1 Is online on state regulated websites safer? An analysis of the first national survey on online J E AN - M I C H E L C O S T E S, French M o n i t o r i n g C e n t r e f o r G a m b l i n g ( O D J ) I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o n P a t h o l o g i c a l G a m b l i n g a n d B e h a v i o r a l A d d i c t i o n s WA R SAW 2 7th N ovember 2014
2 Plan 2 : legal framework of in France, a regulation strategy Current situation about in France Off line On line Is on regulated websites safer?
3 A new strategy: regulation vs. prohibition 3 The 12 th of May 2010 France "opened the online market to competition" in three areas: sports betting, horse course betting and poker The new law: entrusted the regulation of this market to an independent administrative authority, ARJEL, which grants approvals to operators and controls their activity Set up an expert public centre, ODJ, in order to assess situation surrounding in France
4 Legal situation before legal framework before 2010 Casinos (Tables games, Slot machines) Poker Lotteries Sports betting Horse racing Off line On line Authorization/ Concession FDJ (Française des jeux) FDJ (Française des jeux) FDJ (Française des jeux) PMU (Pari mutuel urbain) = State monopolies = Private operators = Prohibited (except for some FDJ an PMU games)
5 Legal situation since legal framework after 2010 Casinos (Tables games, Slot machines) Poker Lotteries Sports betting Horse racing Off line On line Authorization/ Concession Licensed operators FDJ (Française des jeux) FDJ (Française des jeux) FDJ (Française des jeux) Licensed operators PMU (Pari mutuel urbain) Licensed operators = State monopolies = Private operators = Prohibited
6 ARJEL Regulatory authority for online An independent administrative authority 6 The missions of ARJEL are to: issue approvals and ensure compliance by operators protect the vulnerable and fight against addiction ensure the safety and fairness of operations fight against illegal sites fight against fraud and money laundering
7 ODJ the Monitoring Centre for 7 An expert public body part of the consultative committee, that provides advice to the public authorities The mission of the ODJ is: to provide decision-makers and professionals of the sector, as well as the public, with factual, objective, reliable information in the area of.
8 National prevalence survey A set of related questions included in a regular national health survey ( Baromètre Santé, INPES) Telephone survey Random sample of the French population, using CATI October June 2010 N = 25,034 people aged years
9 Prevalence of 9 Prevalence of From all French citizens between 18 and 75 years of age, the proportion of those who, during the previous 12 months: in % gambled at least once 47,8 gambled at least 52 times 10,9 gambled and spent at least 500 euros 4,7 gambled at least 52 times and/or gambled and spent at least 500 euros (active gamblers) 12,2 Source: Health Barometer 2010, module, INPES/OFDT
10 Prevalence of problem 10 Prevalence of "problem" in the French population of years (in %) CPGI categories Prevalence in % 95% CI From the whole population Moderate-risk gamblers 0,9 [0,78-0,94] Excessive gambler 0,4 [0,38-0,50] Source: Health Barometer 2010, module, INPES/OFDT
11 prevalence surveys coordinated survey on online in 2012: A representative survey which aimed to estimate the prevalence of online by the French (1) A descriptive survey of the of online gamblers and associated problems (2) comparable to the first national prevalence survey carried out in 2010 (3)
12 (1) prevalence survey questions included in a regular monthly survey ( Monitoring the web, Médiamétrie ) Telephone survey Random sample of the French population, using CATI September-November 2012 N = 2761 people over 18
