INSIDE: Beyond CSI. Winter 2007 Volume 16 Number 4. Dr. Rob Gordon, Director School of Criminology, SFU

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1 Winter 2007 Volume 16 Number 4 Published Quarterly by The Society of Notaries Public of British Columbia Dr. Rob Gordon, Director School of Criminology, SFU INSIDE: Beyond CSI Publications Mail Agreement:

2 The Right Stuff... Victoria Notary Tom Anderson with his daughter Camryn. Tom coaches her soccer team too early each Saturday, he says. What does it take to become a BC Notary Public? Strong entrepreneurial and people skills The highest degree of honesty and integrity University degree and 5 years related experience Fluency in English; other languages an asset Financial backing Dedication to serving the public As a BC Notary, you will have the opportunity to enjoy a rewarding career as an independent businessperson who serves the public, and sets the example of integrity and trust for which Notaries are known throughout the world. If you have the qualifications noted at the left and are seeking a new career path, consider our Master of Arts in Applied Legal Studies (MAALS) program for BC Notaries, conducted through Simon Fraser University. For more information, please contact: The Society of Notaries Public of British Columbia or visit our Website: There are 323 notarial Seals throughout British Columbia. In some communities, Seals are available.

3 P u b l i s h e d b y T h e S o c i e t y o f N o t a r i e s P u b l i c o f B C President Give Back to Your Community... Start as a Spectator! 6 Ken Sherk features Secretary/Executive Director CSI and Beyond 7 Wayne Braid Cover Story Photo Credit: Rob Gordon is Making a Difference for the People of British Columbia 31 KEYNOTE Behind the Scenes 8 Val Wilson Crime, Technology, and Media 10 Nigel Atkin SFU s World-Class Centre for Forensic Research 12 Gail Anderson SFU s Award-Winning Forensic Entomologist One of Top 5 Innovators in the World 13 Criminal Profiling: Art or Science? 16 Eric Beauregard The Institute for Canadian Urban Research Studies at SFU 18 Paul Brantingham The Centre for Restorative Justice: a Quick Introduction 20 Liz Elliott Criminology at SFU: a Student s Perspective 22 Arvin Asadi The Right Stuff 3 Services a BC Notary Can Provide 25 Master s Degree Being Designed for BC Notaries 40 Dave MacAlister Congratulations to Larry Stevens Sr., The Society s Newest Honourary Life Member 42 Celebrating Dalminder (Del) Virk, BC Notary Public of the Year, WHERE ARE THEY NOW? Frank Ney: The Notary, Mayor, Ambassador, and Businessman from Nanaimo! 48 Ted Lewis PRIVATE RECIPE Platz 50 Kate Greening The Vancouver Community Court Project 24 Margaret A. Jackson The Role of the Private Investigator 26 Ozzie Kaban, RPC, MCHt Reader s Digest and ICBC? 28 Brian Trainor The Forensic Factor 29 Kelly A. LaPlante Spotlight on Good Works Capilano College Bursary Recipients 51 Editor s 51 About the Foundation 52 The Society of Notaries Public of British Columbia Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007

4 The Mix The Scrivener: What s in a Name? 5 Business to BusineSS 15 Advertise in The Scrivener 51 Letters 53 ALLIED PROFESSIONALS Dan Wilson Elected President of BC Association of the Appraisal Institute of Canada 54 HISTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA: PART 7:2 British Columbia The Spoilt Child of Confederation: Segment 2 55 Robert Reid SENIORS Elder Abuse in our Communities: First of a Series 58 Laurie Salvador Tools for Business Assess for Success 60 Ken Keis Legal Notes Joint Tenancy Update: Ruth P. Magnusson TAXES RRSPs Beyond Retirement 64 Ryan Sharp Wills & Estates Fiduciary Duties 66 Trevor Todd and Judith Milliken QC Travel Brittany on a Budget: House-Swapping in France 70 John Burgoyne Technology The Tech List for Your Office 76 Akash Sablok Honours & Events People 78 Where in the World has The Scrivener Been? 78 The Scrivener: What s in a Name? A professional penman, a copyist, a scribe... a Notary. Thus the Oxford English Dictionary describes a Scrivener, the craftsman charged with ensuring that the written affairs of others flow smoothly, seamlessly, and accurately. Where a Scrivener must record the files accurately, it s the Notary whose Seal is bond. We chose The Scrivener as the name of our magazine: to celebrate the Notary s role in drafting, communicating, authenticating, and getting the facts straight. We strive to publish articles about points of law and the Notary profession for the education and enjoyment of our members, our allied professionals in business, and the public. Published Quarterly by The Society of Notaries Public of British Columbia Editor-in-Chief Legal Editors Public Relations and Magazine Committee Graphic Design Printer Courier Webmaster Val Wilson Wayne Braid Ken Sherk Laurie Salvador, Chair Akash Sablok, Vice Chair Michael Kravetz Tiah Workman Graffiki Design Rhino Print Solutions Cheyenne Express indesigns.ca The Scrivener Voice: Fax: Website: The Scrivener is published quarterly by The Society of Notaries Public of British Columbia. Box 44, Howe Street Vancouver, BC V6C 2T To Send Large Files to The Scrivener, go to Click on Send A File. All rights reserved. Contents may not be reprinted or reproduced without written permission from the publisher. This journal is a forum for discussion, not a medium of official pronouncement. The Society does not, in any sense, endorse or accept responsibility for opinions expressed by contributors. Canada post: Publications mail agreement No Postage Paid at Vancouver, BC Return undeliverable Canadian Addresses to circulation dept.: The society of notaries public of bc Suite Howe Street Box 44, Vancouver, BC V6C 2T6 Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007 The Scrivener

