed would not appreciate to be called the poor. But it follows the idea of mapping the participation of underprivileged groups. This research will talk about Zanzibari producers depending on the product they work on. The Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar recognizes the challenges concerned with gaining more community benefits from tourism activities on the islands and also shares the views on opportunities for a more sustainable and beneficial Tourism Destination Management identified in the VCA. Hence SNV s and VSO-ZEST s input has been requested in the course of the preparations of the next version of the Zanzibar strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (MKUZA II). Strategies and targets have been formulated, in consultation with all sector stakeholders, to make tourism activities more pro-poor, with emphasis on skills development as supply of (agricultural and other) products and services to the tourism enterprises in Zanzibar. MKUZA II identifies tourism as the lead sector for the Zanzibar economy, and strives for promoting the policy environment to mainstream propoor tourism. The research uses the term souvenir, as it describes the function the items have for the tourists. Tourists like to purchase products that remind them of their holidays, but as well they are looking for gifts to bring back home. Talking about Zanzibar souvenirs, spices have to be included and the term handicraft does not fit them in its pure sense. Spices are perceived as the most typical product of the island, so it s important to refer to them in a proper way. There are some difficulties with the term handicraft, because of the discussions on Art and Crafts. Zanzibari artists claim that they were never really recognized as artist but only seen as craftsmen. This discussion about European hegemonial perspectives on what to recognize as Art would lead us too far. We observe this discussion on what is Art but do not go deeper at this point. Zanzibari artists insist on a clear seperation of sanaa (Art) and biashara (business). Whether Art is suitabile for the tourism souvenir market or not is definitely open to question. The survey will get back to this topic in chapter IV.2.1 Paintings. Zanzibari souvenir products include products, that are produced on the island and that are sold to tourists. Currently, the Zanzibar Commission for Tourism is working on a Branding exercise and showed interest in the reserach. Linked to that exercise this survey reflects on how culture (and therefore cultural products) can be used in Destination Management and Branding and potentially become an instrument for poverty reduction. This survey embeds these products in the sustainable Destination Management strategy. 4 MKUZA (Mkakati wa Kukuza Uchumi na Kupunguza Umasikini Zanzibar): Zanzibar Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty 7

8 Introduction I.4 Methodology This research was conducted from July to September This is one of the high seasons but this year, the tourist season was influenced by one month of Ramadan, from 12th August to 12th September. During the fieldwork, semi-structured interviews were used to get an overview of this complex market. This was mainly carried out to identify the stakeholders and products in the souvenir business. The Tourist Exit Survey, that included 393 tourists leaving Zanzibar via air- or seaport aimed to gain a broader understanding of tourist buying activity, spending patterns and awareness towards Zanzibari products. The Exit Survey was conducted in the week of 4th to 10th August to avoid collision with Ramadan. In addition to the Exit Survey, a Shop Survey was conducted, with a fair representation of shops documenting their sales for one week. With the combination of these two methods it has been possible to ascertain the market shares of all souvenir products. To get a better understanding of the challenges Zanzibari producers are facing and to see where the money is going, Value Chain Analysis was conducted for all the Zanzibari souvenir products. This was used to map the gross profits at each stage to see the benefit for Zanzibari people and to identify opportunities for increasing the benefit for Zanzibari producers. On September 15th, 2010 SNV and VSO-ZEST invited participants to a Stakeholder Meeting to give input for possible recommendations from the stakeholders themselves and to validate the findings. With 32 participants stakeholders from all levels involved were participating: Zanzibar Commission of Tourism, Ministry of Finance, NGOs, Consultants, Producer Associations, Companies, individual producers and women groups. Photo 2: Tourists leaving Zanzibar Jana Schrempp Restrictions:.. Having previously worked as a researcher in Zanzibar and with quite a good understanding of Kiswahili, it has been possible to gain a lot of insights. Very positive feedbacks had been received from the people interviewed. But still it should always be kept in mind that the researcher s cultural background as well her origin had an influence on the perspective, the access to information and therefore the answers provided. It was a challenge to understand the information in depth on all subsectors in the souvenir market and in some cases the information gathered cannot be more than an overview. 8

