State of the art analysis: Cloud solutions in the Public sector

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1 Deliverable D1.1: State of the art analysis: Cloud solutions in the Public sector Date: 23 January 2013 Authors: Timo Mustonen (MFG) Dissemination level: PU WP: 1 Version: 1.0 Keywords: State of the Art, Cloud Computing, Open-Source, Virtualization, Public Administration Description: This deliverable provides an overview of the current types of Cloud solutions available for public administrations, recognizing also current research results, challenges, gaps and benefits in the Cloud Computing in general. FP7-ICT Coordination and Support Action SUCRE (SUpporting Cloud Research Exploitation) Project No.: Project Runtime: 10/ /2014 Copyright SUCRE Consortium

2 Document Metadata Quality Assurors and Contributors Quality assuror(s): B. Palak (PSNC) Contributor(s): S. Meintel (MFG), M. Pantazoglou (UoA), E. Toli (UoA), G. Calabro (ZPH) Version History Version Date Description /12/2012 First draft /12/2012 Second draft, refinement Table of Contents /12/2012 Section 1 Introduction, Section 3 developed outcomes /12/2012 Appendix, Section 2 research initiatives, update Section 3, Section 4 Concluding remarks /12/2012 First internal review /01/2013 Version with internal review updates /01/2013 Version with second internal review updates /01/2013 Version with quality review updates /01/2013 Final version ready for submission SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 2 of 51

3 Disclaimer This document contains description of the SUCRE project findings, work and products. Certain parts of it might be under partner Intellectual Property Right (IPR) rules so, prior to using its content please contact the consortium head for approval. In case you believe that this document harms in any way IPR held by you as a person or as a representative of an entity, please do notify us immediately. The authors of this document have taken any available measure in order for its content to be accurate, consistent and lawful. However, neither the project consortium as a whole nor the individual partners that implicitly or explicitly participated in the creation and publication of this document hold any sort of responsibility that might occur as a result of using its content. This publication has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. The content of this publication is the sole responsibility of SUCRE consortium and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union. The European Union is established in accordance with the Treaty on European Union (Maastricht). There are currently 27 Member States of the Union. It is based on the European Communities and the member states cooperation in the fields of Common Foreign and Security Policy and Justice and Home Affairs. The five main institutions of the European Union are the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers, the European Commission, the Court of Justice and the Court of Auditors. (http://europa.eu.int/) SUCRE is a project partially funded by the European Union SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 3 of 51

4 Executive Summary This deliverable provides a look into the current state-of-the-art in Open- Source Cloud Computing solutions available for public administrations. Due to the nature of the public sector, most Cloud Computing solutions and service models designed for business use can be also adapted to meet its specific needs. Indeed, to date, many projects address several gaps that exist in the current field of Cloud Computing that range from interoperability to scalability, metrics, optimization and full middleware solutions. Some of those projects promote policy and technology initiatives, while others focus on technical aspects; some solutions are amalgamations of both. Nonetheless, most projects are working to improve interoperability and to provide standards, metrics and platforms that would help to implement a Cloud solution. Given the aforementioned developments, one may identify a number of Open- Source Cloud solutions, which have become available and are suitable for use by public administrations. Beyond that, there are individual companies providing their own, both Open-Source and proprietary, solutions. Still, through Open-Source, the integration options to existing systems, the interoperability and the adjustability of the code to work with other existing solutions, as well as the vendor-independent procurement are more manageable than through proprietary solutions. Also, through Open-Source, true transparency in public administration can be achieved, as all processes of the software and solutions being used are known. The results of the state-of-the-art study reported in this deliverable indicate that, there is still a need for more confirmatory research. Adoption studies are few, and use cases on the use of Cloud Computing in public administrations are generally not publicly accessible. Much of the data presented in this deliverable amount to many possibilities, but evidence of widespread use of Cloud Computing in public administrations is limited or non-existent. Through interviews, aggregate studies and comparative research, the SUCRE project will increase and improve the knowledge of Open-Source Cloud solutions for public administrations. SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 4 of 51