5 President Ken Sherk Give Back to Your Community... Start as a Spectator! Everyone has a passion in life. One of mine is basketball, which I still do play, but at a much slower pace. I have coached the game, from elementary school kids to high school to college and enjoyed every minute of it, but there have been some days... I have had the fun of coaching my two sons, then having the elder son coach the younger with me. Eight years ago, two basketball players, Howard Kelsey and Lars Hansen who had represented our country at the Olympics and other venues came up with the idea of hosting a basketball tournament to bring together all levels of basketball players high school boys and girls Photos courtesy Vancouver Sports Pictures competing against each other. Their idea was to give everyone not just the elite programs an opportunity to participate in a big tournament and have a chance to play in the finals in front of what they hoped would be a packed house at UBC s War Memorial Gym. In their vision, the business community and others would get involved and contribute financially so that players participating in the tournament would receive scholarships to further their education. On December 9, 2007, along with 2000 fans, I attended the finals of this tournament now in its 8th year! The games were outstanding for the play and the fan participation, with each school s fans cheering their respective team from opposite sides of the floor. The girls final (Handsworth vs. Riverside) went down to the last minute and Riverside won. The boys final (Vancouver College vs. Kitsilano) saw Kitsilano come out on top. On this night, over 30 scholarships were granted to worthy participants who had combined sportsmanship, athleticism, and academics. The amounts ranged from $1500 to a full ride at one of our province s universities. Community and business leaders were on hand to present the awards. Coaches Rich Goulet and Ken Dockendorf were acknowledged for their 38 straight years of coaching at the high school level. I have known both men for many years and congratulate them for their dedication and energy. They have left lasting impressions on many of our youth who have gone on to be good citizens in our communities. It was wonderful to see these two coaches recognized on this stage. Howard Kelsey and Lars Hansen, along with Doug Kelsey, Ron Putzi, and Misty Thomas, are giving back to our community, as are many, many more individuals who commit their time to the best interests of our youth. I urge Scrivener readers from the corporate community to get involved in this growing and expanding annual tournament. It s a wonderful week for youth to play and be rewarded. Over the next 3 months, take the time to attend a game at an elementary school or high school, a college, or a university. Support our youth. You will be entertained and amazed at the talent and enthusiasm of the coaches and the players! s Photos courtesy Vancouver Sports Pictures 6 The Society of Notaries Public of British Columbia Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007

6 Secretary/Executive Director Wayne Braid CSI and Beyond Photo Credit: For those who have not met our Cover Story personality, Dr. Rob Gordon, let me introduce him to you. He is the Director of the School of Criminology at British Columbia s Simon Fraser University. I am always amazed at the tremendous energy and passion this man brings to his work and am impressed by the diversity of his interests and his knowledge of his chosen profession. Dr. Gordon is the expert to whom the media and the public turn regarding issues ranging from elder abuse, gang violence, and home invasions to the psychology of criminals. And he has worked tirelessly to attain a very useful decisionmaking tool for British Columbians Representation Agreements. Bill 29 new legislation that passed this Fall will give the citizens of our province access to a document that has the legislative authority to allow them to plan for the time when they may be disabled or unable to make health care and financial decisions for themselves. Such planning documents have been available in most provinces in Canada and countries in the world for years. Many of our Notaries work closely with their clients in the area of personal planning and we are now looking forward to assisting our clients in an even more effective and meaningful manner. In this issue, you will get a close look into the School of Criminology, their work here in British Columbia and in Canada, their international connections with the academic world, and some of their forensic and restorative justice models that have gained international acclaim. I have more than a natural curiosity about the subject of CSI Crime Scene Investigation. For the better part of 12 years, I served as a coroner in Northwestern British Columbia. I have more than a natural curiosity about the subject of CSI Crime Scene Investigation. For the better part of 12 years, I served as a coroner in Northwestern British Columbia. It will come as no surprise that my favourite TV shows are CSI, CSI Miami, and CSI New York. It seems I am not alone. Those programs regularly win awards for the highest viewer audiences in North America. Now there are board games, Internet games, and games for the PS2 and Xbox all to do with the science of crime scene investigation. The proliferation of CSI-focused programming has sparked wide interest in the forensic science of determining what happened? CSI Websites everywhere offer all forms of information. I recently looked at one site that offers a handbook of evidence and terms such as Abrasions. For example, there are four stages of abrasion healing, by which forensic experts can construct a timeline of trauma. 1. Scab formation 2. Epithelial regeneration 3. Hyperplasia (abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in tissue) 4. Regression of granulation tissue (the tissue that first replaces a wound s fibrin clot) And how about Contra-coup contusion? Injury occurring at a spot opposite the point at which the body was struck, a coup contusion takes place on the same side as the impact. In British Columbia, the coroner s role is quite different from the one portrayed on CSI TV. The coroner in BC is the facilitator in the investigation process for fact-finding not fault finding. (continued on next page) Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007 The Scrivener 7

