1 Multimedia Networking Yao Wang Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY11201
2 These slides are adapted from the slides made by authors of the book (J. F. Kurose and K. Ross), available from the publisher site for instructors. We would like to thank the authors for the excellent book and the slides. Slides based on Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach Featuring the Internet, 2 nd edition. Jim Kurose, Keith Ross Addison-Wesley, July Chapter 6
3 Multimedia, Quality of Service: What is it? Network Multimedia applications: sending and receiving audio and video ( continuous media ) across networks QoS network provides application with level of performance needed for application to function.
4 Roadmap Multimedia Networking Applications RTP and RTCP Streaming stored audio and video RTSP Internet video phone SIP SIP vs. H.323 Recovery from loss Beyond Best Effort
5 MM Networking Applications Classes of MM applications: 1) Streaming stored audio and video 2) Streaming live audio and video 3) Real-time interactive audio and video Jitter is the variability of packet delays within the same packet stream Fundamental characteristics: Typically delay sensitive end-to-end delay delay jitter But loss tolerant: infrequent losses cause minor glitches Antithesis of data, which are loss intolerant but delay tolerant.
6 Streaming Stored Multimedia Streaming: media stored at source transmitted to client streaming: client playout begins before all data has arrived timing constraint for still-to-be transmitted data: in time for playout
7 Streaming Stored Multimedia: What is it? Cumulative data 1. video recorded 2. video sent network delay 3. video received, played out at client time streaming: at this time, client playing out early part of video, while server still sending later part of video
8 Streaming Stored Multimedia: Interactivity VCR-like functionality: client can pause, rewind, FF, push slider bar 10 sec initial delay OK 1-2 sec until command effect OK RTSP often used (more later) timing constraint for still-to-be transmitted data: in time for playout
9 Streaming Live Multimedia Examples: Internet radio talk show Live sporting event Streaming playback buffer playback can lag tens of seconds after transmission still have timing constraint Interactivity fast forward impossible rewind, pause possible!
10 Interactive, Real-Time Multimedia applications: IP telephony, video conference, distributed interactive worlds end-end delay requirements: audio: < 150 msec good, < 400 msec OK includes application-level (packetization) and network delays higher delays noticeable, impair interactivity session initialization how does callee advertise its IP address, port number, encoding algorithms?
11 Multimedia Over Today s Internet TCP/UDP/IP: best-effort service no guarantees on delay, loss??????? But you said multimedia apps requires QoS and level of performance to be effective!???? Today s Internet multimedia applications use application-level techniques to mitigate (as best possible) effects of delay, loss
12 Roadmap Multimedia Networking Applications RTP and RTCP Streaming stored audio and video RTSP Internet Phone SIP SIP vs. H.323 Recovery from loss Beyond Best Effort
13 Real-Time Protocol (RTP) RTP specifies a packet structure for packets carrying audio and video data a packetization protocol! RFC RTP packet provides payload type identification packet sequence numbering timestamping RTP runs in the end systems. RTP packets are encapsulated in UDP segments Interoperability: If two Internet phone applications run RTP, then they may be able to work together
14 RTP runs on top of UDP RTP libraries provide a transport-layer interface that extend UDP: port numbers, IP addresses payload type identification packet sequence numbering time-stamping
15 RTP Example Consider sending 64 kbps PCM-encoded voice over RTP. Application collects the encoded data in chunks, e.g., every 20 msec = 160 bytes in a chunk. The audio chunk along with the RTP header form the RTP packet, which is encapsulated into a UDP segment. RTP header indicates type of audio encoding in each packet sender can change encoding during a conference. RTP header also contains sequence numbers and timestamps.
16 RTP Header Payload Type (7 bits): Indicates type of encoding currently being used. If sender changes encoding in middle of conference, sender informs the receiver through this payload type field. Payload type 0: PCM mu-law, 64 kbps Payload type 3, GSM, 13 kbps Payload type 7, LPC, 2.4 kbps Payload type 26, Motion JPEG Payload type 31. H.261 Payload type 33, MPEG2 video Sequence Number (16 bits): Increments by one for each RTP packet sent, and may be used to detect packet loss and to restore packet sequence.
