1 PROJECT TITLE: LOW COST COMPUTER BASED SYSTEM FOR QUALITY EVALUATION AND PRESERVATION OF GRAINS STORED IN POLYMER BAGS FINAL REPORT PRINCIPAL RESEARCHERS: Claudia Pons (UNLP, Argentina), Carlos Luna (UR, Uruguay), Nora Szasz (ORT, Uruguay) 1. Abstract Silobag is an ad-hoc low-cost storage technique that consists in keeping the grains into hermetic polyethylene bags which are stored in the same field of crop (on-farm). It is likely that several million tons of grain will be stored in harvest bags within the next years, in Latin American countries and also in other parts of the world. Research confirms that although silobags have some limitations, they offer to growers a relatively cheap and reliable grain storage solution. Therefore, it is important to work towards the improvement of such technology; in particular, the incorporation of computer technology would be a valuable asset. In this report we describe the results of our project aimed at developing a low-cost wireless software system for monitoring and adapting the internal conditions of the grain stored into silobags in order to improve their preservation state. This system is addressed to small and medium growers and it was developed using modern techniques of software engineering. Project website: 2. Deliverables To reach our goals we have developed the following deliverables: low-cost sensors to measure the humidity and temperature of the grain. mathematical models of the behavior of the humidity and temperature levels into the silobags. a software control system for monitoring and adapting the state of the silobags. a software development process fitting this kind of systems in order to favor productivity, portability, reuse and maintenance. Due to the fact that the results of this project are addressed to small and medium growers, to develop a low-cost solution was a mandatory requirement of our work.
2 We were not able to build the aeration systems being suitable to be incorporated into the bag to modify the inner conditions at the different levels, as we proposed. This limitation was caused by the characteristics of the silobag that turn very complex the design of such aeration systems. The following deliverables can be downloaded from SilobagConfigurator-src-v1.0 (download) Silobag Configurator Source (DSL Tools Project) SilobagConfigurator-v1.0 (download) Silobag Configurator Default Editor (Visual Studio Extension) SilobagConfigurator-app-v1.0 (download) Example User Application (Standalone App) Silobag Configurator Installation Manual (download) (in spanish only) Silobag Configurator User Manual (download) (in spanish only) 3. Evaluation Methods We run a number of test suites to validate the mathematical models and the control system. The system was deployed in 2 farms in Argentina, with the collaboration of INTA. We plan further experiments. The improvements in the quality of grains will be studied in these cases. Following the results we will adjust details as required. 4. Data Collected Currently we have accomplished the construction of a set off low-cost sensors to measure the humidity and temperature of the grain stored in silobags. We have applied those sensors to collect data for 8 moths, using real silobags deployed in the field. This data was used to create mathematical models of the behavior of the humidity and temperature levels into the silobags. Results were presented in . 5. Conclusions Currently we have proven the following hypotheses defined for this project, Hypothesis: It is possible to develop low-cost testing methods for harvest bags that allow users to measure and supervise humidity and temperature levels of the grain that is stored into harvest bags. Hypothesis: The humidity level into the bag will reach the optimal values as a consequence of the layered homogenization process. The proposed optimization procedure will favor the preservation quality of grains for long periods of time. Hypothesis: Modern techniques of Software Engineering can be applied to the development of intelligent control systems in order to favor their productivity, portability and maintainability.
3 In this project we have developed an infrastructure for the construction of wireless monitoring systems for silobags. In particular, we have defined a Domain Specific Language (DSL) which allows us to specify the specific configuration of the monitoring system. Then, the executable code is derived automatically from the DSL. Given the independence between the models and the code, the DSM methodology smoothly supports the evolution of the underlying architecture (execution platform and domain framework) on which you deploy the system, reusing the generated models in a large part. In this way, the specified software is timeless in technological terms and the high-level representations that define the systems remain valid as long as the problem domain remains the same. The proximity between the model and the domain also has the advantage that the models work as an artifact for both capture of requirements and specification of software. As a result, customers have greater participation in the system development. Because the source code is produced by generators automatically, that code is error-free and efficient in the use of execution and memory resources, so it does not need be modified or optimized. In addition, all the generated code has a unique style of programming and design. The unfavorable aspect of this proposal is that it is necessary to invest extra work in the development of the components of the architecture (meta-models, editors, generators, domain framework, etc.). This initial effort can be amortized considerably due to the increase in productivity in the development. This increases proportionally to the amount of "repetition" of software developments carried out within the same domain. The DSL that we implemented is sufficiently extensible to incorporate different types of sensors, actuators and measures to be taken in the future. In addition, the final system has been designed to incorporate prediction of the behavior of the internal conditions of the silos bag, generation of alarms to certain risky behavior and implementation of specific actuators from the configured alarms. The medium-term objective is to have an intelligent low-cost system for monitoring and automatic adjustment of the internal conditions of the grain stored in silos bag. In pursuit of this goal, the incorporation of some type of actuator and the inclusion of the mathematical model for the prediction of the behavior of the humidity and temperature, developed for this project is planned. We believe that given the importance and dissemination that silos bag currently have in countries of the region, this constitutes a significant contribution which, through the incorporation of technology, will make it possible to improve the conditions of storage of grains in silo bag, identify risky conditions of collection, take action to improve critical factors and as a result, extend the time for the conservation of the production, without degrading the quality of the same. This system presents an improvement on the way farmers take data today, facilitating and expediting the collection of measurements. By placing sensors fixed inside the silos that transmit wirelessly eliminates the need of having personnel dedicated exclusively to this task, which is a