7 Responsible for ascertaining the details surrounding a death, the coroner must determine the identity of the deceased; and how, when, where, and by what means the deceased died. The coroner gathers all the information from various parties such as police; medical personnel (pathologist, forensic pathologist); paramedics who may have attended the scene; the workforce personnel that gathered the evidence; and the eyewitnesses. Once the investigation has been completed, the coroner classifies the death as natural; an accident; suicide; homicide; or in certain cases, simply undetermined. Sometimes the coroner will conduct an inquest where various involved parties provide sworn evidence of their knowledge of the matter. The BC Coroners Service Website (www.pssg.gov.bc.ca/coroners/) points out that community coroners do not perform autopsies or other specialized procedures. Once all the evidence has been gathered and analyzed, the coroner can make recommendations to various levels of government that may prevent a similar event from occurring in the future. The Coroners Act (www.qp.gov. bc.ca/statreg/stat/c/96072_01.htm) governs the coroner s scope of activity. So, if one of the CSI programs has really captured your attention and you would like to work in a field of goodlooking young men and women, attend crime scenes in low-cut blouses or muscle shirts, drive Hummers, and wear the latest eyewear, you will need to move to Miami, Las Vegas, or New York. In the meantime, enjoy this issue of The Scrivener! s KEYNOTE Val WilsonVal Wilson Behind the Scenes Welcome, members of the BC Association of the Appraisal Institute of Canada. Each quarter, you will receive a copy of The Scrivener, compliments of The Society of Notaries Public of BC. Many thanks to our dynamic Cover Story personality, Dr. Rob Gordon, Director of SFU s School of Criminology, for facilitating the theme articles his faculty members have kindly written for this issue of The Scrivener. At the recent Elder Law conference in Vancouver, I chatted with seniors advocate Pearl McKenzie* who has served on federal and provincial task groups on violence against women and the Health Care and Care Facility Review Board. A founding member of BC CEAS (BC Coalition to Eliminate Abuse of Seniors), she was on the Joint Government/Community Working Committee that met for 3 years to develop recommendations for the adult guardianship legislation. I asked Pearl to share her professional impressions of Dr. Gordon. I think very highly of Rob. He is a genuinely good person and a lot of fun to work with. I met him in 1986, at the first elder abuse forum in BC to focus on legal and advocacy issues. He has been a generous friend and teacher answering my questions and introducing me to people who have helped me in my work. Rob has earned an international reputation for his work on adult guardianship legislation, crime, and young offenders but not too many people know how supportive he is of frontline workers. He has encouraged and supported many others who work with seniors. In this way, Rob quietly improves services and makes a real difference in the quality of life for many older people in British Columbia. In this issue, CSI aficionados will be fascinated by the work of forensic entomologist Dr. Gail Anderson reallife counterpart to Bug Guy Gil Grissom in the $34-million Centre for Forensic Research at SFU. Special thanks to Arvin Asadi for his outstanding images of the SFU campus. His excellent article reveals the School of Criminology from the student side. And we are delighted to have the venerable private investigator Ozzie Kaban join us as a contributing author to Beyond CSI. s *www.notaries.bc.ca/scrivener Spring 2007 Photo Credit: The Society of Notaries Public of British Columbia Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007

8 feature Nigel Atkin Crime, Technology, and Media The hit television show about crime scene investigation CSI follows the classic formula of many other cop shows. An individual (usually male) policeman operates independently, with a very large, dominant, and iconic American city as his backdrop. He is very intelligent and usually supported by a crack backup team and the latest technology. CSI Miami and CSI New York are the latest platforms for this reassuring formula, which hasn t changed much from Dragnet, Streets of San Francisco, Miami Vice, and countless others over the past 6 decades. The formats might not have changed much, but the technology the real star of the show has. Many people seem enamored by the CSI shows and place a great deal of trust in the technology they showcase. This is causing forensic professionals our regular police, the courts, attorneys, and even criminals some second thoughts about crime, technology, and media. Technology s Twin: Propaganda The late French philosopher Jacques Ellul understood how the technology of the mass media exerts control over human destiny. He describes technology as having a twin propaganda and used that term when he wrote about both commercial and political communication. It is difficult living up to the speed, intelligence, science, and success portrayed in popular TV images. Public expectations of individuals in the crime-solving business and justice-policy fields are exceedingly higher than the realities of those in their respective professions. Recent trials of individuals accused of mass murder, bombings, war crimes, fraud, and identity theft all indicate there is a great chasm between the images we consume nightly on CSI and the abilities, time, and budgets that support our local gendarmeries, our federales, lawyers, and judges. It is difficult living up to the speed, intelligence, science, and success portrayed in popular TV images. To many, this perception is reality, as Walter Lippmann noted in his comments of mass media and propaganda in the 1920s. In most cases, our police forces and the experts who support juried and judged convictions and defences do admirable work as they adjust to the transparency of the sea of change in technology and public assumptions. There are notable public exceptions in dubious pathology and bad detective work. As we depart the industrial age into the information age, some assumptions must be replaced. New technology, say of DNA, is proving the innocence of countless individuals wrongly convicted by yesterday s methods. For society, CSI is a doubleedged sword. We consume more and wondrous technology on television. Thinking it is ever-present and readily available can have consequences. This requires some critical thought. McLuhan s Four Laws of Media Canadian media guru Marshall McLuhan s book, Four Laws of Media, offers insight into the context and consequences of new both new technology and media. In his extensive study of media, McLuhan developed a useful series of 10 The Society of Notaries Public of British Columbia Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007

9 questions that professionals and lay people alike can apply, to understand the effect of new technology. He developed a systematic process of four questions that can be applied to any new product or service. These relatively simple questions can be used to learn more about the consequences of police and forensic tools and many other things. Consider asking the following generic questions about aspects of using DNA as evidence or the use of Tasers or Facebook or even Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology. Or, ask the questions about the latest police shows. 1. What does it enhance or intensify? 2. What does it displace or render obsolete? 3. What does it retrieve that was previously obsolesced? 4. What does it become, produce, or reverse into, when pressed to an extreme? Think of the car enhancing transportation, obsolescing the horse, retrieving romance, and when pushed to an extreme, reversing into gridlock and pollution. In the accelerating rate of change we face daily, these questions can be useful in predicting both expectations and in managing consequences. They are also fun to ask yourself when watching CSI or investing or reading the news. For more information, see the original 1988 University of Toronto Press publication, Laws of Media: The New Science, by Marshall and Eric McLuhan. If you use Google to look this up, make sure you use the Four Laws of Media on it. s Nigel Atkin, MA, is a communication instructor and advisor. He teaches at the University of Victoria and provides professional development services on site. Nigel is a national director of the Ethics Practitioners Association of Canada. Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007 The Scrivener 11

