Instructional Design

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1 Instructional Design for Librarians and Information Professionals Lesley S. J. Farmer Neal-Schuman Publishers New York London

2 Published by Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc. 100 William St., Suite 2004 New York, NY Copyright 2011 Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction of this book, in whole or in part, without written permission of the publisher, is prohibited. Printed and bound in the United States of America. The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Farmer, Lesley S. J. Instructional design for librarians and information professionals / Lesley S.J. Farmer. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (alk. paper) 1. Information literacy Study and teaching. 2. Technological literacy Study and teaching. 3. Instructional systems Design. 4. Curriculum planning. 5. Libraries and education. I. Title. ZA3075.F dc

3 To Emma Johnson, my first teacher; to my adult education teachers; and to Girl Scouts, my informal education teachers

4 Contents List of illustrations xi Preface xiii 1. Introduction 1 The information society 2 Impact of technology 2 Learning skills and lifelong learning 3 Instructional design 4 Librarian s instructional role 5 References 7 2. Instructional design overview 9 Defining instructional design 9 A word about educational philosophy 11 Instructional design theory 13 Instructional design models 15 ADDIE: analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation 16 Systems approach 21

5 vi Instructional design Iterative approach 21 Agile design 23 Implications for you 23 References Learners in instructional design 27 Principles of learning 27 Learning styles 29 Developmental issues and learning 29 Child development 30 Adolescent development 31 Millennials 33 How adults learn 33 Generational issues 34 Andragogy 35 Gender issues in learning 37 Who are instructors? 38 Librarian instructional competencies 39 Current instructional roles 40 The social side of teaching 42 Types of learning situations 42 Types of youth learning and libraries 43 Types of adult learning and libraries 44 Groups of learners 45 Learning communities and communities of practice 45 Levels of engagement 46 The learning organization 46 Culturally sensitive learning contexts 49 Online environments and learning 50 Implications for you 51 Sample instructional design about culture and learning 52 References Preplanning 61 Categories of educational situations 61

6 Contents vii Needs assessment 63 Needs, interests, and values 64 Identifying the bases of needs, interests, and values 65 Assessing the learning context 65 Assessing needs, interests, and values 66 Knowledge dimensions 68 Developing objectives 70 Assessment at the preplanning stage 72 Determining the assessment instrument 73 Developing assessment tools 76 Preplanning implications for you 77 Sample workshop using needs assessment 78 References Design content decisions 83 Curriculum bases 83 Contextual forces in curriculum design 85 Knowledge 85 Social forces 86 Cultural sensitivity 87 Information literacy as curriculum 87 Defining information literacy 87 Technology literacy 88 Other supporting literacies 89 Librarians as information literacy experts 90 Collaboration in curriculum choices 91 Overview of resources 91 Content-centric resources 93 Production-centric resources 94 Task-specific resources 96 Adapting and creating resources 96 Adaptation and fair use 97 Tips on creating documents 97 Rapid prototyping 98 Self-paced learning tools 98

7 viii Instructional design Learner-generated resources 99 Digital divides and digital inclusion 100 Curriculum programs 102 Sample research project for high school students 103 References Instructional delivery 109 A word about instructional theories 110 Time issues 110 Structure 110 Sequencing 112 Nonlinear sequencing 113 Staffing issues 113 Space issues 115 User needs 116 Technology trends 117 Planning and assessment 118 Libraries as learning spaces 118 Overview of instructional strategies 120 Structuring instructional strategies 120 Pre-engagement 121 Origin of need 121 Task determination 121 First contact 123 Processing the curriculum 124 Evaluating curricular information 126 Manipulating curricular information 127 Acting on information 129 Grouping of instruction 131 Scaffolding learning 132 Differentiated instructional strategies 133 Instructional strategies for learners with disabilities 135 Culture-sensitive instructional strategies 136 Differentiated assessment 139 Sample instructional design resources 140

8 Contents ix Context of instructional delivery 141 Further instructional delivery implications for you 142 Sample project-based lesson for middle school students 143 References Learning with technology, learning about technology 151 The impact of technology on learning 151 Decision points and incorporating technology 153 Learners and technology 155 Gender issues in learning with technology 156 Digital natives 156 Adult learners 157 Adult attitudes about technology 159 Developmentally appropriate use of technology in learning 161 Instructional design planning for technology 162 Technology-based instructional strategies 163 WebQuest 164 Web Videoconferencing 166 E-gaming 166 Mobile learning 167 Digital divide or digital inclusion 168 Emerging technology trends 169 Sample face-to-face lesson incorporating technology 170 References Instructional systems 177 Planning synchronous delivery 177 Working with the organization 177 Planning details on the day of the instruction delivery 179 Course management systems 180 Courseware 180 Taxonomies of courseware use 181 CMS instructional strategies 183 Delivery use of CMS 185

9 x Instructional design Online structure 186 Sharing curriculum 187 Developing curriculum programs 188 The organizational context of instructional design 190 Decision making 191 Technology issues 192 Community support 192 Further implications for you 193 Sample professional development videoconference session 194 References Management issues 199 Documentation 199 Self-managed learning environments 199 Learning objects 200 Knowledge management 200 Communications 201 Marketing 202 Sample strategic marketing analysis 206 Systems thinking about instructional design assessment 208 Input 209 Output 210 Data analysis 211 Acting on findings 212 Additional implications for you 212 References 213 Instructional design resources 215 Index 219 About the author 231

