Enabling Notebook Users with Wide-Area Broadband Access

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1 QUALCOMM Incorporated September, 2005

2 Table of Contents Executive Summary Introduction Market Drivers for the Notebook with Émbedded 3G WWAN Capability The Shift toward Notebook Computers The Growing Demand for Wireless Broadband The Growth of 3G Technology WLAN G Technologies CDMA2000 1xEV-DO WCDMA G and WLAN Complementary Technologies G/WLAN Interoperability Embedded 3G Modules Inside the Notebook Improved RF Performance The Enterprise Convenience Cost Savings Optimized Performance Conclusion Benefits to End Users Benefits to Enterprises /2005

3 Executive Summary The benefits and convenience of having wireless broadband connectivity are so compelling that enterprises now desire to provide connectivity to their mobile workforces anytime and anywhere. The global introduction of 3G (third generation) wireless networks satisfies this desire by making it possible for notebook computer users to enjoy wireless broadband connectivity far beyond the coverage areas of WLAN (Wireless Local Area Networks). 3G is a proven technology, enjoys favorable economies of scale, ensures investment protection and allows for interoperability with existing WLAN networks. As a result, several industries have come together to offer notebooks integrated with 3G technology, making wide-area wireless broadband service a reality. Notebooks with embedded 3G improves employee productivity and effectiveness. More importantly, embedded 3G enables enterprises to benefit from convenience, cost savings and optimized performance. Introduction The need for mobile connectivity is growing dramatically around the world. Over the last several years, there has been an increased demand by computer users for a full desktop computing experience in a mobile environment users want to be able to access with large attachments, files on corporate servers and the Internet while away from their desks. And nowhere is this need more evident than among businesses with mobile workforces. Employees that stay connected are more productive and effective resulting in greater profitability for the enterprise. Since the introduction of the WLAN its popularity and use in providing wireless broadband access to notebook users has grown noticeably in offices, hotels, homes and campuses. In fact, the demand for WLAN has been so high that the reduction in WLAN component costs has made it common practice for computer manufacturers to integrate WLAN technology directly into their notebook computers. Furthermore, the increase in demand has created a business opportunity for WLAN service providers who now charge fees for WLAN access. 9/2005 page 1

4 The benefits and convenience of having wireless broadband connectivity are so compelling that users now desire connectivity anytime and anywhere. The global introduction of 3G wireless technologies, such as CDMA and WCDMA 2 (wideband CDMA), satisfies this desire by making it possible for notebook users to enjoy wireless broadband connectivity across a very large coverage area a typical 3G base station can provide a range of several miles, whereas a typical WLAN access point provides a practical range of feet. 3G networks are Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWAN) and provide users with access across cities, states and even entire countries. And unlike other wireless broadband technologies that have yet to be commercialized, such as fixed WiMAX TM or mobile WiMAX, 3G is available on a large scale today with more than 195 million subscribers and has a solid growth path moving forward. The proliferation of 3G networks, the growing demand for wireless broadband access and the favorable economies of scale have led leading notebook manufacturers to integrate 3G wireless technology along with WLAN technology into their products, solidifying the complementary nature of the technologies and providing users with greater coverage and much needed flexibility. Using notebooks embedded with 3G and WLAN technologies, the enterprise can improve its bottom-line results through cost savings and optimized performance. In addition, 3G and WLAN-equipped notebooks afford the enterprise s mobile and remote workforces with convenient access to all applications as if users were wired to the company LAN (Local Area Network), enhancing their productivity and effectiveness. This paper discusses: The market drivers for the embedded 3G notebook The capabilities offered by today s 3G networks 3G and WLAN interoperability The performance advantages of embedding 3G into the notebook The benefits of 3G technologies to the enterprise 9/2005 [1] CDMA stands for Code Division Multiple Access. [2] Also known as UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. page 2

