The Diabetes Epidemic

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1 The Diabetes Epidemic O 2118 Wilshire Blvd. Ste. 723 O Santa Monica, California O O What to look for and how you can help your clients O Trends Type 2 or Adult-Onset Diabetes O Type 2 Diabetes does not come on like a lightning bolt or an earthquake, but silently develops over years O From 1993 to 2009 the prevalence of pre- existing diabetes (type I and 2) increased by 45% and the prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) by 80% O According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, type 2 diabetes affects more than 25.8 million people or 8.3 percent of the U.S population What are the type of Diabetes O 1.85 million women of reproductive age have diabetes and about 500,000 of them don t even know they have it! Diffuse Symptoms Most Common O Type I autoimmune virus attacks the O Feeling sluggish or having a little less "get up pancreas insulin dependant O Type 2 normally adult onset but now commonly seen in children and adolescents can be controlled by lifestyle or oral meds O Gestational Diabetes (GDM)- diabetes brought on by pregnancy hormones and go" than previously which clients can attribute to high stress levels or increased age O Gradual weight gain without change in diet O Increased desire for carbohydrates and never really feel full after eating O Can eat at the drop of a hat 1

2 Overt Symptoms- Not the Norm 1. Increased thirst 2. Increased hunger 3. Increased urination Type 2 or Adult Onset Diabetes O Possible Causes: Extreme weight loss Insulin Resistance/Metabolic Syndrome O In 1962 James Neel coined the term thrifty gene to explain why some individuals gain weight and develop diabetes O Term coined by Gerald Reaven, M.D. first called syndrome X later named Metabolic Syndrome Defect in Beta Cells of the Pancreas O Beta-cells are contained in the pancreas and produce the insulin to help nutrients get into the cells of your body 5. Insulin resistance Family History Defect in beta-cell function of the pancreas (can be genetic) Medications Lifestyle factors Physiology of Insulin Resistance O After consuming a meal the insulin secreted by the pancreas is resistant O The pancreas secretes more insulin in response to this resistance which causes hyperinsulinemia leading to increased fat stores Contributing Lifestyle Factors O Exercise helps lower insulin resistance by as much as 50% - increases insulin sensitivity O Diet balance critical and increased intake of O Goal with diabetes is to preserve beta cell function and the most optimal way to rest beta-cells is weight loss both processed and starchy carbohydrates increase insulin resistance 2

3 What does the Research Indicate? O A 2002 landmark study published in the New England Journal of Medicine clearly demonstrated how effective lifestyle changes are in the prevention of Type 2 diabetes O Researchers took a group of approximately 3,200 people who were at high risk of developing diabetes and divided them into three groups as follows: Landmark Study O Group 1: No intervention was given (the control, or placebo group) O Group 2 : Put on Metformin (diabetes drug) O Group 3 : Received guidance about exercise and nutrition and attended individual or group education. Exercised about 30 minutes per day, and lost about 5 percent of their body weight Results Balanced Eating Start with Protein O There was no change in the control or placebo group O The drug group had a 30% decrease in the incidence of diabetes O The lifestyle group had a decrease of 58% in the incidence of diabetes Add a natural Carbohydrate Balance with a healthy Fat Balanced Blood Glucose Levels Carbohydrates Gestational Diabetes & Protein O Recent studies have demonstrated that adequate protein is essential during pregnancy for beta cell production O Stress natural non man-made carbohydrates: O Vegetables and fruits O Nuts/seeds/nut butters O Squash, yam/sweet potato (limited amounts) O When a mother is consuming a low level of protein, it blocks the cells from becoming beta cells, which affects her body s ability to make enough insulin O Quinoa, buckwheat, millet, brown rice O Limit starchy and processed carbs: bread, rice, cereal, snacks, and desserts 3

4 Healthy Fats O Stress monounsaturated, omega-3, and some saturated fats: O Avocado, nuts/seeds, olive oil, coconut oil, Increase Omega 3 Fats O Alpha Linoleic Acid (ALA) best source is ground flax seed and recommended amount is 1 tbsp/day organic butter, fatty fish, ground flax seeds O DHA(Docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA O Limit trans fat & cheaper polyunsaturated fats: (eicosapentaenoic acid) found in fish and fish oils minimum of 500 mg. per day for each one O Soybean oil, corn oil, vegetable oil, palm oil Lifestyle Changes: Exercise Important for Trainers O Blood glucose variations can occur for those O Exercise can lower insulin resistance by as much as 50% - only lasts 24 hours so daily exercise is needed (morning exercise more effective) O 30 minutes per day can promote beta-cell rest, decrease carb cravings and assist with onset of type 2 diabetes Lifestyle Changes: Sleep O Studies show individuals not receiving adequate sleep had 40% lower insulin sensitivity which resulted in higher blood glucose levels on medication or not O Ensure your client has a snack with them at all times and eats at least 2 hours before a session O Recommend client have a glucometer with them at all times Where does this leave us? O How do we best help our clients? O Stress increases adrenal release of cortisol which can increase blood sugars, insulin resistance and fat storage, especially visceral fat (recommend yoga, meditation) Understanding insulin resistance/physiology Understanding the cravings Helping them stay on track Focus on goals and the earned reward of daily management of their food 4

5 References: Lowering Insulin Resistance through Lifestyle Changes Book on Gestational Diabetes 5

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