13 (2) prevalence survey Based on Web Users Panel («Le Carré des Médias», Médiamétrie) Database: Web users Sample of Internet users selected according to quotas that come from the results of the last Monitoring the web, Médiamétrie survey, by: sex, age, socio-professional category and region. Response rate to all s sent and opened was approximately 40%. Final sample was weighted according the initial quotas: sex, age, socioprofessional category and region. Time survey: November-December 2012 Age: Final sample: 4,042 Internet users stated having gambled on the Internet on the last 12 months
14 (3) prevalence survey 2012 Measures 14 Regulatory status of sites Three proxy measures A composite indicator those who gambled exclusively on licensed sites, and those who gambled partly or totally on unlicensed sites. -related problems -related impacts on lifestyle behaviours Sleep disturbance Unhealthy eating Substance use behaviours Related changes in alcohol, tobacco and/or illicit drug use PGSI: Problem Severity Index
15 How many people gamble online? 15 Prevalence of online in 2012 French population (aged 18 and over) Estimate 95% Confidence intervals Lower Higher Prevalence in the last 12 months 3,7% 2,9% 4,5% Source : enquête Prévalence-e-Jeu 2012 ; ODJ - N=2761
16 Who is online? 16
17 Which kind of activities are they playing? 17 Prevalence of last 12 months among online gamblers by type of games (in %) All games combined 72,1 100,0 Lo ery, scratch card games - FDJ* Lo ery, scratch card games - others Poker 8,9 20,4 19,2 58,2 66,4 Unregulated games Sports be ng Horse racing Other games 2,1 16,4 11,8 13,8 13,0 11,6 Offline Slot machines 7,2 14,7 Casinos (excluding poker) 4,0 6,6 0,0 20,0 40,0 60,0 80,0 100,0 *FDJ: state company which manages legal lo ery and scratch card games Source : Enquête e-enjeu2012 ; OFDT / ODJ
18 What are the online patterns? 18
19 Toward assessment of the 2010 law 19 Key questions 1. Do people gamble on regulated websites? 2. Practices on the regulated supply are they safer?
20 Do people gamble on regulated supply? 20 Distribution of gamblers according to the regulated status of web sites they use in % All gamblers (N=4042) field (2010 law) Poker (n=335)* Sport/Horse Bet (n=317)* only regulated web sites 54% 53% 70% only unregulated web sites 19% 23% 6% both 27% 24% 24% source : Enquête e-enjeu2012; OFDT/ODJ * exclusifs gamblers
21 Who gambles on regulated supply? (1) 21 Demographic characteristics Gambled on odds of Unregul. only on regulated sites only sites sites (N=2170.4) (n=1871.6) % % OR 1 OR 95% CI Gender Men 62,1 37,9 ref. ref. Women 42,4 57,6 0.45*** Age ,1 64,9 0.51*** ,5 48,5 ref. ref ,0 1.25** ,5 41,5 1.33** ,5 35,5 1.71*** Significant odds ratio (OR): *p<=.05, ** p<=.01, ***p<=.001 source : e-enjeu2012 Survey, OFDT/ODJ
22 Who gambles on regulated supply? (2) 22 Gambled on odds of Unregul. only on regulated Demographic characteristics sites only sites sites (N=2170.4) (n=1871.6) % % OR 1 OR 95% CI Education Did not complete Baccalaureate 49 51,0 0.69*** Completed Baccalaureate 48,2 51,8 0.67*** Completed Post-Baccalaureate 58,3 41,8 ref. ref. Socioprofessional category (SPC) Low SPC 59,7 40,4 1.28** High SPC 53,5 46,5 ref. ref. Not active on labor market 48,1 51,9 0.81** Financial situation "Comfortable" 57,4 42,6 ref. ref. "Just enough" 53,6 46,4 0.86* "Difficult" 44,6 55,4 0.60*** Significant odds ratio (OR): *p<=.05, ** p<=.01, ***p<=.001 source : e-enjeu2012 Survey, OFDT/ODJ