5 Market Drivers for the Notebook with Embedded 3G WWAN Capability Three trends should be considered early indicators of the future success of broadband access via 3G wireless networks. The first trend is the ongoing shift from desktop computers to notebook computers; second is the growing demand for wireless broadband currently represented by WLAN; and third is the continuing proliferation of 3G networks around the world. The Shift Toward Notebook Computers Notebooks are no longer for road warriors only. The combination of computing power, portability and affordability has made notebooks an increasingly popular choice for general purpose computing. Beyond the enterprise, notebooks are also widely used in homes and in schools. A recent report by Gartner 3 estimates that global notebook shipments currently represent over 30% of all personal computers shipped today and will account for 40% of all personal computers shipped by Figure 1 shows the increasing share of notebooks as a percentage of total computer sales. Shipments of Notebook Computers Total Notebooks % of Personal Computers Millions Figure 1. Gartner Worldwide Mobile PC Shipments % 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Percent of Personal Computers 9/2005 [3] Source: Gartner Dataquest Marketview Database, June page 3

6 The Growing Demand for Wireless Broadband The corporate sector has embraced WLAN technology. Enterprises have deployed WLANs in their offices and corporate campuses. These networks are being used for corporate intranet access as well as access to vertical applications in warehouses, factories and loading docks. The increased demand for WLAN-enabled notebook computers demonstrates the need for wireless broadband access. WLAN connectivity was initially achieved through PC cards. Today, most WLAN modems are embedded directly into notebooks as a standard configuration. The rapidly growing sales of notebooks with embedded WLAN modems are highlighted in Figure 2. Including consumer and enterprise notebooks, Strategy Analytics 4 estimates that more than 70% of notebooks sold today have an embedded WLAN modem. 100% 90% Embedded WLAN Notebook Sales Share of Notebook Sales 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Figure 2. Strategy Analytics Global Notebook PC Sales 9/2005 [4] Strategy Analytics, Global Notebook PC Sales Forecast, Dec page 4

7 Today, WLAN is used in most corporations to provide employees with wireless broadband access throughout office campuses including conference rooms, cafeterias and building lobbies. The familiarity of using WLAN access in the enterprise and the growing number of notebook computers with embedded WLAN capabilities has led to increased use outside the office environment. A common place to find WLAN coverage is in locations frequently visited by business travelers. Many hotels, convention centers and airport lounges now offer a pay-peruse WLAN service to its visitors. In addition, some coffee shops and restaurants offer WLAN access that is not only targeted at business people, but also consumers looking to stay connected. Finally, there has been a large trend in the deployment of WLANs in homes. Deploying a WLAN in the home provides notebook users wireless access from anywhere within the home network coverage area, including the living room, kitchen or outside on the patio. The Growth of 3G 3G is an ITU (International Telecommunication Union) 5 specification for the 3rd generation of wireless communications technology. 3G delivers among other capabilities, higher peak data transmission rates, greater system capacity and improved spectrum efficiency over 2nd generation systems and support services. 3G technology has been deployed on a large scale and is well established. CDMA2000 1X networks have been in commercial service since Commercial WCDMA networks were introduced in 2001 and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO networks were introduced in There are a total of 70 countries in which 3G services are provided, with North America, Western Europe, Japan and South Korea leading the uptake in subscribers. Figure 3 provides a world view of the countries in which 3G networks have been deployed. 9/2005 [5] The ITU is the telecommunications arm of the United Nations. page 5

8 Enabling Notebook Users with Figure 3. Worldwide 3G Presence (Source: 3GToday.com) There are more than 155 commercial 3G networks providing service to more than 185 million paying subscribers6. Today, the market potential for 3G has led to significant support from the 3G device and infrastructure manufacturing community, resulting in favorable economies of scale. To date, more than 730 3G devices have been commercialized and more than 10 leading infrastructure manufacturers are providing 3G network equipment. As seen in the figure below, industry research firm Strategy Analytics expects CDMA2000 and WCDMA technology families to account for more than 1.3 billion subscribers worldwide, or nearly 50% of the mobile subscriber base, by Such a high growth rate is a strong indication of the competitive nature of the 3G market and the technology itself. And with the increase in 3G subscribers globally, it is expected that the cost of devices and network infrastructure will continue to decline. And with network operators all vying for these subscribers, the cost of 3G services is also expected to drop. 9/2005 [6] Source: 3G Today, June [7] Source: Strategy Analytics, Wireless Network Strategies (WNS) Strategic Advisory Service, Dec page 6