10 feature Gail Anderson SFU s World-Class Centre for Forensic Research Photo Credit: A leader in forensic research long before it became popularized on television, Simon Fraser University was one of the first universities in North America to offer forensic services to the police. In the 1970s, entomologists Dr. John Borden and Professor Thelma Finlayson were consulted by police in regard to using insects to estimate elapsed time since death in several homicide investigations. In 1976, physical anthropologist Dr. Mark Skinner was consulted by the police in his capacity as forensic anthropologist and, in 1978, he consulted Professor Finlayson on a case that included insect evidence. Professor Finlayson identified Tabanidae [horse fly] eggs that had overwintered on the body. Her analysis suggested the body had come from the Fraser River, which was nearly a mile from where the remains had been recovered indicating the body had been moved, most likely by scavengers. This was the start of a collaboration between forensic entomology and forensic anthropology that has recently culminated in the establishment of the Centre for Forensic Research (CFR) at Simon Fraser University. Situated in the new Arts and Social Sciences building (ASSC1), custom-built for the CFR, the Centre links the School of Criminology and the Department of Archaeology. The only such facility in Canada and the first of its kind in the world, it brings together forensic researchers locally, nationally, and internationally. The CFR received Senate approval on July 9, The facility houses laboratories for forensic entomology, osteology, DNA, mass spectrometry, and trace element analysis The facility houses laboratories for forensic entomology, osteology, DNA, mass spectrometry, and trace element analysis, as well as a scanning electron-imaging suite, a radiography suite, and an autopsy suite. The CFR contains the laboratory suites of Dr. Lynne Bell, forensic anthropologist and bone-density specialist; Dr. Gail Anderson, forensic entomologist; Dr. Mark Skinner, forensic anthropologist; and Dr. Dongya Yang, specialist in ancient and degraded DNA. A range of master s and PhD students and postdoctoral fellows carry on research in the laboratory suites. Drs. Bell and Anderson are housed in the School of Criminology and Drs. Skinner and Yang in Archaeology. The laboratory of forensic botanist Dr. Rolf Mathewes remains in Biological Sciences. The CFR is primarily a research facility for individual and collaborative projects in a variety of forensic sciences, particularly forensic anthropology, archaeology, entomology, isotopy, taphonomy, botany, electron-imaging, molecular biology, and remote sensing. Lynne Bell working on a case Photo Credit: 12 The Society of Notaries Public of British Columbia Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007

11 Those areas are vital in police investigations but, because they are very research-intensive, they are not included in police laboratories. The CFR does not do analyses routinely found in police labs but instead concentrates on areas outside that domain, such as entomology, botany, and osteology or on scientific analyses of extremely degraded DNA and mass spectrometry. The scientists in the CFR conduct case-driven research and provide forensic case analyses as required The scientists in the CFR conduct case-driven research and provide forensic case analyses as required for the police and coroners service for the police and coroners service, focusing on active cases as well as the analyses of cold cases. For instance, two members of the CFR (Skinner and Anderson) were involved in the so-called Pig Farm Case presently in court; Anderson was recently involved in the re-analysis of the 1959 Steven Truscott case. The CFR scientists are involved in national and international collaborations and work on cases ranging from individual homicides to genocide. The development of such a facility is clearly timely because a range of collaborative expertise is required to investigate homicides and mass disasters such as the South Asian Tsunami, Hurricane SFU s Award-Winning Forensic Entomologist One of Top 5 Innovators in the World Gail Anderson has been analyzing forensic entomology cases since 1988, and has testified as an expert witness in court many times. With the collaboration of colleagues and graduate students, she is presently developing a database of forensic insects across Canada, so that forensic entomology can be used with confidence across Canada. Her work has been featured in several television programs, including Journeys Grave Testimony and Forbidden Places Silent Witness, shown on Discovery Channel, Planet Education, and The Nature of Things Postmortem. A recipient of Canada s Top 40 under 40 Award in 1999, Dr. Anderson received a YWCA Women of Distinction Award for Science and Technology in 1999, and the Simon Fraser University Alumni Association Outstanding Alumni Award for Academic Achievement in She was recently listed in TIME magazine as one of the top 5 innovators in the world, this century, in the field of Criminal Justice. Dr. Anderson was presented with the Derome Award in 2001, the most prestigious award the Canadian Society of Forensic Science bestows, for outstanding contributions to the field of forensic science. Blow fly larvae (maggots) feeding on remains Nonfeeding third instar larvae or maggots about to leave the food source to look for a safe dry place to pupate Blow fly maggot mass on remains Nonfeeding third instar larvae or maggots leaving the food source to look for a safe, dry place to pupate. Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007 The Scrivener 13