23 Practices on the regulated supply are they safer? (1) 23 patterns of individuals who participated to a regulated online activity* according to the regulatory status of sites (N=3,230). Overall (N=3,230) sites only Unregulated sites % % OR 1 Steady involvement in Frequent ( 52 times in the past 12 months) 41,4 47,6 0.69*** Important spending (pent 500 in the past 12months) 25,2 26,8 0.65*** Problematic (score of 3+ on the PGSI) 12,1 17,3 0.67*** Associated Consequences Lifestyle behaviours Sleep disturbance 9,7 20,1 0.47*** Unhealthy eating 9,1 17,9 0.51*** Interpersonal problems (arguments. conflicts) 2 1,6 1,2 Substance use behaviours Increased concern about alcohol consumption 3 3,5 1,09 Increased concern about tobacco use 6,3 12,2 0.69* Increased concern about cannabis use 1,3 2,2 0,94 Increased concern about use of illicit drugs (excluding cannabis) 1,1 1,2 1,32 1 Significant odds ratio (OR) adjusted for age and sex: *p<=.05, ** p<=.01, ***p<=.001 *regulated activities: lotteries, poker, horse racing and sports betting
24 Frequent ( 52 mes in the past 12 months) Important spending (spent 500 in the past 12months) Practices on the regulated supply are they safer? (2) 24 Frequent ( 52 mes in the past 12 months) Important spending (spent 500 in the past 12months) Sleep disturbance Increased concern about tobacco use Increased concern about alcohol consump on Problema c (score of 3+ on the PGSI) % Unhealthy ea ng Lo ery significant differences Unregulated Unhealthy ea ng Sleep disturbance Increased concern about tobacco use Increased concern about alcohol consump on Problema c (score of 3+ on the PGSI) % Sports be ng significant differences Unregulated Frequent ( 52 mes in the past 12 months) Important spending (spent 500 in the past 12months) Unhealthy ea ng Sleep disturbance Horse be ng Frequent ( 52 mes in the past 12 months) Important spending (spent 500 in the past 12months) Unhealthy ea ng Sleep disturbance Poker Increased concern about tobacco use Increased concern about tobacco use Increased concern about alcohol consump on Problema c (score of 3+ on the PGSI) % significant differences Unregulated Increased concern about alcohol consump on Problema c (score of 3+ on the PGSI) % significant differences Unregulated
25 s (1) 25 : 7 % of the French gamblers A young, male, educated, well-integrated population More intensive and more problematic than offline Mostly, but not entirely, regulated A demand for slot machines or other online casino games Some evidence that on regulated supply is safer
26 s (2) 26 These observations should lead to: Developing prevention measures that are appropriate for certain, specific online populations Opening a regulated supply for casino games?? monitoring of online trends and the prevalence of problem through regular, targeted surveys; 2 key indicators: % problematic gamblers, % activity on regulated supply the protective effect of the regulation of activities?
27 References 27 ARJEL (2013) Le marché Français des jeux d argent et de hasard en ligne Auer, M. and Griffiths, M. D. (2013) Voluntary limit setting and Player choice in most intense online gamblers: an empirical study of behaviour. Journal of Studies 29(4): Costes, J.-M. et al. (2011) Les niveaux et pratiques des jeux de hasard et d argent en OFDT 77:8. Currie, S. R., Casey D. M., and Hodgins D. C. (2013)Validity of the Problem Severity Index Interpretive Categories. Journal of Studies 29(2): European Commission (2012) in the internal market - Commission Staff Working Document, Gray, H. M., LaPlante, D. A. and Shaffer, H. J. (2012) Behavioral characteristics of internet gamblers who trigger corporate responsible interventions. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors - l gulation du secteur des jeux d argent et de hasard en ligne. Nelson, S. E., LaPlante, D. A., Peller, A. J., Schumann, A., LaBrie, R. A. and Shaffer, H. J. (2008) Real limits in the virtual world: self-limiting behavior of internet gamblers. Journal of Studies 24(4): Planzer, S., Gray, H. M. and Shaffer, H. J. (2014) Associations between national policies and disordered prevalence rates within Europe. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 37(2): Tovar, M.-L., Costes, J.-M. and Eroukmanoff, V. (2013) Les jeux d argent et de hasard sur internet en France en OFDT 85: 6.
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