9 CDMA2000 & WCDMA subscribers CDMA2000 & WCDMA % of total 43.9% 50.0% 50% subscribers % 17.9% 22.6% 28.9% 36.0% 40% 30% 20% Percent of all mobile subscribers 8.3% 10% Figure 4 - Strategy Analytics: CDMA2000 and WCDMA Subscriber Growth 0% 3G service providers continue to invest in 3G by expanding their network coverage areas. Today in the US, 3G services including CDMA2000 1X, CDMA2000 1xEV-DO and WCDMA are available to almost 90% of the population. Other markets throughout the world have similar plans to provide 3G services to a greater number of subscribers. So not only does 3G have a large presence throughout the world, it also has an increasing footprint within individual markets. Within the last few years, alternative technologies have been proposed and marketed to meet the needs of the wireless broadband user, with WiMAX receiving the most attention. A common misperception is that WiMAX will be deployed on a large scale to address the market needs not being served by 3G. The reality is that WiMAX was initially developed for backhaul 8 and dedicated connections among one or multiple points Fixed WiMAX. The mobile version, or Mobile WiMAX, is being positioned as an alternative technology to 3G, yet the technology is unproven and is not currently standardized [8] Backhaul is the connection between the WLAN access 9/2005 point and the fixed broadband network. page 7

10 (impacting aspects such as economies of scale and interoperability). A standardized Mobile WiMAX solution will not be available in the near future and when available, will unlikely provide the coverage areas to support the expectations of today s end users. 3G technology and its evolution path provide the following advantages to notebook users now: Large scale coverage 3G service providers worldwide continue to enhance coverage areas True mobility remain connected while moving in a train, bus or taxi Investment protection backward compatibility enables devices to continue working even after advancements in the network are made Reduced cost high volumes and competitive environment will drive down cost of access Access to the full suite of enterprise applications access to applications and corporate data as if being in the office The three trends discussed indicate that real demand exists for broadband access via 3G wireless notebooks. 3G s large coverage areas and favorable economies of scale are evidence that a solution already exists today to meet the needs of the wireless broadband user. 9/2005 page 8

11 Technology Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) WLAN technologies are based on the family of IEEE standards, including a, b, g and future versions such as n. Most commercial WLAN networks today are characterized by peak transmission speeds of 11Mbps although they are usually constrained by the backhaul connection to much lower speeds. The typical range of WLAN is approximately feet, depending upon the antenna, the physical environment and interference levels. WLAN is designed to operate over short distances and to operate in designated unlicensed spectrum. Since unlicensed spectrum can be used by different radio frequency (RF) systems, there is an increased probability of interference that can have an adverse impact on network performance. 3G Technologies 3G technologies, represented by the CDMA2000 and WCDMA standards, are the latest generation in the evolution of mobile phone networks. 3G networks provide high-speed data services over a wide coverage area, enabling notebook users to accomplish tasks at the office, at home or on the road. 3G networks also allow roaming and interconnection between domestic and international markets. CDMA2000 and WCDMA are both built on a similar underlying CDMA air interface technology and have clearly defined evolution paths with enhancements and performance improvements. 3G provides investment protection to the end user with backward compatibility such that as networks are upgraded and enhanced, existing 3G devices will continue to operate. Backward compatibility ensures embedded 3G notebooks will continue to get services into the future. [9] IEEE is the acronym for Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. 9/2005 page 9