9 II. Tourist spending patterns The Tourist Exit Survey included 393 (221 female, 172 male) tourists leaving the island. The tourists travelling in a group were asked to fill the questionnaire together. In total 179 questionnaires were collected (116 at the airport and 63 at the seaport). The questionnaire consisted of four main areas... Formal data: type of accomodation, if staying the first time in Zanzibar Buying: challenges in buying, doing a Stone Town tour (with or without.. guide), looking for specific products... Spending: overall spending on souvenirs, as well as the spending.. for each product group: Table 1: Tourist Exit Questionnaire 2010 Awareness: naming handicraft items that are assumed to be made.. on the island, giving suggestions on how to increase the income... for handicraft producers. Photo 3: Seaport Zanzibar / Stone Town Jana Schrempp Exchange rate US$ to Tanzanian. Shillings (Tsh) 1 US$ Tsh (July - September 2010) 9

10 Tourist spending patterns 1. Tourist types and their spending patterms This survey is based on the tourist arrival statistics from There are arrival figures for the direct arrivals at the airport (due to visa paying) for the year 2009, but no statistics for the seaport. This was before the economic recession and as the global economy slows down, generally speaking tourism spending has become less and the competition of the destinations intensified. Keeping that in mind the spending on souvenirs is estimated to be around 6.2 million US$ per year. This figure represents around 3 % of the total expenditure by tourist. Shares of tourist types The Club 20 % Mid-Range 12 % Large Scale Up Market 28 % Small Scale Up Market 7 % Budget 33 % Graph 2: Shares of tourist types coming to Zanzibar Glenn-Marie Lange 5 (2008) developed a classification of tourists in Zanzibar in five types:. Budget Mid Range Small Scale Up Market Large Scale Up Market The Club (all inclusive) The survey refers to this Lange classification of tourist types. Her classification pays attention to travel motivation (including all-inclusive) and does not only rely on expenditure in accommodation. Because the travel motivation is also assumed to have an effect on the spending on souvenirs, this classification is thought to be the most appropriate. All-Inclusive Club Large Scale Up Market Small Scale. Up Market Mid Range Budget Total Number of visitors Share of total visitors 20 % 28 % 7 % 12 % 33 % 100 % Average length of stay (days) Average daily expenditure. per person US$ Total expenditure thousand US$ Share of total expenditures 25 % 34 % 12 % 7 % 22 % 100 % Table 1: Tourist arrivals by type of tourist 2007 (Lange 2008: 5) Note: Expenditures include only items purchased in Zanzibar plus visas and airport departure fees paid in Zanzibar. Items such as transportatin to the island, tour agent commissions on packages and hotel reservations and pre-travel expenditures are included. Source: Based on (Lange and Jiddawi, forthcoming) 5 See Lange, Glenn-Marie (2008): Marine conservation: how economic valuation of ecosystems services can help: a case study of Zanzibar, In: World Bank (2009): The Valuation of Marine Ecosystems Services: A Gap Analysis. 10

11 Tourist spending patterns 1. Tourist types and their spending patterns The average spend on souvenirs is 28 US$ per tourist. The low spending could lead to the assumption that tourists leave the island with their wallet full of money because they did not find products they liked. When asked about their spending, only 24 % stated that they spent less than they planned and 23 % spent more. The rest (53 %) did not answer, or did not know (did not plan the spending) or spent about what was planned. The spending differs very much due to the type of tourist. As this survey is following a market based approach, shares of tourist types coming to Zanzibar are correlated with their average spending in order to get a better understanding of the market. Average spending Number of visitors Spending on souvenirs Market share "Budget" 16 US$ , US$ 19 % "Mid Range" 22 US$ US$ 9 % "Small Scale Up Market" 74 US$ , US$ 19 % "Large Scale Up Market" 31 US$ , US$ 30 % "The Club" 32 US$ , US$ 23 % Total 28 US$ , US$ 100 % Table 2: Spending on souvenirs by type of tourist Arrival figures 2007 (Lange 2008) The big discrepency in between the average spends could lead to the temptation to focus just on the big spenders with the production of high-end products as their spending seems to be most profitable. But the Small Scale Up Market tourists who spent most, only represent 7 % of all tourists. Tourists with a low spending as 26 US$ on souvenirs represent. 81 % of the market, whereby tourists who spend in average 74 US$ represent only 19 % of all tourists. Looking at these findings from a perspective of poverty reduction another approach should be suggested, in order to focus on the whole large market. The VCA approach is about to see how to make markets work for the poor, so for an understanding of the market it is necessary to include the whole large market and try to make this work for Zanzibari producers. Spending on souvenirs by type of tourist The Club 23 % Graph 3: Market shares of spending on souvenir products by type of tourist Mid-Range 9 % Large-Scale Up-Market 30 % Small-Scale Up-Market 19 % Budget 19 % 11