5 Table of Contents 1 Introduction Goal of this Deliverable About the SUCRE Project Document Structure Ongoing Research and Development in Open Clouds Ongoing (Open-Source) Cloud Computing Projects and Initiatives CELAR VISION Cloud Contrail BigFoot PaaSage CloudSpaces HARNESS Public Sector-specific Cloud Research and Development Open-DAI eenviper Platon COMPOSE ARTIST BETaaS Deutsche Wolke Helix Nebula Okeanos PPBW Cloud Software Program Developed Clouds and Applied Solutions to the Public Sector Project and Initiative Outcomes DigitPA Greek Linked Open Data Cloud SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 5 of 51

6 3.1.3 G-Cloud OpenNebula RESERVOIR Commercial Solutions owncloud Microsoft Windows Azure and other Cloud Offerings Google GovCloud Commercial vs. Research Project Cloud Solutions Concluding Remarks Risks and Challenges Technological Risks Legal and Policy Risks Financial Risks Benefits Technological Benefits Legal and Policy Benefits Financial Benefits Gaps Technological Gaps Legal and Policy Gaps Financial Gaps Conclusions Appendix I What is a Cloud? I.1 Terminology I.2 Types of Clouds I.3 Characteristics of Clouds I.3.1 Non-functional Aspects I.3.2 Economic Aspects SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 6 of 51

7 I.3.3 Technological Aspects I.4 Open-Source Clouds I.5 Clouds Usage I.5.1 Deployment Types of Cloud Solutions I.5.2 Cloud Service Models I.5.3 Virtualization as a Concept I.6 Related Areas I.6.1 Internet of Services I.6.2 Internet of Things I.6.3 Service-Oriented Architectures References SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 7 of 51

8 1 Introduction 1.1 Goal of this Deliverable The goal of the present state-of-the-art analysis is to provide a look into current research projects and Cloud solutions, from the perspective of their applicability to public administrations. Due to the breadth of Cloud Computing, this deliverable does not aim to be a definitive guide in the current field, but serve more as a cross-cut of different approaches, success stories, and solutions that are in development or in use throughout Europe, and beyond. Both Open-Source and proprietary solutions are mentioned; however, the primary focus is on Open-Source, as the SUCRE project targets the promotion of Open-Source solutions for Cloud Computing. Where applicable, or where the relative information is available, the solutions are described from technical, economical, legal and policy viewpoints. Besides, the deliverable does not aim to assess the successfulness of an individual solution; rather it is intended to point out strengths and opportunities associated with Cloud solutions regardless of their business model. A deeper analysis into the successes will be handled in deliverable D1.3, which will perform a comparative analysis on the current state of Cloud adoption in the public sectors of selected European countries. Finally, it should be noted that, this deliverable is a sister publication of another state-of-the-art analysis by the SUCRE project, which is reported in deliverable D2.1. While this deliverable addresses solutions for public administrations in general, the other one takes a more specific look into the solutions available for the healthcare sector, and the specific needs and solutions of the potential Cloud users in that field. Hence, much of the general discussion is shared between these two documents, but differs when example projects, solutions and demands are handled, whereby a more case-specific look is given. 1.2 About the SUCRE Project The SUCRE project is driven by a key objective, which is the consolidation of the European Cloud Computing and Open-Source communities by creating a critical mass of stakeholders who will work together on promoting the use of Open-Source in Cloud Computing. The existing gap in addressing interoperability problems is partially the cause for slow adoption of Open- Source Cloud solutions by businesses and public institutions. This is all despite the quality of several Open-Source-based projects, their overall SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 8 of 51