12 The diagram below highlights the roadmap and performance of both technologies as defined or being discussed in the standards bodies. 3G TECHNOLOGIES DESIGNED FOR IN-BAND MIGRATION 1.25 MHZ CDMA2000 1xEV-DO DATA + IP VOICE IS-856 Release 0 Dedicated for packet data 2.4 Mbps peak rates (forward link) kbps average end user rates Enhanced EV-DO Software QoS, Gold Multicast Revision A 3.1 Mbps forward link 1.8 Mbps reverse link VoIP, lower latency, Flow-based QoS, Platinum Multicast DESIGNED FOR IN-BAND MIGRATION OR NEW SPECTRUM Scalable Bandwidth EV-DO Aggregates up to 15 carriers Up to 46 Mbps forward link Up to 27 Mbps reverse link 1.25 MHZ DATA + VOICE DESIGNED FOR IN-BAND MIGRATION CDMA2000 1X IS-2000 Release 0 Revision A Revision C Revision D Double voice capacity over cdmaone kbps packet data kbps average end user rates DESIGNED FOR NEW SPECTRUM 5 MHZ DATA + VOICE WCDMA (UMTS) 3GPP Release 99 HSDPA Release 5 HSUPA Release 6 64/384 kbps circuit-switched/packet data kbps average end user rates 1.8 to 14.4 Mbps forward link IP voice and data 5.7 Mbps reverse link (EUL), IMS, MBMS Figure 5. Technology Evolution Roadmap CDMA2000 1xEV-DO 10 CDMA2000 1xEV-DO (EV-DO) is the natural evolution path for CDMA2000 1X operators that want to offer higher bandwidth 3G capabilities. Optimized to meet the growing demands of today s wireless needs, EV-DO is a high-performance, cost-effective technology based on an IP network architecture. Commercial EV-DO systems can provide peak data rates 11 of 2.4Mbps in the downlink 12. In commercial networks, operators commonly advertise average EV-DO end-user data rates between 400kbps and 700kbps. Users moving outside of EV-DO coverage will still have access to 3G services from the underlying 1X network. [10] For more information on CDMA2000 1X and 1xEV-DO visit [11] Peak data rates refer to the maximum data rate supported for each user. [12] Downlink refers to the flow of data from the network to the device. 9/2005 page 10

13 The next revision of the standard, CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Revision A (EV-DO Rev. A) is designed for more symmetric applications. It has a downlink peak data rate of 3.1Mbps (average end-user data rates between 600kbps and 1.3Mbps) and an uplink 13 peak rate of 1.8Mbps. EV-DO Rev A will also improve the connection set-up time and support delay-sensitive traffic. Higher peak data rates will be supported in the future with the evolution to Scalable Bandwidth EV-DO. Scalable Bandwidth EV-DO is being planned to support peak data rates of up to 46Mbps. The system will be backward compatible with support for existing EV-DO and EV-DO Rev. A devices and will be able to dynamically support different data rates based on application needs, device capabilities and available resources. WCDMA 14 WCDMA is the evolution path to 3G for GSM/GPRS operators. WCDMA provides a clear migration path to provide enhanced data capabilities over time. Today, commercial WCDMA networks are deployed in multiple markets offering peak data rates up to 384kbps (average end-user data rates between 150kbps and 250kbps). The evolution of WCDMA is HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access). HSDPA provides a converged packet network that allows support for end-to-end IP services. Commercial HSDPA systems are expected to support downlink peak data rates of up to 7.2Mbps 15 (average end-user data rates between 400kbps and 1.5Mbps). To enhance the uplink data capabilities, WCDMA operators plan to deploy a further enhancement referred to as HSUPA (High Speed Uplink Packet Access). HSUPA systems are expected to support peak uplink data rates of 5.7Mbps. Both HSDPA and HSUPA will be backward compatible with WCDMA systems, enabling an efficient upgrade path for operators and the ability to continually support existing devices. [13] Uplink refers to the flow of data from the device to the network. [14] For more information on WCDMA visit [15] The standard defines support up to 14.4Mbps. 9/2005 page 11