12 Tourist spending patterns 2. What do tourists buy? Only 24 % of the tourists are looking for specific items. This shows that tourists do not have clear expectations about the products they want to buy. 87 % of tourists came to Zanzibar for the first time, so they don t know what to expect. As the table shows, only 1 % of the tourists are looking explicitly for Zanzibari products. It can be assumed that if only every fourth tourist is looking for a specific product tourists can be easily influenced in their buying. % of tourists are looking for 6 % Textiles 5 % Spices 4 % Paintings 2 % Jewellery 2 % Woodcarvings 1 % Zanzibari products 1 % Clothing Table 3: What are tourists looking for? % of the tourists buying Spices 56 % Textiles 42 % Woodcarvings Paintings Clothing 28 % 27 % 38 % Jewellery 25 % CDs 8 % Soap 7 % Ukili 6 % Essential Oils 5 % Graph 4: Tourist buying by product In terms of most purchased souvenirs there is a clear bestseller : spices. Exiting Zanzibar, more than every second tourist has bought spices and takes them back home. The graph depicts the number of tourists buying a product. But taking the amount of money spent on the products, meaning the financial market shares, the graph shows quite different numbers: 12

13 Market Shares of Souvenir products 2. What do tourists buy? The market shares are dependent on the selling price as well as on the numbers of items sold. The overall market share of Zanzibari souvenir products is 15 %. The most sold souvenir products only have a small share of Zanzibari products, as woodcarvings for example. Only 5 % out of the woodcarvings are Zanzibari woodcarvings, the rest are ebony (or other timber) woodcarvings imported from the mainland. Market Shares of Souvenir products Graph 5: Market shares of souvenir products Others 6 % Jewellery 9 % Spices 11 % Ukili 2 % Woodcarvings 23 % Within that 5 % Zanzibari Woodcarvings! Clothing 15 % Textiles 17 % Paintings 15 % Photo 4 Jambiani Pottery Jana Schrempp 13

14 Tourist spending patterns 3. Where do tourists buy? Around 80 % of the money spent on souvenirs is spent in Stone Town, which is highly significant keeping in mind that the old part of Zanzibar Town, which is interesting from a tourism point of view, covers only three square kilometres. The spending of tourists staying at least one night in Stone Town is 36 % higher compared to the ones not spending a night in town. Almost 90 % of all Zanzibar tourists visit Stone Town (52 % just for a day trip) and 75 % of all tourists are doing a guided Stone Town tour. This points at the key role of the guides, as they lead the tourists to the souvenir shops. What tourists are buying where is therefore highly related to the system of commissions paid by the shops to the guides and also relates to the training and attitude of the tour guides % of the money spent on souvenrs is spent in: 38 % 22 % 19 % 9 % 9 % 4 % Small Shops Informal Sector Large Shops Hotelshops Production site Market Table 4: Where do tourists buy? Asked whether anything prevented the tourists from buying a product they might have bought, 68 % of the tourists stated that this was not the case, while still 24 % did not buy a product they might have bought for several reasons: % of tourist (out of the 24 %) did not buy a product, because of: 36 % Price 28 % Other reasons 21 % Hassling 9 % Transport 6 % Quality Table 5: Challenges in buying Counting in the total number of tourists, 9 % of all tourists were prevented from buying a product because of the price. Other reasons were individual explanations as already purchased on the mainland. Another interesting outcome of this question was, that only. 2 % of all tourists state quality as an issue, which prevented them from buying a product. A lot of people involved in the souvenir business state quality of products as a big issue and this assumption has greatly formed their practices and recommendations. This finding shows that tourists visiting Zanzibar have a different perspective on that. It is about high prices and hassle, which are identified as the big challenges in buying. In adition to just receiving answers to the questionnaires it was interesting to get mor indepth insights through interviews and to observe the buying of tourists in the souvenir shops. For many tourists surveyed, the buying experience held an emotional value, with many reflecting on the actual process of buying. Although every tourist has individual perceptions and preferences, there appear to be two tendencies in tourist buying. One group of tourists take the bargaining, buying procedure as a game and enjoy it and another group feel disturbed and complain about the buying procedures. Some Stone Town guides know about that and already ask their clients whether they prefer to buy in a large shop with fixed prices or to buy cheaper in a small shop where they have to negotiate. 14