17 RTP Header (2) Timestamp field (32 bytes long). Reflects the sampling instant of the first byte in the RTP data packet. For audio, timestamp clock typically increments by one for each sampling period (for example, each 125 usecs for a 8 KHz sampling clock) if application generates chunks of 160 encoded samples, then timestamp increases by 160 for each RTP packet when source is active. Timestamp clock continues to increase at constant rate when source is inactive. SSRC field (32 bits long). Identifies the source of the RTP stream. Each stream in a RTP session should have a distinct SSRC.
18 Real-Time Control Protocol (RTCP) Works in conjunction with RTP. Each participant in RTP session periodically transmits RTCP control packets to all other participants. Each RTCP packet contains sender and/or receiver reports Statistics include number of packets sent, number of packets lost, interarrival jitter, etc. Feedback can be used to control performance Sender may modify its transmissions based on feedback report statistics useful to application
19 RTCP - Continued - For an RTP session there is typically a single multicast address; all RTP and RTCP packets belonging to the session use the multicast address. - RTP and RTCP packets are distinguished from each other through the use of distinct port numbers. - To limit traffic, each participant reduces his RTCP traffic as the number of conference participants increases.
20 RTCP Packets Receiver report packets: fraction of packets lost, last sequence number, average interarrival jitter. Sender report packets: SSRC of the RTP stream, the current time, the number of packets sent, and the number of bytes sent. Source description packets: address of sender, sender's name, SSRC of associated RTP stream. Provide mapping between the SSRC and the user/host name.
21 Synchronization of Streams RTCP can synchronize different media streams within a RTP session. Consider videoconferencing app for which each sender generates one RTP stream for video and one for audio. Timestamps in RTP packets tied to the video and audio sampling clocks not tied to the wallclock time Each RTCP sender-report packet contains (for the most recently generated packet in the associated RTP stream): timestamp of the RTP packet wall-clock time for when packet was created. Receivers can use this association to synchronize the playout of audio and video.
22 RTP and QoS RTP does not provide any mechanism to ensure timely delivery of data or provide other quality of service guarantees. But together with RTCP, it allows monitoring of QoS so that sender and receiver can adjust their operations appropriately RTP encapsulation is only seen at the end systems: it is not seen by intermediate routers. Routers providing best-effort service do not make any special effort to ensure that RTP packets arrive at the destination in a timely matter.
23 Roadmap Multimedia Networking Applications RTP and RTCP Streaming stored audio and video RTSP Internet Phone SIP SIP vs. H.323 Recovery from loss Beyond Best Effort
24 Streaming Stored Multimedia Application-level streaming techniques for making the best out of best effort service: client side buffering use of RTP/UDP or UDP directly versus TCP multiple encodings of multimedia Media Player jitter removal decompression error concealment graphical user interface w/ controls for interactivity
25 Internet multimedia: simplest approach audio or video stored in file files transferred as HTTP object received in entirety at client then passed to player audio, video not streamed: no, pipelining, long delays until playout!
26 Internet multimedia: streaming approach browser GETs metafile browser launches player, passing metafile player contacts server server streams audio/video to player
27 Streaming from a streaming server This architecture allows for non-http protocol between server and media player Can also use UDP instead of TCP.