14 3G and WLAN Complementary Technologies 3G and WLAN networks together will be used to meet end users wireless broadband needs. There are a growing number of public locations that now provide WLAN coverage including airports, hotels and coffee shops. More and more often, pay-per-use fees are being charged for WLAN access in public areas. With a notebook capable of supporting both 3G and WLAN, most users will use WLAN in select areas where it is both available and free of charge, such as in corporate offices, some public places or in the home. And since WLAN coverage is limited and is not sufficient to meet end-users need for wireless broadband access anytime anywhere, users will use 3G in all areas outside of free WLAN coverage. 3G s large footprint complemented by WLAN local coverage ensures wireless broadband access across a wide area as shown in Figure 6. HOTEL WLAN Hot Spots Offices Hotels & Conferences Airports 3G Coverage College Campuses Train Stations Homes Figure 6. Complementary Coverage of WLAN and 3G Networks 3G/WLAN Interoperability Both the wireless and IT industries are taking the necessary steps to ensure 3G and WLAN interoperability. The 3G standards groups that are actively working on this convergence and standardization are the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), which concentrates on the development of WCDMA standard; and the 3GPP2, which focuses on the development of CDMA2000 9/2005 page 12

15 standards. Furthermore, efforts are taking place within the IEEE to enhance users experience with mobile devices by supporting seamless handover between heterogeneous networks, such as 3G and WLAN. Switching mechanisms are already in place to support users moving from 3G to WLAN or vice-versa, and future work includes making the convergence between 3G mobile wireless technologies and WLAN technologies more seamless. Ultimately, a user will not know or care what network is being used as long as it works. 3G/WLAN convergence will enable common billing, customer care and user authentication mechanisms over both 3G and WLAN. Notebook vendors are planning to incorporate software functionality into their operating systems that allows users to seamlessly roam between 3G and WLAN networks. Embedded 3G Modules Inside the Notebook In July 2004, the Peripheral Component Interconnect Special Interest Group (PCI-SIG), a part of IEEE, ratified a new standard of the PCI architecture named PCI Express Mini Card Electromechanical Specification (PCIe Mini Card). Today, manufacturers are preparing to introduce this technology into notebook computers in the last half of 2005 and into The PCIe Mini Card allows vendors to create devices with smaller form factors than those possible with traditional PCI interfaces, via the use of low pin-count connectors. The PCIe standard provides the flexibility for manufacturers to implement either a PCI Express bus or a USB 2.0 bus. 9/2005 page 13

16 Improved RF Performance Antennas play a critical role in the performance of wireless technology and are a key element of the embedded WLAN and 3G modem. Antennas provide the means by which signals from the modem are transmitted to the network and signals from the network are received by the modem. Their placement, exposure to interference and size play a critical role in the overall performance of the modem such as throughput rates, number of dropped connections and ultimately, end-user experience and satisfaction. A notebook computer is a highly complex RF (Radio Frequency) environment with a multitude of components packed tightly together. Much of the interference in a notebook comes from the bottom half, below the keyboard, where the main components reside. The main CPU, memory chips, video circuits and other components are located on the motherboard and generate high frequency noise which could potentially fall within the receive bands of 3G radios. Other sources of interference include radiation from transmission lines routed to circuitry embedded in the display area. Interference in the radio receiver affects the overall wireless performance and user experience. Therefore, the placement of the antenna with respect to the sources of interference plays a key role in the overall performance of a wireless connection. For example, to minimize interference, it is preferred to position the antennas as far as possible from the bottom half of the notebook either at the top of the lid/screen or high up on the side of the notebook lid/screen. One of the key advantages of an embedded module is that both the notebook and modem vendors work together at the time of the initial design; optimizing the design and placement of both the module and antennas to minimize any interference. Since the antennas are no longer constrained to the PC card slot, more efficient antenna elements are also possible. Multiple antennas can be placed inside the notebook to leverage RF receive diversity techniques as well as support multiple frequency bands. Receive diversity is a technique that leverages the use of a secondary antenna and receive chain. Because the secondary antenna is placed separately from the primary one, the receiver can combine the signals received from both antennas to improve performance. 9/2005 page 14