15 Tourist spending patterns 4. Tourist awareness In order to find out more about tourists perspectives on Zanzibar s image and their expectations, tourists were asked in the Tourist Exit Survey to do a Brain Storming exercise on Zanzibari culture: 44 % Culture religion music exotic multicultural fascinating/interesting 25 % Zanzibari people friendly kind helpful 5 % 22 % Cultural Products Spices Doors Kangas Dhows 23 % Place molto bene nice sun/beach/sand Maasai 13 % Language Hakuna Mata Pole pole Jambo Table 6: Brain Storming on Zanzibari culture (Tourist Exit Questionnaire 2010) This table shows that 22 % of the tourists know about some Zanzibari products (15 % named spices) but that Zanzibar is not known as a place for handicrafts and Art. Even more tourists relate Maasai to Zanzibari culture than Zanzibari products like kangas 6, Zanzibari woodcarvings or dhows. Most tourists don t repeat holidays in Zanzibar, they come for one time as only 13 % of the tourists had already been on the island before. This could be an explanation about the limited knowledge about Zanzibar and could also give feedback on the satisfaction about the stay in general. When asked to name handicraft items that are made on the island it was found that only. 6 % of the tourists are not sure about the origin of the souvenirs they bought. The majority of tourists assume to have bought Zanzibari products. Most tourists have little idea about the possibilities of production on the island and assume there is a big textile industry as well as all the woodcarvings (also the ebony sculptures) being seen as Zanzibari products. A lot of tourists come to think about the origin of their souvenirs for the first time when they read the question in the questionnaire. In interviews shopowners stated that if tourists ask where the product comes from, they say it is from Zanzibar, because they assume, that is what the tourists would like to believe. In fact most of the tourists said that it would have been nicer to buy Zanzibari products. At the end they see all the products on offer at different places in Zanzibar, and hence they relate it to their stay and by consuming the products, conceptually it becomes a Zanzibari product for them. Back home, if asked where they got the souvenir, they can answer I bought that in Zanzibar. 6 Colourful fabric that is used by Zanzibari women (see photo 13 p.34). 15

16 Tourist spending patterns : Summary of the key findings Zanzibari products take a market share of 15 % of all souvenir purchases. The type of tourists coming to Zanzibar influences the buying of souvenirs... (the biggest group being Italian all-inclusive tourists) With 28 US$ per tourist, the average spending is very low. As a matter.. of fact, strategies for increasing the market share of Zanzibari souvenir..... products must consider the high demand for relatively cheap products... and not only aim at the high end souvenir market... (The high end market has a significantly higher average spend,... but represents a particularly small segment of the tourist mix.) Around 80 % of the money for souvenirs is spent in Stone Town. Buying in.. Stone Town is closely related to a guided Stone Town tour. Therefore the key.. role of the guides should not be neglected. Only every 4th tourist is looking for a specific product, so there is the chance.. to influence the buying by awareness raising. Some tourists would prefer to.. buy locally, but do not find easy access to Zanzibari products. Tourists are prevented from buying mostly by the prices and the fact that.. they have been hassled. The quality of products seems not to play such.. a big role. Tourists look for security in their buying. They are unsure about the.. products and prices and some do not feel comfortable in buying. Providing... a safe place like a regulated souvenir market and a label they could trust.. would increase the spending. Tourists have little awareness of Zanzibari products. As the percentage of.. all-inclusive tourists, coming for a cheap sun and beach experience and..... barely leaving their resorts is relatively high, there is quite a challenge... for influencing their buying behaviour in terms of increasing the amount... of Zanzibari products. The promotion of Zanzibari products should include the tour guides as well.. as hotels and restaurants. If tourists were permanently confronted with.. Zanzibari Art and crafts during their stay in Zanzibar, they would recognize.. those in the souvenir shops and rather buy those than the imported ones... Therefore a holistic appraisal of the cultural perception and promotion..... of Zanzibar is required. 16