12 Katrina, terrorist acts such as 9/11, the London Bombings, and genocide investigations. The CFR will attract international scholars, particularly those with personal experience in international human rights violations. This will result in collaborative research among universities, government agencies, and law enforcement to assist in the investigation of international crimes. Forensic science is a very overused phrase today, but it s true value cannot be overstated. Victims leave victims behind. When someone is murdered, there is not only the loss of that person, there is unparalleled emotional trauma to family and friends. Forensic science aids in the investigation and criminal prosecution at several stages, and can help ensure an accurate and rapid conclusion to a case, to prevent further deaths at the hands of that killer, and give a measure of closure to the victim s family and friends. Successful prosecution is dependent on strong physical evidence, which can help exonerate the innocent and convict the guilty. By placing better and stronger forensic tools in the hands of the police, we help reduce crime, which results in a better quality of life and a reduction of fear in our society. As well as a societal cost, homicide has a tremendous financial cost. Forensic science assists and supports the police in several areas. In the early stages of an investigation, especially one in which the body has been found weeks or months after death, there may be many potential suspects. Developing new tools to identify the victim, determining the time since death, and locating the origin of and identifying degraded DNA will serve to eliminate several potential suspects very rapidly. It will also focus scrutiny on the correct timeframe, which greatly speeds up the investigation, saving numerous expenses. It can also reduce the number of suspects that must be investigated, again saving time and money. Over 500 homicides occur in Canada each year, so the cumulative effect of this costsaving would be considerable. The CFR is an exciting and innovative facility that will help ensure Canada s place as a leader in forensic science, worldwide. s Gail S. Anderson, PhD, Forensic Entomologist, Diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Entomology, is an Associate Professor in forensic entomology and Associate Director of the Criminology Program, in the School of Criminology at Simon Fraser University, a forensic consultant to the RCMP and City Police across Canada, and a regular instructor at Canadian Police College. Dr. Gail Anderson with Dr. Robert Gordon in the Lab Photo Credit: 14 The Society of Notaries Public of British Columbia Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007

13 feature Eric Beauregard Criminal Profiling: Art or Science? Criminal profiling is an investigative technique that uses crime scene characteristics to generate probable descriptive information about the behaviours and the personality of an offender, narrowing the field of suspects, and aiding in apprehension efforts. Since the beginning of its use within criminal investigation, profiling has been qualified by many as more an art than a science. Probably one of the most popular profiles is that of New York s Mad Bomber George Metesky. Metesky terrorized New York City for 16 years in the 1940s and 1950s; he planted at least 33 bombs, of which 22 exploded. The explosives were planted in public buildings such as the New York subway, the Grand Central Terminal, and the New York Public Library. The assistance of psychiatrist James A. Brussel was requested to profile the man responsible for the bombings. Among other things, Brussel predicted the bomber was a regular man, of ordinary fashions, who was foreign born and attended church regularly. But, more important, Brussel predicted he would be wearing a buttoned double-breasted suit when apprehended by the police. It has been reported that Brussel correctly predicted a number of factors such as Metesky s demeanor, social activities, health condition, and... the double-breasted suit! Rarely is it mentioned that the profile Brussel wrote was published in the New York Times during the investigation and that Metesky had been following the media reports. The fictional glamorization of the technique has overwhelmed the science underlying criminal profiling. In addition to the success stories of criminal profiling, this tool has been popularized by movies such as Silence of the Lambs and television series such as Profiler, Millennium, and Criminal Minds. On television, the profiler is often described as having visions, or knowing exactly what happened to the victim just by looking at the body or at some of the evidence found at the crime scene. Unfortunately, that is not how offender profiling works. The fictional glamorization of the technique has overwhelmed the science underlying criminal profiling. Real profilers use scientific knowledge about specific types of offenders, their crime scene behaviours, and probable personality and characteristics to produce a portrait of the unknown suspect. Research undertaken at the School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University, contributes to our understanding of criminal behaviour and improves profiling techniques. For instance, two recent studies have looked at the hunting process of 72 serial sex offenders who have committed a total of 361 sexual assaults on stranger victims. The term hunting process is used to describe the offenders victimsearch methods and attack methods. The first study examines the decisionmaking surrounding the hunting processes of serial sex offenders. Results show that despite the fact that not all serial sex offenders hunt for victims in the same way, decisionmaking fluctuates according to the offenders strategies, type of victim, situational context of the crime, and the environment. For example, a serial rapist may approach a victim using a ruse while in a bar but may decide to break and enter the victim s home while walking alone at night. Until now, studies on criminal profiling have focused on the how, the where, the when, and the who of the crime, but have neglected the why. Our findings help us understand why serial sex offenders 16 The Society of Notaries Public of British Columbia Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007