10 List of illustrations Table 3.1 Cultural rubric 56 Table 4.1 Competency model 68 Figure 4.1 Digital citizenship bookmark 80 Table 4.2 Digital citizenship rubric 81 Table 6.1 Instructional theories 111 Table 6.2 Curriculum schedule 112 Table 6.3 Learning objectives and learning tasks 122 Table 6.4 Instructional strategies by type of knowledge 125 Table 8.1 Web 2.0 rubric 197

11 Preface Wanted: Strong vision of a user-focused instructional program and the leadership skills to make it a reality. Function: Manage the library s instruction program through the development of goals and strategies for program implementation, promotion, and assessment; internally coordinate library instruction including class schedules, instructor assignments, support and faculty training, and statistics; work with faculty to develop collaborative teaching and learning projects; create and maintain print and web-based instructional materials. Competencies: Instructional librarian qualifications: interpersonal, communication, and technological skills; knowledge of current educational theories and instructional technologies; a creative, flexible, and problem-solving attitude. These excerpts from current instructional librarian recruitment advertisements attest to the knowledge, skills, and dispositions needed by today s librarians. The 2009 American Library Association Core Competencies of Librarianship includes the principles related to the teaching and learning of concepts, processes and skills used in seeking, evaluating, and using recorded knowledge and information (p. 4). Instructional Design for Librarians aims to help librarians and other information professionals to become competent instructors.

12 xiv Instructional design Today, more than ever, people need to not only find information, but find the right information and know how to use it. Today, more than ever, you as a librarian need to facilitate users physical and intellectual access to the surfeit of sometimes overwhelming and complex information. Instruction has become a core function for most librarians, yet academic preparation of librarians does not always include the principles of instruction, especially that of instructional design. Instructional design is a specific concept: a systematic process to developing education programs. This reflective and iterative process generally involves aligned and congruent analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007). As such, it implies that a congruent set of knowledge, skills, and dispositions is being taught, usually to a specified learner population. However, most librarian instruction is just in time, in response to user needs. In that respect, identifying needs, determining content, and figuring out the most effective way to deliver information are all components of instructional design. What librarians need is a systematic process that not only responds to needs but anticipates needs, based on past experience. By thinking about instruction more systematically, you, as a librarian, can plan more strategically, train staff more efficiently, and provide more intentional and scalable instruction for their clientele. Furthermore, because technology has expanded (perhaps exploded) the world of information, you need to instruct people in the effective use of digital information. For that reason, technology issues are woven throughout the text. This book was originally intended to focus on instructing adults, but the principles of andragogy (the science of teaching adults) applies well to most populations: practicality, blending of intellectual and social activities, building on prior knowledge, and so on. Furthermore, librarians may deal with mixed generations as they instruct, so having a general guide for instructional design that can be applied to many different situations seemed the most logical way to proceed in writing this book. As such, this comprehensive book can be a hands-on guide for day-to-day instructional planning as well as a resource for instructional design courses in library and information science (LIS) programs. As for my own background, I have worked in all types of libraries over the years, instructing many types of learners. I have also taught in formal educational institutions: K 12 to graduate school. Even my teaching credentials include K 12 library media specialist, secondary school English and math, community college, and adult education. Since I wanted to teach librarianship, and recognized the difference between knowing library/information science and instructing in that field, I earned both an MS in Library Science and an EdD in adult education. Thus, based on the experiences of myself and others, as well as extensive reading,

13 Preface xv this volume intends to give all types of librarians the tools to design and implement instruction effectively for their library clientele. Instructional Design for Librarians is arranged with the learner as the starting point, followed by steps in instructional design, its implementation, and its management. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the need for instructional design. Chapter 2 introduces instructional design. It traces its foundations and theories, and explains its framework. Chapter 3 discusses the stakeholders in instructional design: learners, organizations, and instructors. Each entity has associated factors to consider, such as human development and culture, which are explored. Significant preplanning is needed to ensure effective instruction. Chapter 4 discusses needs assessment, outcomes and standards, types of learning, and assessment. Chapter 5 focuses on design content decisions. It examines curricular issues, resource options, and the importance of formats. The relative advantages of using existing resources or creating them are also detailed. Once instruction is planned, it can be delivered. Chapter 6 discusses delivery decisions such as timing, grouping, learning environment, and context. Technology plays an increasingly large part in instructional delivery. General principles and instructional strategies are detailed in Chapter 7. Instruction exists within a system. Chapter 8 explains how to build curriculum systems and learning communities. It also explores how instructional systems relate to other programs and functions. As with resources, instructional design requires effective management. Chapter 9 discusses documentation, support, communication, assessment, and continuous improvement. The book concludes with links to a list of instructional design resources and an index. The book s organization was designed to meld current theories and best practices in order to emphasize how technology can best be integrated into teaching. Throughout the text, instructional examples are provided to show how concepts are implemented for different audiences, different content, and different delivery approaches: from face-to-face to online tutorials and video conferencing. My hope is this approach will prepare readers to compare and contrast instructional design approaches, so that they can make the best choices in a variety of settings and for specific purposes. If so, the book will have achieved its purpose of making every librarian a better teacher.

14 xvi Instructional design References American Library Association Core Competencies of Librarianship. Chicago: American Library Association. corecompetences/finalcorecompstat09.pdf. Reiser, R., and J. Dempsey Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

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