4 strong economic advantage. It is possible to obtain measurements with a frequency greater than the current without the need for unnecessary perforations that alter the conditions of the silobag. Regarding the scalability of the system, one of the advantages of this design with respect to current options is that it allows measurements in a field with more than a silo bag. It is theoretically possible to deploy sensors that can work together to send data when they are required to the receiving device. It is also possible to send data of temperature and humidity to the Internet via a server dedicated to this task; this represents one of the most interesting improvements to deal with in the near future. Nowadays Internet is a mass media and is increasingly in a greater number of devices; the possibility of having this information in the web will allow producer to carry out continuous monitoring of the status of the stored grain. 6. List of Publications Un Lenguaje Específico de Dominio para la Generación Automática de Código en Sistemas de Monitoreo Inalámbrico de Silos Bolsa. Pons, Luna, Calegari, Szasz. Ninth LACCEI Latin American and Caribbean Conference (LACCEI 2011), Engineering for a Smart Planet, Innovation, Information Technology and Computational Tools for Sustainable Development, August 3-5, 2011, Medellín, Colombia. (2011) "Ingeniería Dirigida por Modelos Aplicada al Control Automático del Almacenamiento en Silos Bolsa. Daniel Calegari, Carlos Luna, Mauro Canabé, Federico Sierra, Nora Szasz, Claudia Pons. Congreso Argentino de Agro Informática JAIIO/CAI Buenos Aires. Septiembre ISSN (2010) "Sistema de Medición Inalámbrico de Temperatura y Humedad para silo-bolsa.a. Fueyo, J. Epeloa. Congreso Argentino de Agro Informática JAIIO/CAI Buenos Aires. Septiembre ISSN Buenos Aires, Argentina, Agosto Características Higroscópicas de Forrajes Almacenados en Silo Bolsas, Juan Pons; Josefina Marinissen; Claudia Pons; Sebastian Orionte. Congreso Argentino de Agro Informática. JAIIO/CAI Mar del Plata. Argentina. Agosto ISSN Model transformation languages relying on models as ADTs. Jerónimo Irazábal and Claudia Pons. Software Language Engineering Conference (SLE 2009). Denver USA. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Verlag. Model transformation as a mechanism for the implementation of domain specific transformation languages. Jerónimo Irazábal and Claudia Pons and Carlos Neil. Electronic Journal of SADIO Transformación de modelos como mecanismo de implementación de DSLs. Jerónimo Irazabal y Claudia Pons. Argentinean Symposium on Software Engineering. JAIIO/ASSE Mar del Plata. Argentina. Agosto ISSN
5 Experiment with a Type-Theoretic Approach to the Verification of Model Transformations. D. Calegari, C. Luna, N. Szasz, A. Tasistro II Chilean Workshop on Formal Methods (ChWFM), Chile, November Specification of Products and Product Lines, C. Luna and A. Gonzalez. 9th International Workshop on Reduction Strategies in Rewriting and Programming, Brasil, June EPTCS. A Two-level Calculus for Composing Hybrid QVT Transformations. C. Pons, R. Giandini, G. Pérez, G. Baum. II International Workshop on Advanced Software Engineering (IWASE). Chile, November List of Presentations 2do Congreso Argentino de AgroInformática (CAI). Talk title: "Ingeniería Dirigida por Modelos Aplicada al Control Automático del Almacenamiento en Silos Bolsa. Speaker: C.Pons. Universidad Argentina de la Empresa (UADE), Buenos Aires, Argentina, Agosto do Congreso Argentino de AgroInformática (CAI). Talk title: Sistema de Medición Inalámbrico de Temperatura y Humedad para silo-bolsa. Speaker: Javier Epeloa. Universidad Argentina de la Empresa (UADE), Buenos Aires, Argentina, Agosto Microsoft Research Faculty Summit May 15, Sofitel Hotel - La Reserva Cardales. Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Talk title: Low Cost Computer Based System for Quality Evaluation and Preservation of Grains Stored in Polymer Bags". Speaker: C.Pons. 7mo Congreso Internacional de Innovación Tecnológica Informática, CIITI. Capitulo Rosario. Santa Fe. Argentina. Noviembre Talk title: Tendencias de investigación en TICs. Speaker: C.Pons. Software Language Engineering International Conference (SLE 2009). Denver, USA. October Talk title: Model transformation languages relying on models as ADTs. Speaker: Jerónimo Irazábal.
6 9. Teaching s Impact In the context of this project we successfully completed the following thesis: Title: Especificación y Verificación de Transformaciones de Modelos. Students: F. Varesi, H. López, and M Viñolo. Thesis for obtaining the degree of Ingeniero en Computación. Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de la República, Uruguay. Concluded in July Title: Aplicando MDD al desarrollo de sistemas agropecuarios: modelado de sistemas de control de calidad de granos almacenados en silobolsas. Students: Miguel Martínez and Sebastián Lavie. Thesis for obtaining the degree of Licenciado en Informática. Facultad de Informática, UNLP. Concluded in June Title: Sensores inalámbricos de temperatura y humedad para silobolsas. Students: Alexis Fueyo and Javier Epeloa. Thesis for obtaining the degree of Electronic Engineer. Facultad de Ingeniería, UNLP. Concluded in August Research and Development Team Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina: Claudia Pons, Juan Pons, Gabriel Baum, Paul Puleston, Jerónimo Irazabal, Javier Epeloa, Alexis Fueyo. Universidad de la República. Uruguay: Carlos Luna, Daniel Calegari Universidad ORT. Uruguay: Nora Szasz INTA. Argentina: Josefina Marinissen Universidad Abierta Interamericana (UAI): Carlos Neil
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