14 acted the way they did during their crimes and provide criminal investigators with proactive strategies that might prevent another sexual assault. Our model also shows the modus operandi of sex offenders is not immutable but, instead, is a dynamic process more influenced by situational factors than personal characteristics. The second study identified three different profiles in the hunting process of serial sex offenders: coercive, nonpersuasive, and manipulative. The coercive profile includes two main strategies. In the outdoor rape strategy, an offender hunts for a solitary victim and relies upon ambush or direct attack. All locations associated with the crime are outdoors. He generally commits his crimes within his city of residence and will attack his victims almost immediately upon encountering them, most often abducting them. This offender employs threats or physical violence during his approach, while taking the victim to the crime site, and during the commission of the crime. In the second type of strategy the home-intrusion rape strategy the offender operates by breaking and entering the victim s residence. Offenders using this strategy do not abduct the victim but threats may be used to move the victim to the crime site. The nonpersuasive profile includes only one strategy. The direct action rape strategy involves an offender hunting on the street for a victim who may or may not be alone. These offenders act directly to approach the victim, take the victim to the crime site, and commit the crime. The third profile manipulative comprises two strategies. In the sophistication rape strategy, the offender hunts for victims through an occupation, or the prostitution market. He is an opportunistic offender who encounters his victims in the course of his routine activities but his attacks are committed at locations at which the offender has a great deal of control, such as his residence or workplace. He may use seduction or a con to approach and take the victim to the crime site. For the family-infiltrator rape strategy, the offender gains access to his victims by infiltrating families. Victims are usually not alone, and are encountered, attacked, victimized, and released in the same indoor private location, most likely the offender s residence. We believe that to remain useful in complex criminal investigations, profiling needs to rely heavily on science. And that is what we do. Some offenders rely on a strategy of giving money or gifts to approach the victim, take him or her to the crime site, and commit the crime, whereas others use drugs or alcohol. Again, these results show that target selection is highly dependent on the physical environment. The different profiles demonstrate that the types of locations are related to the types of strategies exhibited by an offender during the hunting process; conversely, some strategies might well be triggered by the types of locations at which the offenders and the victims meet. As an illustration, the majority of child molesters will offend in or near their residences. The offender s home appears to be the best possible location at which to commit an offence because it offers several advantages over competing locations. For example, children might feel more secure or more willing to participate in sexual contact. The level of violence involved in the crime is positively associated with the distance travelled by the offender from his home to the target. If child molesters are not able to find a suitable victim near their homes, they may have to go further. The farther they travel, the harder it becomes to convince a child to return to the offender s home, because few are willing to take a car trip with a stranger. Consequently, the offender has to adapt his crime strategies and use a more coercive approach. Our findings regarding the relationship between offending and geographic behaviour may serve as the basis for integrated criminalgeographic profiling as a unique investigative strategy. Our work with the Institute for Canadian Urban Studies (ICURS) in the School of Criminology hopefully will bring models of criminal profiling to a new level, taking advantage of the emerging and innovative field of computational criminology. Having access to the latest developments in visualization, it will be possible to undertake simulation studies looking at offenders choices of behaviour under different conditions in a virtual environment. Criminal profiling, is it art or science? We believe that to remain useful in complex criminal investigations, profiling needs to rely heavily on science. And that is what we do. s Eric Beauregard, PhD, is an Assistant Professor at the School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University. While completing his PhD on the hunting patterns of serial sex offenders at the University of Montreal, Dr. Beauregard worked as a clinical criminologist for the Correctional Service of Canada. He has evaluated more than 1200 sex offenders and published a number of papers on sexual homicide and the offending patterns of sexual offenders. He is co-editor of Sexual Murderers: A Comparative Analysis and New Perspectives, published by Wiley in His current research interests include the analysis of the criminal event, the decision-making of sexual offenders, and geographic and offender profiling. Voice: Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007 The Scrivener 17

15 feature Paul Brantingham The Institute for Canadian Urban Research Studies at SFU The Institute for Canadian Urban Research Studies (ICURS) is an interdisciplinary research centre based in the School of Criminology at Simon Fraser University. ICURS members include faculty from many departments across the university, among them Business Administration, Computing Science, Criminology, Economics, Interactive Arts and Technology, and Mathematics and Statistics. The Institute has as its focus research studies that increase our knowledge of the urban environment. Special emphasis is placed on the study of crime in urban settings and the development of new crimeanalysis tools. Under the leadership of founding Director Patricia Brantingham, ICURS has developed a network of affiliated research institutes at universities around the world. These include the Jill Dando Institute for Crime Science at the University College London; the Criminology Research Centre at the University of Western Australia; the Criminal Justice Center at the University of Alaska Anchorage; the Institute for Geo-Spatial Intelligence at Texas State University; the Crime Prevention Analysis Lab at the California State University San Bernardino; the Environmental Criminology Research Lab at the University of Arkansas; and the Environmental Criminology Research Lab at Northeastern University in Boston. The Institute has as its focus research studies that increase our knowledge of the urban environment. In Canada, ICURS has formal relationships with research labs at the University College of the Fraser Valley and Mount Royal University College and a working relationship with the University of Montreal. The ICURS research network supports research in multiple settings through both parallel and joint projects. At present, ICURS and its affiliated research institute in Western Australia are conducting parallel projects intended to assess the criminogenic impact of new rapid transit lines that are being extended from the centre of Vancouver and of Perth into new suburban communities that have not been served previously by rapid transit connections. ICURS and its affiliated research centre at the University College of the Fraser Valley recently completed a major study of the evolution of policing capacity in British Columbia over the past 30 years. ICURS also maintains extensive formal relationships with government and the private sector. The Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General and E -Division of the RCMP provide substantial funding in support of ICURS research program in crime reduction. IBM Canada has provided a major donation in support of ICURS computational criminology initiative. SFU has supported ICURS by constructing a new, high-security computing laboratory in the new ASSC1 building. Thanks to this support from the University and our public and private sector partners, ICURS is able to conduct a large-scale criminological research program that involves distinguished visiting professors, postdoctoral students, and more than a dozen graduate research assistants in criminology, computing science, mathematics, and interactive arts and technology. In this research program, ICURS focuses on crime reduction policy, crime analysis, and computational criminology. 18 The Society of Notaries Public of British Columbia Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007