17 In the computing industry, the introduction of the PCIe Mini Card and the large scale availability of 3G technologies are driving manufacturers to integrate 3G modems directly into notebooks. Figure 7 shows the expected transition from PC cards to embedded modems and by 2009, more than 50% of all cellular modems sold will be embedded 16. Share of PCMCIA vs. Embedded Cellular Modem Shipments 100% PCMCIA Embedded 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Figure 7. In-Stat/MDR Share of PCMCIA vs. Embedded Cellular Modem Shipments Worldwide 16 An indication that embedded 3G notebooks are a reality is that modem manufacturers are producing 3G PCI Express Mini Card Modules. Manufacturers such as Novatel Wireless, Sierra Wireless and Pantech all have product plans for the embedded notebook market. Tighter development and integration of 3G modules into the notebook platform and the use of more efficient antennas will result in a more reliable product that achieves the advertised and realizable performance of 3G networks. Ultimately, embedded technology ensures that module vendors, notebook manufacturers and 3G service providers work together closely to provide the best end-user experience possible. [16] In-Stat/MDR Cellular Modem Worldwide Shipment Forecasts & Market Overview, Dec /2005 page 15

18 The Enterprise Novatel Wireless It is clear that the demand for wireless broadband data access across a wide area exists today. Many of the 3G network operators around the world have been successful in deploying these services. Enterprises around the world are realizing the following benefits of wide-area wireless broadband access from notebook computers with 3G capabilities: Convenience Cost Savings Optimized Performance Convenience Pantech Sierra Wireless "84% of survey respondents from Fortune 100 companies said they were interested or very interested in laptops with embedded high-speed modems" -igillottresearch, 2005 Enterprises are always looking for ways to improve the productivity and effectiveness of their employees. By providing notebooks with 3G wireless broadband capabilities to mobile workforces, enterprises enable employees such as sales people to safely and remotely access corporate databases, check on inventory levels and make delivery commitments to their clients from anywhere within 3G coverage, in real time just as if they were physically in their offices and their computers were wired to the LAN. 3G also improves mobile workers productivity by making it easy for them to work during down time in their schedules. With easy access to and the corporate servers, mobile workers can now check and send s during layovers at airports or while sitting in a customer s office or lobby. In addition, wireless broadband capabilities enable employees to better serve their clients with improved response time to queries. Notebooks with embedded 3G capabilities will make it easier for users to begin using wireless broadband access. Pre-configured systems from the factory and tighter integration of the hardware and software will allow users to gain wireless broadband access right out of the box and experience true mobility. 9/2005 page 16

19 Cost Savings When evaluating different options for improving workforce productivity, IT departments evaluate both the cost and associated savings with any new technology. Notebooks with embedded 3G technology provide wide-area wireless broadband access resulting in cost savings to the enterprise in the areas of reduced WLAN costs, standardized configurations and asset management. Hidden Cost of WLAN Usage Although there are a growing number of WLAN coverage areas, more and more now charge access fees based on hourly, daily or even monthly rates. Without access to 3G networks, a frequent business traveler may use several different WLAN networks on a single business trip to stay connected to critical corporate information and at $10.00 to $15.00, single day access prices add up for IT departments. With the continuing decrease in cost of 3G broadband access, an end user on a week-long business trip may spend more money on WLAN access than he or she would have spent for an entire month of 3G service. And often times, the costs for WLAN access is so buried in expense reports that upper management never sees them. By giving users a communication solution that works nationwide with all you can eat plans, companies can eliminate the need to pay variable fees for WLAN access. Standardized Configuration Notebooks with embedded 3G devices make it easier for IT departments to standardize wireless broadband access across the company. Standardized solutions reduce overall IT costs and improve the serviceability and scalability of the equipment. 9/2005 page 17

20 With external PC cards, IT departments may have to maintain and service multiple versions of hardware and software in their installed base. Supporting multiple devices impact all tiers of technical support and can result in higher costs for staffing, training and documentation. Doing so also makes it more difficult for IT departments to provide the highest level of service to mobile workforces. In contrast, the process of maintaining and updating drivers and software is simplified when IT departments move to a standardized, embedded platform. Additionally, Remote Access Server (RAS) management can be simplified with a single solution for access to corporate data and mobile applications development can be unified meaning developers can focus on application development with less effort spent on platform inconsistencies or hardware compatibility issues. A standardized, embedded solution also provides flexibility to the service provider and enterprises in regards to provisioning devices. Embedded notebooks will make it possible for the provisioning process to be centrally managed by the IT department. The IT department, together with the service provider, can activate or deactivate modules on demand. The enterprise can then activate or deactivate a subscription without having to go through the time consuming process of purchasing, installing and configuring a PC card on a user s machine. Asset Management "With the availability of laptops with embedded high-speed modems, 2/3 of survey respondents from Fortune 100 companies expect an increase in wireless data usage in the enterprise." -igillottresearch, 2005 No matter how much control and auditing is in place, when users have a plugin wireless network card for their computer, there will be times of asset drift, where employees loan devices to other users of notebooks or they are misplaced. External data cards are also prone to theft and damage. Issues such as these can be avoided with embedded 3G devices. 9/2005 page 18