9 encouraging developments, and their great potential. Furthermore, the lack in interoperability and standards among applications, services and devices, results in fragmentation of technologies, services and markets, and thus leads to reduced competitiveness and growth for the European economy. Recognizing the above situation, SUCRE will promote collaboration in Open- Source Cloud Computing. Through its five-step approach and various collaboration and support activities, the project will engage stakeholders from both the industry and the public sector to discuss and exchange experiences on using Open Clouds to meet their needs. 1.3 Document Structure This document is divided into three main parts. Firstly, in Section 2, a look is given to the currently ongoing research and development in Cloud Computing, along with an analysis of the applicability of the related projects to the public sector. A number of solutions that have already become available are discussed in Section 3, where both Open-Source and proprietary Clouds are looked into. The document concludes in Section 4, with a look into general risks and benefits of Cloud Computing. The same section also deals, where applicable, with the specific problems relating to the use of Clouds by the public sector, identifying and describing the main gaps that are still present in the area of Cloud Computing. Finally, this document comes with an Appendix, which explains the basic terminology and concepts of Cloud Computing. The Appendix is aimed as a background into the general topic of Clouds and Open-Source it allows for conceptual clarity and expands the theoretical base. 2 Ongoing Research and Development in Open Clouds The first European Commission Expert Group Report titled The Future Of Cloud Computing [1] stated that, by 2010, only a limited amount of dedicated research had been done on Cloud Computing. Since then, however, several projects have emerged with a research track dedicated to Cloud Computing, mainly investigating the migration possibilities from existing solutions into Cloud-based environments. The report concluded that, both the research and Open-Source development communities tend to focus on individual capabilities, instead of emphasizing on integration and middleware solutions. Virtualization solutions are in the margins. It could even be that complete infrastructure systems are not within the scope or interest of those SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 9 of 51

10 communities. This is seen mainly as due to the tendency of developed projects to drift towards proprietary solutions to fill gaps in specifications and existing tools. Still, there have been developments toward interoperability of Open-Source solutions, as most research outcomes adhere to SOA paradigms and try to maintain standard interfaces. Thus, research results can show a much higher interoperability over proprietary solutions. However, in the two years after the release of the report, much has happened and much will be happening. Those identified key challenges are being researched on, and solutions are starting to emerge. The current Call 8 of the European Commission (EC) FP7 framework funds several promising projects that aim to address the main challenges. Some of the projects presented in the following pages are intended to promote Cloud Computing policies. Others focus more on establishing concrete technical solutions. In any case, the presented projects show a great deal of progress in addressing the gaps that will be discussed in Section 4.3, but as most of them are still at an early stage, the gaps can be seen as existing until concrete outcomes have been reached. All in all, most of these projects work to improve interoperability and to provide standards, metrics and platforms that would help to implement a Cloud solution. Public administrations are the target of some of these projects, while others focus more on general European solutions to bring this added value to a broader spectrum of users. Still, it remains to be seen how wide their successes will be. 2.1 Ongoing (Open-Source) Cloud Computing Projects and Initiatives Research into Cloud solutions is starting to gain momentum. As it was previously mentioned, the European Commission funds several research projects that provide great potential developments for the Cloud Computing in Europe. Those projects along with other initiatives either aim at creating new technology, assisting and adding on to existing solutions, or influencing Cloud Computing in policy-related matters. Many of those projects also have an Open-Source agenda included, or implied, while they all present a potential for addressing the needs of the public sector. In the following paragraphs, we briefly describe a non-exhaustive yet indicative list of ongoing projects in Cloud Computing. Even though some of those projects do not explicitly include a public sector related use case or application, the public administrations can potentially avail of the technologies they develop, as they address issues that are of great importance to the SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 10 of 51