16 Crime reduction is the policy approach used to determine the most effective ways to reduce crime within a fair and just common law system. Crime analysis covers a broad range of techniques used to better understand the phenomena of crime at national, provincial, municipal, neighbourhood, and local areas. Computational criminology uses theories of crime in an urban environment, together with the advancements in computational sciences. ICURS blends expert knowledge in government departments with leading-edge theory and research in universities. Its goal is to work thematically across the disciplines of criminology, computing science, geography, economics, and applied mathematics to make advances in the understanding and modelling of the complex urban environment and, with these models, better understand how to improve approaches to crime reduction and the use of informatics in criminological research. ICURS introduced the first Computational Criminology Initiative (CCI) in CCI themes/research clusters include the following. 1. Interoperability between justice and urban databases The principal current study involves comparative analysis of crime location and landuse patterns across the province. Additional studies are looking at crime patterns in relation to the structure of neighbourhoods, the criminogenic impact of the Canada Line SkyTrain, and crime patterns in specific municipalities. 2. Artificial Intelligence with agentbased modelling A major project, being conducted jointly with the School of Computing Science, involves the construction of a simulation model that projects the crime target search patterns of a large number of individuals across an urban road network. 3. Computationally intensive approaches to crime and justice issues A major project, being conducted jointly with IRMACS another SFU multidisciplinary institute involves the construction of a computer simulation of the entire British Columbia criminal justice system that can be used to assess both the cost and the crimereduction potentials of different policy and resourceallocation choices. ICURS blends expert knowledge in government departments with leadingedge theory and research in universities. 4. New visualization techniques for understanding crime patterns A current major project, being undertaken with the School of Interactive Arts and Technology, involves the construction of a immersive virtual urban environment for study of a wide variety of issues related to how the appearance and structure of the city influences both typical urban mobility choices and fear of crime. Crimes and security issues involve human agents, laws, and the physical and social landscape. This complexity requires new, adaptable research tools. As part of its research program, ICURS has developed a number of specialized tools and techniques for analyzing crime and urban form. These include crime location quotients that can assess the relative intensity and importance of different crimes in different communities and TOPO, a topological regionalization technique for understanding the structure and boundaries of urban neighbourhoods. Spin-off companies based on research originally undertaken in ICURS include ECRI, Inc., which specializes in technology supporting the geographic profiling of serial offenders; and Forensic Logic, which provides crime analysis software to law enforcement agencies. As part of its community service activity, ICURS has helped the Grandview-Woodlands Community Policing Office in Vancouver to develop a survey instrument for assessing community concerns about crime and disorder. Key people at ICURS include Dr. Patricia Brantingham, University Professor of Computational Criminology and Director of ICURS; Dr. Paul Brantingham, University Professor of Crime Analysis and Associate Director; Dr. Bryan Kinney, Assistant Professor of Criminology and Director, the ICURS Laboratory; Fiona Young, ICURS Visiting Professor. s Paul Brantingham is University Professor of Crime Analysis at Simon Fraser University. Trained at Columbia and Cambridge Universities, he has been a member of the California Bar since He taught at Florida State University prior to joining SFU. Convocation Mall Photo Credit: Arvin Asadi Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007 The Scrivener 19

17 feature Liz Elliott The Centre for Restorative Justice: a Quick Introduction Photo Credit: Arvin Asadi The Centre for Restorative Justice is an initiative by the Simon Fraser University School of Criminology. The Centre in partnership with individuals, the community, justice agencies, and Simon Fraser University exists to support and promote the values, principles, and practices of restorative justice. It provides education, innovative program models, training, evaluation, and research through a resource centre and meeting place that facilitates outreach, promotion, dialogue, and advocacy. Restorative justice (RJ) is an old idea with a new name. Its roots can be found in Aboriginal healing traditions and the nonretaliatory responses to violence endorsed by many faith communities. Howard Zehr, one of the first people to articulate a late modern vision of RJ, most recently has defined it as a kind of coherent value system that gives us a vision of the good how we want to be together. Fundamentally, then, RJ invites everyone to live by universal core values, to be the change, as Gandhi famously expressed it. Practically, it represents a return of the simple wisdom of viewing conflict as an opportunity for a community to learn and grow. RJ operates on the premise that conflict, even criminal conflict, inflicts harm and therefore individuals and communities must accept responsibility for repairing that harm. Victims, offenders, and communities actively participate in devising mutually beneficial solutions, and implementing those solutions. Its roots can be found in Aboriginal healing traditions and the nonretaliatory responses to violence endorsed by many faith communities. Conflicts are resolved in a way that models core values and restores harmony in the community members relationships, allowing people to revisit and explore universal values and continue living together in a safer, healthy environment. In this sense, RJ is about community development and how citizens can live together in a democracy peaceably, by affording the opportunities and skills to build community capacity through dialogue and social engagement. Canada has long been at the forefront of the RJ field. We were the first nation to develop and offer a victim/ offender reconciliation program (VORP), initiated by a Mennonite organization in Elmira, Ontario, in Since the early 1990s, the Fraser Region Community Justice Initiatives Association in Langley, BC, has provided counselling and mediation in cases of violent offences homicide, robbery, serious sexual assault postsentence. Its pioneers are recognized as international experts in victim/offender reconciliation. Canada has also benefitted from the teachings of its Aboriginal communities, particularly in Aboriginal holistic philosophy and circle processes, also known as circle remedies, that have been deployed and/or adapted for healing, problem-solving, conflict resolution, or sentencing purposes in the criminal justice system. Circle remedies have also been adopted to deal with conflicts in schools and in business environments. Since RJ has evolved in Canada, Nova Scotia has developed a system-wide approach to RJ; there are several RJ projects in Canadian federal prisons; and hundreds of community-based 20 The Society of Notaries Public of British Columbia Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007