28 Streaming Multimedia: Client Buffering Cumulative data constant bit rate video transmission variable network delay client video reception buffered video constant bit rate video playout at client client playout delay time Client-side buffering, playout delay compensate for network-added delay, delay jitter
29 Streaming Multimedia: Client Buffering variable fill rate, x(t) constant drain rate, d buffered video Client-side buffering, playout delay compensate for network-added delay, delay jitter
30 Streaming Multimedia: UDP or TCP? UDP TCP server sends at rate appropriate for client (oblivious to network congestion!) often send rate = encoding rate = constant rate then, fill rate = constant rate - packet loss short playout delay (2-5 seconds) to compensate for network delay jitter error recover: time permitting send at maximum possible rate under TCP fill rate fluctuates due to TCP congestion control larger playout delay: smooth TCP delivery rate HTTP/TCP passes more easily through firewalls
31 Streaming Multimedia: client rate(s) 1.5 Mbps encoding 28.8 Kbps encoding Q: how to handle different client receive rate capabilities? 28.8 Kbps dialup 100Mbps Ethernet A: (1) server stores, transmits multiple copies of video, encoded at different rates A: (2) encode video in scalable mode that can be retrieved at different rates! (still at research stage)
32 User Control of Streaming Media: RTSP HTTP Does not target multimedia content No commands for fast forward, etc. RTSP: RFC 2326 Client-server application layer protocol. For user to control display: rewind, fast forward, pause, resume, repositioning, etc What it doesn t do: does not define how audio/video is encapsulated for streaming over network does not restrict how streamed media is transported; it can be transported over RTP/UDP, UDP or TCP does not specify how the media player buffers audio/video
33 RTSP: out of band control FTP uses an out-of-band control channel: A file is transferred over one TCP connection. Control information (directory changes, file deletion, file renaming, etc.) is sent over a separate TCP connection. The out-of-band and inband channels use different port numbers. RTSP messages are also sent out-of-band: RTSP control messages use different port numbers than the media stream: out-of-band. Port 554 The media stream is considered in-band.
34 RTSP Example Scenario: metafile communicated to web browser browser launches player player sets up an RTSP control connection, data connection to streaming server
38 RTSP/RTP Experiment You are provided a server and client program in Java The server encapsulates stored video frames into RTP packets grab video frame, add RTP headers, create UDP segments, send segments to UDP socket include seq numbers and time stamps The server also implements RTSP server functions, in response to client RTSP requests The client extracts RTP headers to obtain payload packets The client also implements RTSP client functions issue play and pause requests You test the client and server programs on two separate computers with your partner Observe streamed video quality with different background traffic between two of you
39 Roadmap Multimedia Networking Applications RTP and RTCP Streaming stored audio and video RTSP Internet Phone SIP SIP vs. H.323 Beyond Best Effort
40 Real-time interactive applications PC-2-PC phone instant messaging services are providing this PC-2-phone Dialpad Net2phone videoconference with Webcams Going to now look at a PC-2-PC Internet phone example in detail
41 Interactive Multimedia: Internet Phone Introduce Internet Phone by way of an example speaker s audio: alternating talk spurts, silent periods. 64 kbps during talk spurt pkts generated only during talk spurts 20 msec chunks at 8 Kbytes/sec: 160 bytes data application-layer header added to each chunk. Chunk+header encapsulated into UDP segment. application sends UDP segment into socket every 20 msec during talkspurt.
42 Internet Phone: Packet Loss and Delay network loss: IP datagram lost due to network congestion (router buffer overflow) delay loss: IP datagram arrives too late for playout at receiver delays: processing, queueing in network; end-system (sender, receiver) delays typical maximum tolerable delay: 400 ms loss tolerance: depending on voice encoding, losses concealed, packet loss rates between 1% and 10% can be tolerated.
43 Delay Jitter Cumulative data constant bit rate transmission variable network delay (jitter) client reception buffered data constant bit rate playout at client client playout delay time Consider the end-to-end delays of two consecutive packets: difference can be more or less than 20 msec
44 Internet Phone: Fixed Playout Delay Receiver attempts to playout each chunk exactly q msecs after chunk was generated. chunk has time stamp t: play out chunk at t+q. chunk arrives after t+q: data arrives too late for playout, data lost Tradeoff for q: large q: less packet loss small q: better interactive experience
45 Fixed Playout Delay Sender generates packets every 20 msec during talk spurt. First packet received at time r First playout schedule: begins at p Second playout schedule: begins at p
46 SIP Session Initiation Protocol Comes from IETF SIP long-term vision All telephone calls and video conference calls take place over the Internet People are identified by names or addresses, rather than by phone numbers. You can reach the callee, no matter where the callee roams, no matter what IP device the callee is currently using.