17 III. The souvenirmarket in Zanzibar The Zanzibari souvenir market is dominated by imports from Africa mainland (mostly Tanzania and Kenya) as well as imports from outside Africa (India, Thailand, Bangladesh...). In chapter IV, a closer look is taken at the different Zanzibari products. Origin of products % of the money is spend in Zanzibari products 9 % Production site 9 % Market 4 % Hotelshops 9 % Outside Afrika 38 % Mainland. Afrika 47 % Informal Sector. 22 % Large Shops 19 % Small Shops 38 % Graph 6: Market shares by origin of products Graph 7: Market shares by type of shop There are four major supply chains for imported souvenir products: 1. through wholesale shops near the Darajani market, 2. through people travelling from the mainland, supplying shops on the island (especially with ebony woodcarvings and jewellery), 3. through shop owners travelling by themselves, 4. through direct imports from outside Africa (just for the large souvenir shops). According to the shop owners, the year 2009 was so much better for business than They call it the year of the three crises: the electricity cut off from December to March, then Ramadan in high season and then elections in October. Actually they could even add the economic depression. With the words wazungu hawana pesa (English: tourists don t have money ) they discribe the reduced out of pocket spending. Shop owners prefer the tourists coming around the December peak. Compared to the June to September high season such tourists would spend more on souvenirs. To map the souvenir market, different possibilities for buying souvenirs are described. Souvenirs can be purchased in the following locations: 17

18 The souvenirmarket in Zanzibar 1. Hotel shops Hotel shops are mostly found in the big hotels. Some hotel shops are rented out, some belong to the hotel. It depends very much on the clientele of the hotel if the rented souvenir shop is running well. For a hotel owned boutique the souvenir selling is just a service for their clients. The clients expect a hotel to have a shop, but do not actually make significant purchases from them. It was stated that tourists expect the prices in the hotel shop to be higher, so they have a look, but buy outside the hotel. Around 80 % of the money for souvenirs is spent in Stone Town. This shows that the market share of hotel shops is not very significant. 11 % of the tourists don t go to town but then they still don t only buy in the hotel shop. Hotel shops take a market share of 9 %. As reported by the shop managers they are willing to offer Zanzibari products to their customers and think the tourists would appreciate a connection of the hotel to the local community. There seems as well to be the potential to introduce products to tourists through the hotel. Tourists ask for example for the honey or the homemade jam the hotel offers for breakfast, as well as they ask for the special soaps or other items. At present there is a missed opportunity in most cases for increasing the popularity of Zanzibari products through linking the production of souvenirs to the hotels, by having the products in use at the hotel and selling them as well in the shop. Hence hotels could play an important role in introducing local products to the customers. This could be an advantage for the hotel s marketing. Photo 5: Hotel boutique Jana Schrempp 18

19 The souvenirmarket in Zanzibar 2. Large souvenir shops It was difficult to get more information about the large souvenir shops in Stone Town. Shop owners were not that open-minded in sharing information. When asked about the origin of their products they seemed to be kind of ashamed of importing everything. They stated that they would like to have more Zanzibari products on their shelves; but that these would usually not meet the demanded quality standards as well as their supply would be too low and irregular. The large shops pretend not to offer commission to guides, but there is information, that they pay 5 % commission to the guides. Guides prefer this 5 % that they get for sure to the 10 % they get in small shops but depending on the owner, who often tries to reduce the share. Tourists often find their way to the big shops, because of the information of travel books and advertisement. One large shop even has its own maps pointing the places to go for the tourists. Others present theirselves via internet. A share of tourists reported a better buying experience in the large shops where they are left alone to choose, where they can make decisions based on fixed prices, to quote them as there they can enjoy Western type buying. With a market share of 19 % the large shops play a big role in the sector. Before the research they were assumed to even take a bigger share. 19

20 The souvenirmarket in Zanzibar 3. Small shops There are basically two types of small shops in town. First, clothing shops that sell T-Shirts and Indian Style Clothing, imported from outside Africa. The other shops sell paintings (eg. Tingatinga and Maasai style), ebony woodcarvings and jewellery and are generally run by people from Tanzania mainland, mostly from Arusha. Zanzibaris think they are very succesful because they have experience with tourists. These Mainland-souvenir-shops are in most cases shared ownership models. The rents and other costs (taxes and licences) are high, so they share a shop and are even competing for tourists. Still they do have very good business relationships with each other. It seems to be a well organised, very close network. Photo 6 Nungwi cheapest souvenir shop Jana Schrempp The other model is to employ someone to sell and pay by commission on the sales, about commissions around 20 % of the sales for the seller. This model is more common at the beach front markets, where we have another kind of shop as well: Maasai stalls (in town there is only one Maasai shop left) that sell mostly self produced jewellery, that they either produce on the island or bring from Kilimanjaro region. Photo 7: Maasai bracelets Birgit Steck 20

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