18 organizations have been created across the country to offer RJ services. Over the last decade, Simon Fraser University has made significant contributions to the paradigm and practice of restorative justice. The Centre for Restorative Justice began as an idea in 1998, was launched in 1999 with the introduction of the School of Criminology s first undergraduate course in RJ, and was later formally founded and co directed in 2002 by Dr. Liz Elliott and Dr. Robert Gordon of the University s School of Criminology, with 3-year funding support from the Correctional Service of Canada. Currently, the Centre s Co Directors are Dr. Liz Elliott, for RJ in communities and criminal justice, and Dr. Brenda Morrison, for RJ in communities and schools. Over its almost 10-year span, the Centre has initiated a number of activities, such as education and consulting services for community groups, nonprofit organizations, and governments; Website information and a resource clearinghouse; development and hosting of local, national, and international lectures and conferences; the support and delivery of undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research in RJ; the creation and ongoing delivery of popular undergraduate and graduate RJ courses; the hosting of international scholars and government officials from other countries, including Switzerland, Korea, Japan, Belgium, Germany, France, England, Thailand, and Vietnam; participation in several Canada- European Union student exchange programs on RJ and Human Rights since 1997; international consulting and RJ training, for example, in Latvia and Jamaica; and the publication of numerous articles and books by the Centre s current and past Co-Directors and students. Currently, the Centre for Restorative Justice is poised for the development of its next 5-year plan, which will include an increased emphasis on RJ in schools and the role of RJ in participatory democracy. Two international conferences are in the planning stages for 2009, as are several other projects geared to education, training, and the proliferation of a restorative philosophy and processes. New course development and public education content will increase the delivery of research and theory in the psychology of RJ, with a particular emphasis on trauma and shame. Currently, the Centre for Restorative Justice is poised for the development of its next 5-year plan The Centre continues to develop collaborative partnerships with other scholars, practitioners, groups, and institutions at home and abroad. The credit courses offered in the School of Criminology continue to operate at full capacity; students who have graduated and entered the field can be found in myriad organizations and institutions, leading the expression of restorative philosophy and deploying restorative practices in a variety of ways. Study and research requests from prospective students and visitors nationally and internationally are ongoing. The Centre is also in the beginning stages of developing a Canadian network of academics teaching and researching in the area of RJ. For more information, please visit the Centre s Website: s Liz Elliott, PhD, is an Associate Professor at the School of Criminology at Simon Fraser University. Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007 The Scrivener 21

19 feature Arvin Asadi Criminology at SFU: a Student s Perspective My studies in Criminology have given me an indepth understanding of the complexities of criminal behaviour and society s reaction to this phenomenon. After gaining theoretical and practical knowledge of the criminal justice system, my perceptions and definitions of crime have been deeply challenged. I can now truly appreciate how factors such as class, race, and gender play a role in our efforts to The W. A. C. Bennett Library administer justice. This appreciation has contributed to my ability to critically analyze the media s oftendistorted representation of crime. Before pursuing my studies at SFU s School of Criminology, I took a variety of courses at Capilano College, After gaining theoretical and practical knowledge of the criminal justice system, my perceptions and definitions of crime have been deeply challenged. Photo Credit: Arvin Asadi including the one Criminology course the college was offering at the time. From that moment, I knew it was the path for me. As I approach the end of my undergraduate studies at SFU, I can say the Criminology program has lived up to its reputation of being second to none. It exceeded my expectations. Throughout my time at SFU, I had the opportunity to learn and discuss some of the most interesting and controversial topics relevant in today s society. These issues included drug policies, prostitution, euthanasia, abortion, capital punishment, corporate crime, forensic science the list goes on. I learned about the philosophical and sociological history of these issues and how it translates into current law. I was also able to critically analyze the strategies or lack of strategies of our criminal justice system in dealing with these important issues. Two influential courses I have taken recently include Corporate Financial Crimes and Misconduct CRIM 436 and Wrongful Convictions CRIM 418. Both were taught by Professor Joan Brockman, who did a wonderful job of facilitating discussion and tying in current events to the course materials. In Corporate Financial Crimes and Misconduct, we discussed the lack of democracy within corporate regulation 22 The Society of Notaries Public of British Columbia Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007

20 Academic Quadrangle and the undeniable consequences of the profit is all corporate mindset. This class served as a reminder that corporate executives often face insignificant punishments, despite the fact that their regrettable business decisions inflict more damage on society as a whole than any other crime. Contributing factors and solutions to this unacceptable reality were also discussed. I chose to participate in a project that analyzed the famous Bre-X gold stock scandal. In Wrongful Convictions, we discussed the factors contributing to the conviction of innocent people, including police misconduct, false eyewitness testimony, jailhouse informants, and false confessions. For the final project, I chose to analyze the case of Wilbert Coffin, a man convicted of murder and executed, based solely upon circumstantial evidence. More of the Cornerstone Area Photo Credit: Arvin Asadi Photo Credit: Arvin Asadi Cornerstone Area of Campus It is worth noting that this Canadian case played a role in the abolishment of the death penalty in Canada. Although the case is quite old, many of the other cases we discussed are recent. They illustrate that wrongful convictions can no longer be viewed as rare instances of unavoidable human error within our criminal justice system. wrongful convictions can no longer be viewed as rare instances of unavoidable human error within our criminal justice system. Several other courses I highly recommend include Restorative Justice, with Dr. Elizabeth Elliott; Forensic Sciences, with Dr. Gail Anderson; and Terrorism, with Dr. Ray Corrado. View from West Mall Complex Next semester I will be taking advantage of the excellent SFU Criminology field-practice program, coordinated by Professor Neil Madu. It gives students the chance to receive practical experience within the Criminology field of their choice. Students participating in this program may choose from a variety of placements including law enforcement, corrections, and the legal field. I will be working with a criminal lawyer to explore whether criminal law is a potential career for me. I am looking forward to the journey ahead. s Arvin Asadi is a fourth-year Criminology major, Legal Studies minor, at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, BC. He is President of the SFU Pre-Law Student Society and plans to attend law school. Photo Credit: Arvin Asadi Photo Credit: Arvin Asadi Volume 16 Number 4 Winter 2007 The Scrivener 23

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