21 Optimized Performance Convenience and cost savings alone will not drive an enterprise to adopt a new technology. Performance of the solution also needs to be evaluated. In addition to improved data rate performance due to a tighter integration between the notebook and the 3G modem, IT departments will experience improved performance in terms of security and connection management. Security IT security groups are experiencing ever-growing pressure to protect intellectual property from theft and leakage. Security issues associated with unprotected access to WLAN networks have been well documented and have caused concern throughout IT departments. This issue can be resolved by using secure endto-end connections such as IPSec or SSL-based VPNs that are layered with at least two factor authentications for full IP connectivity. However, the choice to use a VPN connection from a public or home WLAN is the choice of the user each time a connection is made. For example, an employee may log in to a WLAN hotspot from a hotel for general Internet access and choose to forgo using the VPN. However, while connected the employee may start an IM chat session with a colleague and provide the status of a development project or an update on contract negotiations leaving confidential information exposed. In a WLAN environment, any user with a device set to promiscuous mode can listen to a neighbor s communications with easily downloadable software from the Internet. That same approach is not possible if a user is connected to a 3G network. 3G systems are not susceptible to easy eavesdropping like those of WLAN networks, requiring sophisticated and expensive equipment to gain access. IT departments can rest easier knowing that confidential information is not being compromised. 9/2005 page 19

22 Connection Management Tight integration of an embedded solution with its corresponding connection manager provides for an optimized solution. With both 3G and WLAN devices embedded into the notebook, connection manager software can manage the connection to different networks and different technologies both automatically and transparently by making intelligent decisions about service availability, ultimately providing the end user with an improved experience when access wireless broadband services. Some PC manufacturers will develop advanced connection managers that have a "one stop" application that incorporates multiple service providers, all wired and wireless technologies, diagnostics and support, and allows the user to develop customized profiles to make the setup and usability of communications simple and easy to use. Conclusion The success of WLAN and increased sales in notebook computers has led to an increased demand for wireless broadband access anytime, anywhere. 3G networks provide the wide-area coverage that complements the limited coverage provided by WLAN technology. 3G is a proven technology, enjoys favorable economies of scale, provides investment protection and allows for interoperability with existing WLAN networks. As a result, several industries have come together to make notebooks embedded with 3G capabilities a reality. The integration of 3G modules into the notebook and the use of more efficient antennas will result in a high performance, reliable wireless broadband solution. Benefits to End Users Embedded 3G technology simplifies the end-user experience of staying connected and provides notebook users with wireless broadband access in most areas covered by their mobile phone subscription. Staying connected anytime, anywhere improves the mobile worker s productivity and effectiveness. The use of internal antennas and tighter integration of hardware and software also provides improved performance overall. 9/2005 page 20

23 Benefits to Enterprises IT departments can provide their mobile workforce with secure, seamless access to their corporate IT systems in areas covered by 3G protecting company assets and improving overall productivity. By giving users a communication solution that works nationwide with all you can eat plans, companies can eliminate the need to pay variable fees for WLAN access. Furthermore, the deployment of embedded technologies provides cost savings in areas of asset management, configuration, support and training. The global success of 3G and the arrival of embedded 3G modules into notebooks are making wide-area wireless broadband service a reality. These technologies are converging inside the notebook to provide convenience, cost savings and optimized performance. The entire value chain of end users, IT departments, notebook manufacturers and service providers will enjoy the benefits from this trend.. 9/2005 page 21

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