47 SIP Services Setting up a call Provides mechanisms for caller to let callee know she wants to establish a call Provides mechanisms so that caller and callee can agree on media type and encoding. Provides mechanisms to end call. Determine current IP address of callee. Maps mnemonic identifier to current IP address Call management Add new media streams during call Change encoding during call Invite others Transfer and hold calls
48 Setting up a call to a known IP address Alice INVITE c=in IP m=audio RTP/AVP 0 port 5060 port OK c=in IP m=audio RTP/AVP 3 ACK port Bob Bob's terminal rings Alice s SIP invite message indicates her port number & IP address. Indicates encoding that Alice prefers to receive (PCM ulaw) Bob s 200 OK message indicates his port number, IP address & preferred encoding (GSM) µ Law audio port GSM port SIP messages can be sent over TCP or UDP; here sent over RTP/UDP. time time Default SIP port number is 5060.
49 Setting up a call (more) Codec negotiation: Suppose Bob doesn t have PCM ulaw encoder. Bob will instead reply with 606 Not Acceptable Reply and list encoders he can use. Alice can then send a new INVITE message, advertising an appropriate encoder. Rejecting the call Bob can reject with replies busy, gone, payment required, forbidden. Media can be sent over RTP or some other protocol.
50 Example of SIP message INVITE SIP/2.0 Via: SIP/2.0/UDP From: To: Call-ID: Content-Type: application/sdp Content-Length: 885 c=in IP m=audio RTP/AVP 0 Notes: HTTP message syntax sdp = session description protocol Call-ID is unique for every call. Here we don t know Bob s IP address. Intermediate SIP servers will be necessary. Alice sends and receives SIP messages using the SIP default port number Alice specifies in Via: header that SIP client sends and receives SIP messages over UDP
51 Name translation and user locataion Caller wants to call callee, but only has callee s name or address. Need to get IP address of callee s current host: user moves around DHCP protocol user has different IP devices (PC, PDA, car device) Result can be based on: time of day (work, home) caller (don t want boss to call you at home) status of callee (calls sent to voic when callee is already talking to someone) Service provided by SIP servers: SIP registrar server SIP proxy server
52 SIP Registrar When Bob starts SIP client, client sends SIP REGISTER message to Bob s registrar server (similar function needed by Instant Messaging) Register Message: REGISTER sip:domain.com SIP/2.0 Via: SIP/2.0/UDP From: To: Expires: 3600
53 SIP Proxy Alice sends invite message to her proxy server contains address Proxy responsible for routing SIP messages to callee possibly through multiple proxies. Callee sends response back through the same set of proxies. Proxy returns SIP response message to Alice contains Bob s IP address Note: proxy is analogous to local DNS server
54 Caller places a call to (1) Jim sends INVITE message to umass SIP proxy. (2) Proxy forwards request to upenn registrar server. (3) Upenn server returns redirect response, indicating that it should try Example SIP proxy umass.edu 1 8 SIP client SIP registrar upenn.edu SIP registrar eurecom.fr SIP client (4) umass proxy sends INVITE to eurecom registrar. (5) eurecom registrar forwards INVITE to , which is running keith s SIP client. (6-8) SIP response sent back (9) media sent directly between clients. Note: also a SIP ack message, which is not shown
55 ITU-T H.323 Standard A protocol suite defining multimedia conferencing over Internet (non-qos LAN) Control and data channels sent using TCP Audio and video streams sent using RTP/UDP Specifies the operation of gatekeeper (registra), gateway, multipoint control unit (MCU) system Audio coding Video coding Signaling Control Packetization/ synchronization H.323 G.7xx H.261/3 Q.931 H.245 H.225.0
56 Comparison with H.323 H.323 is a ITU standard for multimedia conferencing. It is a complete, vertically integrated suite of protocols: signaling, registration, admission control, transport (uses RTP/RTCP) and audio /video codecs. SIP is a single component, covering signaling, registration, admission control. Works with RTP, but does not mandate it. Works with various types of codecs. H.323 comes from the ITU (telephony). SIP comes from IETF: Borrows much of its concepts from HTTP. SIP has a Web flavor, whereas H.323 has a telephony flavor. SIP uses the KISS principle: Keep it simple stupid.