11 domain, such as standardization, scalability, cost efficiency, and security. It should be noted that, several of the projects presented below could be categorized as Internet of Services (IoS) and/or Internet of Things (IoT) projects. Nonetheless, since Cloud Computing is closely linked to these domains, providing a model for the underlying infrastructure, issues related to Open Cloud Computing are also part of the IoS and IoT projects research agendas CELAR The CELAR project 1 recognizes that, auto-scaling resources are one of the top obstacles and opportunities for Cloud Computing. Indeed, through automatic scaling, Cloud consumers can minimize the execution time of their tasks without exceeding a given budget, whereas Cloud providers can maximize their financial gain while keeping their customers satisfied and minimizing administrative costs. To this end, the CELAR project will address the existing gap of adaptive elasticity through automation of elastic provisioning, in a fully customizable manner. The aim is to deliver a fully automated and highly customizable system for elastic provisioning of resources in Cloud Computing platforms. This project directly addresses the gap of both upwards and downwards scalability, which is an aspect that defines resourcing in Cloud Computing. Through automatized scalability, savings in Cloud maintenance become feasible, and a more thorough and accurate pricing model can be established, limiting gray areas in billing for Cloud services VISION Cloud The aim of the VISION Cloud project 2 is to establish a media-aware data access layer. The project identifies that Cloud Computing offers cost flexibility. In the past, a company or user with high storage needs would have to buy servers or even build its own data center. Today, there are already many options to simply move to Cloud platforms, and pay just for what is really used. On this premise, VISION Cloud aspires to expand on what is available to address the gap of unexploited solution areas. The project suggests innovative platforms, where patients, doctors and hospitals could securely exchange files and data, resulting in better services at lower costs, or ways to work on media projects with large HD video files and big data analysis. All in SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 11 of 51

12 all, their goal is to introduce a powerful ICT infrastructure for reliable and effective delivery of data-intensive storage services, facilitating the convergence of ICT, media and telecommunications. The primary deliverables of VISION Cloud will be an architecture and a reference implementation of a Cloud-based infrastructure, built on top of open standards and new technologies, in order to provide a scalable, flexible and dependable framework for optimized delivery of data-intensive storage services. This goal will be accomplished through supporting new emerging telecom/media services. The project also aims to achieve significant and quantifiable improvements in service delivery productivity, quality, availability, reliability and cost. Even though it has a healthcare aspect, VISION Cloud is also noteworthy in the public sector sphere. Managing big data is a growing interest of several entities ranging from businesses to countries and even the EU itself. Public administrations have large amounts of data they need to manage. Ranging from geographical information to imaging and beyond, the bigger the city, the more computing resources it will need. Therefore, it is safe to say that big data management requires resources, and these resources can also be provided as IaaS or Computing-aaS. This makes the VISION Cloud project very interesting in the general area of Cloud Computing for the public sector Contrail The goal of the Contrail project 3 is to design, implement, evaluate, and promote an Open-Source system for Cloud federations. The project is partially funded by the Seventh Framework Programme of the EU, and aims to vertically integrate: (i) an Open-Source distributed operating system for autonomous resource management in Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) environments; and (ii) high-level services and runtime environments as foundations for Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS). One of the main outcomes will be a tightly integrated Open-Source software stack that includes a comprehensive set of system, runtime, and high-level services providing standardized interfaces to support cooperation and resource sharing over Cloud federations. Contrail aspires to address key technological challenges in existing commercial and academic Clouds, namely: (i) the lack of standardized rich and stable interfaces; (ii) limited trust from customers; and (iii) relatively poor Quality of Service guarantees. The main contribution of Contrail will be an 3 SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 12 of 51

13 integrated approach to virtualization. The project will aim to equal current commercial Clouds, and even surpass them in a number of key domains. The project has a vision that any organization should be able to be both a Cloud provider and a customer in periods of peak activity. The existing IT infrastructure that is not fully utilized to the greatest potential could be integrated into a single federated Cloud that users could seamlessly access BigFoot The aim of the BigFoot project 4 is to design, implement, and evaluate a scalable system for processing and interacting with large volumes of data. The BigFoot software stack allows automatic and self-tuned deployment of data storage and parallel processing services for private Cloud deployments, which go beyond best-effort services currently available in the state-of-the-art. The project addresses performance bottlenecks of current solutions and takes a cross-layer approach to system optimization, which is evaluated with a thorough experimental methodology using realistic workloads and datasets. The ultimate goal of the project is to contribute the BigFoot software stack to the Open-Source community. Bigfoot aims to merge several research domains under one roof. These include, but are not limited to, scalable algorithms, fault tolerant distributed systems and virtualization. The project s goal is to provide high quality research, Open-Source software through their software stack, and create experimental platforms to produce reliable comparative analyses on the performance of Cloud-based systems PaaSage PaaSage 5 is looking to deliver an open and integrated platform to support the model-based lifecycle management of Cloud applications, and thereby allow for model-based development, configuration, optimization, and deployment of existing and new applications independently of the existing Cloud infrastructures. PaaSage addresses the complexity at the IaaS level in an IDE combining the abstraction power of a modeling language with mechanisms for profiling, reasoning, monitoring, metadata collection, and adaption at runtime. The PaaSage development environment is intended to support the developer in the full project lifecycle. In this light, PaaSage will help stakeholders in: (i) reducing the cost of migration and implementation; (ii) enabling full SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 13 of 51