57 Roadmap Multimedia Networking Applications RTP and RTCP Streaming stored audio and video RTSP Internet Phone SIP SIP vs. H.323 Recovery from loss Making the best of best-effort FEC Interleaving Error concealment Beyond Best Effort
58 forward error correction (FEC) The simplest FEC code: for every group of n chunks create a redundant chunk by exclusive OR-ing the n original chunks send out n+1 chunks, increasing the bandwidth by factor 1/n. can reconstruct the original n chunks if there is at most one lost chunk from the n+1 chunks Playout delay needs to be fixed to the time to receive all n+1 packets Tradeoff: increase n, less bandwidth waste increase n, longer playout delay increase n, higher probability that 2 or more chunks will be lost
59 Duplicate Important Part (Unequal FEC) piggyback lower quality stream send lower resolution audio stream as the redundant information for example, nominal stream PCM at 64 kbps and redundant stream GSM at 13 kbps. Whenever there is non-consecutive loss, the receiver can conceal the loss. Can also append (n-1)st and (n-2)nd low-bit rate chunk
60 Interleaving Interleaving chunks are broken up into smaller units for example, 4 5 msec units per chunk Packet contains small units from different chunks if packet is lost, still have most of every chunk has no redundancy overhead but adds to playout delay
61 Internet Multimedia: bag of tricks Use UDP to avoid TCP congestion control (delays) for timesensitive traffic Use RTP/UDP to enable QOS monitoring, so that sender and receiver can adjust its operation accordingly Client-side adaptive playout delay: to compensate for delay Server side matches stream bandwidth to available clientto-server path bandwidth chose among pre-encoded stream rates dynamic server encoding rate Error recovery (on top of UDP) FEC, interleaving retransmissions, time permitting Duplicate important parts (unequal error protection) conceal errors: interpolate from nearby data
62 Roadmap Multimedia Networking Applications RTP and RTCP Streaming stored audio and video RTSP Internet Phone SIP SIP vs. H.323 Recovery from loss Beyond Best Effort
63 Beyond Best Effort On-going efforts/proposals Scheduling and policing within the current network structure Next generation Internet RSVP: signaling for resource reservations Differentiated Services (DiffServ): differential guarantees Integrated Services (IntServ): firm guarantees For more details, see [Kurose&Ross]
64 What you should know Two types of multimedia applications and requirements One-way streaming vs. interactive How they differ in delay, loss, bandwidth requirement? What is RTP/RTCP? How does it enable QoS monitoring? Which layer does it sit on? Does it work with TCP or UDP? Streaming pre-encoded video What is network jitter? How to smooth jitter at the receiver for continuous play? What is play-out delay? What are the trade-offs offered by adjusting the play-out delay? What does RTSP do and don t do? What layer does RTSP belong? Interactive applications (IP-phone) What is acceptable delay? What are the trade-offs offered by varying the delay? What does SIP do and don t do? What layer does SIP belong? What are some of the error control and recovery techniques? What are some of the alternatives in next generation Internet?
65 References Jim Kurose, Keith Ross, Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach Featuring the Internet, 2 nd edition. Addison-Wesley, Chap Henning Schulzrinne s sites for RTP, RTSP, SIP: (rtsp,sip)
Multimedia Networking Yao Wang Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY11201 email@example.com These slides are adapted from the slides made by authors of the book (J. F. Kurose and K. Ross), available from
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(International Journal of Computer Science & Management Studies) Vol. 17, Issue 01 Performance Evaluation of AODV, OLSR Routing Protocol in VOIP Over Ad Hoc Dr. Khalid Hamid Bilal Khartoum, Sudan firstname.lastname@example.org
Understanding Latency in IP Telephony By Alan Percy, Senior Sales Engineer Brooktrout Technology, Inc. 410 First Avenue Needham, MA 02494 Phone: (781) 449-4100 Fax: (781) 449-9009 Internet: www.brooktrout.com
Introduction This 4-day course offers a practical introduction to 'hands on' VoIP engineering. Voice over IP promises to reduce your telephony costs and provides unique opportunities for integrating voice
2.1 Introduction In this section can provide the necessary background on the structure of VoIP applications and on their component, and the transmission protocols generally used in VoIP. 2.2 Voice over
Real-time apps and Quality of Service Focus What transports do applications need? What network mechanisms provide which kinds of quality assurances? Topics Real-time versus Elastic applications Adapting
Broadband Networks Prof. Dr. Abhay Karandikar Electrical Engineering Department Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture - 29 Voice over IP So, today we will discuss about voice over IP and internet