14 exploitation of the Cloud potential; (iii) avoiding lock-ins; (iv) transparently using heterogeneous infrastructures; and (v) increasing the expertise on the basis of Cloud Computing use cases. Furthermore, the project will simplify the management of services and infrastructures through dynamic, automated adaptation, and will enable integrated improvement of service compositions and deployment CloudSpaces The CloudSpaces project 6 will be based on the premise that, in the following years, users will access their data from a variety of devices, operating systems and applications. CloudSpaces further anticipates that, there will be a clear shift towards person-centric models, whereby users will retake the control of their information. Therefore, the project aims to create open Personal Clouds for users to do just that. Explicit focus is given on privacy and security from the start, noting that the infrastructure must ensure privacyaware data sharing from other Personal Clouds. The CloudSpaces results will allow for better interoperability and scalability, while trying to overcome existing vendor lock-in risks at the same time. The project is also taking into consideration the data storage laws of different EU, so that users can decide where their data are stored, and how applications and/or other people can access their information HARNESS The HARNESS project 7 aims to seamlessly incorporate innovative hardware and network technologies into data centers that provide Platform as a Service (PaaS) Cloud infrastructures. HARNESS aims to vastly increase performance, reduce energy consumption, and lower cost profiles for important and highvalue Cloud applications such as real-time business analytics and the geosciences. The project states that, today s Cloud platforms are missing out on the revolution in new hardware and network technologies. Technologies such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), General-Purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU), programmable network routers, and solid-state disks promise increased performance, reduced energy consumption, and lower cost profiles. Still, their heterogeneity and complexity renders integrating SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 14 of 51

15 them into the standard PaaS framework a fundamental challenge. Solving this challenge is among the project s key objectives. HARNESS will advance the state-of-the-art in Cloud data center design to achieve two main goals: that Cloud providers can profitably offer and manage the tenancy of specialized hardware and network technologies, and that software engineers can seamlessly, flexibly, and cost-effectively integrate specialized hardware and network technologies into the design and execution of their Cloud-hosted applications. 2.2 Public Sector-specific Cloud Research and Development Public administrations can greatly benefit from Cloud Computing, while Open- Source solutions can provide them with the transparency that would not be otherwise possible with proprietary software. In the following paragraphs, a number of indicative, ongoing research and public projects in this context are presented Open-DAI Open-DAI (Opening Data Architectures and Infrastructures of European Public Administrations) 8 is a project that started in 2012 and will run for two years. It is funded under the ICT Policy Support Programme as part of the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) Call According to the project s leaflet, the aim of Open-DAI is to make data and platforms available for digital public services on cloud computing infrastructures. This means that open data can be used as a starting point to create new applications and services for public administrations, companies and citizens or to provide a channel for feeding back information to public administrations. The specific objectives of Open-DAI are: to open up a large part of the Public Administrations (PAs ) databases to a wide audience of potential users through an open data hub in order to correlate data and to implement new digital public services; to evolve the PAs information systems towards an open model and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) in order to overhaul the monolithic and closed models and to facilitate software maintenance of existing silos; 8 SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 15 of 51

16 to host the PA s services into a scalable cloud infrastructure in order to meet the evolving needs. The project will implement in total 12 pilots in five countries that will showcase the potential that open clouds offer to Public Administrations for delivering new services but they will also present a new cloud model deployment eenviper eenviper (Environmental Permits for the 21 st Century) 9 is a project funded by the ICT Policy Support Programme, that started in April 2012 and will last for two years. The motivation for eenviper was the identification of the need for a system that integrates processes and services related to environmental permitting procedures and are collected by public authorities and agencies. eenviper will enable them to model and deploy services, as a cloud of e-government services that support environmental licensing procedures to citizens and businesses. For this purpose, basic operational services will be aggregated on the platform and will be offered to citizens as e-services. At the same time, the architecture of the platform will give the public administrations the opportunity to deploy easily new services, and existing procedures will be available as shared services. The eenviper project aims to test an existing single multi-purpose cloud platform based on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) for providing software as a service in five different European countries. The project will demonstrate the benefits of SOA and cloud architecture by integrating complementary existing systems that support environment-related permit procedures and provide digital services for permitting authorities at different levels, enterprises, consulting services and civil society Platon Platon 10 is an initiative that is partly funded by the EU and partly by national Polish resources. The project is aimed at the development of the national ICT infrastructure for science (PIONIER network), providing Cloud-based applications and services to support scientific research and development of Polish research teams for the innovative economy. The direct goal of the project is to implement modern ICT services such as videoconference services, eduroam services, campus services, archiving services, and science High-Definition TV services available to the scientific community in Poland SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 16 of 51

17 Education is also an aspect of public administration, and the virtualization and distance learning options, not to mention distance research options this project aims to develop, are in key positions when developing a country s innovation potential. Collaboration tools in the Cloud can expedite the innovation process and therefore provide benefits to the entire spectrum of public services COMPOSE According to the projects factsheet, COMPOSE aims at enabling new services that can seamlessly integrate real and virtual worlds through the convergence of the Internet of Services (IoS) with the Internet of Things (IoT). COMPOSE will achieve this through the provisioning of an open and scalable marketplace infrastructure, in which smart objects are associated to services that can be combined, managed, and integrated in a standardised way to easily and quickly build innovative applications. It will combine elements from IoS IoT and the Internet of Content (IoC) and create a new business ecosystem. It also includes several use cases, among which one addressing issues related to the public sector. In the Smart City use case ample amount and diversity of sensors will be deployed at a Barcelona district. Along with Barcelona's OpenData, COMPOSE intends to showcase life in a smart city by creating a group of city services for the citizens ARTIST The ARTIST project 11 envisages the modernization and transformation of legacy software in order to be delivered according to the Cloud Computing model. Hence, the project has set as its main goal the adaptation of legacy software to run on the Cloud, through the creation of the appropriate methods, tools, and techniques based on Model Driven Engineering. More specifically, ARTIST will create the aforementioned artifacts to allow for such software migration in three phases: In the pre-migration phase, an evaluation is performed to assess the feasibility of migration in both technical and business-related terms. In the migration phase, a list of actions is constructed that will lead to a successful migration. The legacy software is analyzed, while legacy models are transformed to modernized models. Also, fulfillment of the Cloud-specific requirements by the migrated code is assessed and ensured. 11 SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 17 of 51

18 In the post-migration (provisioning) phase, a validation is performed to certify that the migrated software fulfills the migration goals. ARTIST aims to help organizations to evaluate if their applications are able to run on the Cloud, and if such a move is worthwhile. Furthermore, the project s outcomes will support and drive the entire migration process. Through the course of the project s lifetime a total of four use cases will be developed, one relating to an e-government application for the integration of processes and data from different public administrations BETaaS BETaaS proposes a platform for the execution of machine-to-machine (M2M) applications, which is built on top of services deployed in a local cloud of gateways, the latter being the devices which provide the smart things with connectivity to the Internet (e.g., smart phones, home routers, road-side units). Adaptation layers will be defined to interconnect BETaaS with the main architectures proposed at a European level for M2M communication, including ETSI M2M and IoT-A. In addition to being highly scalable, security, dependability, and QoS features will be embedded by design into the BETaaS platform, which will be released as open source to the community. Platform validation will be done through experiments in two testbed facilities, targeting the Smart City and Home Automation use cases Deutsche Wolke Deutsche Wolke 12 is an Open-Source initiative for the development of a federal Cloud-Infrastructure in Germany. It was established by a network of German and international organizations, who are leaders in their respective fields of business and enjoy high reputation among their clients. Although Germany's strict rules with respect to data security are regarded as a competitive advantage, general discussions now tend to argue for a global leveling of data security policies. Nevertheless, unless such a leveling will not be based on data security standards and procedures as currently applicable to Germany, this competitive advantage will eventually diminish. The Deutsche Wolke initiative works towards realizing the vision of a Cloud Made in Germany with open standards, maximum performance, and availability that is based on the strict data security policies currently valid in Germany. Due to the virtualization of server farms, it has become nearly impossible for Cloud producers to find out on which server and in which 12 SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 18 of 51

19 country the Cloud-migrated data is being used. This leads to consumer uncertainty regarding the destination and agreed assignability of saved data, and complicates the recovery of it, should a technical problem arise. On the other hand, the accessibility of stored data by third parties and the extent to which governments outside Germany (e.g. other countries in the EU) are allowed to use that data also remains uncertain. From the data protection point of view, this situation remains problematic, as the transportation and storage of sensitive company data, its legal protection, as well as its proper use cannot be fully controlled. The concept of the Deutsche Wolke is geared towards meeting the demand of organizations resident in Germany. The initiative s approach is focused on safety, transparency and reliability. Deutsche Wolke is currently a research project that aims to bring out a working solution, while it already offers a platform for Cloud providers to showcase their product. The Deutsche Wolke approach also takes into account the strict data security laws of Germany that do not allow public administrations to store personal data of German citizens outside the physical boundaries of Germany Helix Nebula In March 2012, three of Europe's most prominent research centers, namely CERN, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), launched a massive Cloud Computing project, called Helix Nebula 13. The project is exploring whether virtualization and Cloud technologies will provide a better return on investment over current grid resources. The supply side comprises both public and private Cloud providers, including vendors such as Atos, CloudSigma and T-Systems. In July 2012, the partners announced that they were transitioning from the initial proof of concept phase to a start of the two-year pilot phase, which involves expanding the proofs of concept and refining the commercial terms. One of the major challenges of this multi-vendor, multi-cloud endeavor is operability. Where federation is an essential characteristic of Grid computing, Cloud federation still has a way to go Okeanos Okeanos 14 aims to deliver production-quality Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) to the Greek Academic and Research Community. The developed IaaS https://okeanos.grnet.gr/ SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 19 of 51

20 is currently on alpha testing phase, thus, participation is still possible only by invitation. Students, professors, and researchers can get for free the full power of virtual infrastructures such as computing, network, and storage. The Okeanos IaaS is particular offered by the Greek Research and Technology Network (GRNET) PPBW The Polish Platform for Homeland Security (PPBW) 15 is a two-year development project in the area of homeland security. PPBW addresses the need for more secure Cloud Computing in a very concrete way. The results of the project will be used by a Polish Law Enforcement Authority [11]. The goal is to develop the architecture of a network and application IT environment for secure, reliable, efficient and scalable processing and storing data by current and future applications and services. Additionally, the project aims to provide a clear migration path from the current infrastructure Cloud Software Program The Cloud Software Program 16 is a public sector-driven, Finnish initiative aiming to significantly improve the competitive position of Finnish software intensive industry in global markets, and will run from 2010 to 2013 in Finland [12]. According to a survey conducted in 2009, the most significant factors of competitiveness are: operational efficiency, user experience, web software, open systems, security engineering, and sustainable development. According to the Cloud Software Program, Cloud software ties these factors together as software increasingly moves to the Web. The program aims to pioneer in building new Cloud business models, lean software enterprise model and open Cloud software infrastructure. The project has developed a Strategic Research Agenda that provides focal points on future Cloud research. It suggests that, from the business viewpoint, the focus of research in the coming years should be in supporting a change towards smaller, leaner and more competitive ecosystems, as well as growing the emerging ecosystems around mid-size enterprises. Also, the report indicates a continuing need in ecosystem assessment and similar activities. The project recommends focusing on shortening the idea-to-business cycle in the Cloud domain, developing ecosystems, and focusing on superior user experience to provide edge in the future Cloud markets. The project has also SUCRE D1.1 State of the art analysis Page 20 of 51

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