1 Leading Anti-Bias Early Childhood Programs A GUIDE FOR CHANGE APPENDIXES A and B Louise Derman-Sparks Debbie LeeKeenan John Nimmo Teachers College, Columbia University New York and London
2 APPENDIX A Resources for Building Anti-Bias Early Childhood Programs
3 Appendix A: Resources for Building Anti-Bias Early Childhood Programs 3 This selective resource list recommends books for deepening your understanding of anti-bias education and its various components. We grouped titles under the following topic headings: Working with Children, Working with Teachers, Working with Families, and Resources for Families. Each book includes additional resources for you to pursue. Resources for Working with Children Bisson, Julie. (1997). Celebrate! An anti-bias guide to enjoying holidays in early childhood programs. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press. Describes how to create a holiday policy that works for your group of teachers and families, thus offering a way to resolve the issue of including holidays in an anti-bias approach. Brown, Babette. (2008). Equality in action: A way forward with persona dolls. Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom: Trentham Books. Written by a leader in anti-bias education in the United Kingdom, this book discusses the purpose of using persona dolls as a technique for engaging young children in exploring issues of diversity, bias, and fairness. Although the examples come from the ethnic and cultural diversity found in the United Kingdom, the substance of the content is equally applicable in the United States. California Department of Education & WestEd. (2013). Infant/toddler caregiving: A guide to culturally sensitive care (2nd ed.). Sacramento: Author. Explores central issues and provides strategies for creating programs that meet the needs of the diversity of infants and toddlers in current programs. Cronin, Sharon, & Sosa-Masso, Carmen.(2003). Soy bilingue: Language, culture, and young Latino children. Seattle, WA: Center for Linguistic and Cultural Democracy. Emphasizes the key integration of language and culture in this accessible theoretical framework and practical approach for supporting children in early childhood settings to be bilingual and bicultural. Curtis, Deb, & Carter, Margie. (2011). Reflecting children s lives: A handbook for planning your child-centered curriculum. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press. Provides ways to build both the necessary foundation and basic culture for integrating anti-bias education into an early childhood program. Derman-Sparks, Louise, & Edwards, Julie. (2010). Anti-Bias education for young children and ourselves. Washington, DC: NAEYC. The foundation book for anti-bias education: It addresses working with teachers and families as well as with children. Program leaders need to be familiar with it in order to implement the ideas in our book. Derman-Sparks, Louise, & Ramsey, Patty (with Edwards, Julie Olsen). (2011). What if all the kids are White: Anti-Bias, multicultural education with young children and families (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Written to address the frequently asked question about the significance, goals, and strategies of anti-bias education for White children and families. It explores how White children develop a raical identity and how adults can foster the construction of a White antiracist identity. The book offers strategies that focus on working with White children, teachers, and families on the goals of anti-bias education. Gonzalez-Mena, Janet. (2008). Diversity in early care and education: Honoring differences (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Examines the role of culture in communication and key childrearing decisions by families and caregivers in early childhood programs. This book provides clear guidance on working with young children and families in order to honor and negotiate differences in values. Hoffman, Eric. (2004). Magic capes, amazing powers: Transforming superhero play in the classroom. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press. Explores the relationships between children s
4 Leading Anti-Bias Early Childhood Programs 4 understanding of power, fairness, and anti-bias issues in relationship to superhero play and suggests ways to turn superhero play into productive interactions. Meier, Daniel. (2004). The young child s memory for words. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. A practical guide for supporting the continuing development of children s home language while also learning English. It places the learning of first and second languages in the context of literacy as a dynamic human relationship that includes many forms of communication. Pelo, Ann. (2008). Rethinking early childhood education. Milwaukee, WI: Rethinking Schools. A collection of short articles by teachers practicing anti-bias education in various types of early childhood programs. They cover a wide range of issues and strategies and demonstrate how anti-bias education is doable. Pelo, Ann, & Davidson, Fran. (2000). That s not fair: A teacher s guide to activism with young children. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press. Based on stories from early childhood classrooms, the authors take on the challenges of anti-bias activism with children, based on developmentally appropriate practices and a respect for children s ideas and sense of equity. Ramsey, Patricia. G. (2004). Teaching and learning in a diverse world (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Teachers College Press. An important foundation book for implementing anti-bias/multicultural education. In addition to strategies for working with children and families, the book summarizes the pioneering and current research about children s identity and attitude development related to gender, race, class, and other social identities. Souto-Manning, Mariana. (2013). Multicultural teaching in the early childhood classroom: Approaches, strategies, and tools, preschool 2nd grade. New York, NY: Teacher College Press. Grounded in transformative multicultural education and critical theory, the author draws on stories from early childhood classrooms to explore innovative strategies including teacher and child inquiry, culture circles, home funds of knowledge, and the use of technology. Sprung, Barbara, Froschl, Merle, & Gropper, Nancy. (2010). Supporting boys learning: Strategies for teacher practice, pre-k Grade 3. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Addresses a central and often overlooked issue in early childhood education, written by authors who are pioneers in diversity and equity work. It is based on pilot work in several classrooms. Tabor, Patton, Snow, Catherine, & Paez, Mariela. (2008). One child, two languages: A guide for early childhood educators of children learning English as a second language (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing This accessible book integrates theory, research, and practice about dual-language learners. Key topics include how to support language and literacy development at school while honoring home cultures and languages, working with families, and appropriate assessment. Wolpert, Ellen. (2005). Start seeing diversity: The basic guide to an anti-bias classroom. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press. Based on groundbreaking work in a child-care center serving low-income families, the book details a comprehensive approach to integrating anti-bias education into ongoing curriculum. Can be bought alone or as part of a book plus DVD set. York, Stacey. (2003). Roots and wings: Affirming culture in early childhood programs (Rev. ed.). St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press. Accessible resource for teachers on culturally relevant/anti-bias education that includes both background information on culture, identity development, and bilingual education, as well as detailed objectives, activities, and materials for the classroom.
5 Appendix A: Resources for Building Anti-Bias Early Childhood Programs 5 Resources for Working with Teachers Carter, Margie, & Curtis, Deb. (1994). Training teachers: A harvest of theory and practice. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press. Offers strategies for extending teacher s selfawareness, knowledge, and skills related to the many aspects of early childhood education, including cultural diversity. Carter, Margie, & Curtis, Deb. (2010) The visionary director: A handbook for dreaming, organizing, and improvising in your center (2nd ed.). St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press. A foundation resource that offers multiple ideas and strategies for building an early childhood program in which anti-bias education can thrive. Includes ways to engage teachers in a learning community that supports deepening self-knowledge, understanding of cultural diversity, and critical reflection about one s work. Casper, Virginia, & Shultz, Steven. (1999). Gay parents/straight schools: Building communication and trust. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Based on a case study of one primary school, and applicable to early childhood programs, the authors discuss the themes in the experiences of children in gay families and suggests a range of strategies for ensuring that children thrive and families feel welcome and respected. Delpit, Lisa, & Dowdy, Joanne Kilgour (Eds.). (2008). The skin that we speak: Thoughts on language and culture in the classroom. New York, NY: The New Press. (Originally published in 2002) This book explores the critical issue of language and the interaction between language diversity, cultural identity, and racism. A foundation discussion for teachers appreciating the importance of bilingual/dual-language development. Howard, Gary. (2006). We can t teach what we don t know: White teachers, multiracial schools (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Teachers College Press. An excellent resource for reflecting in greater depth on the impact of White privilege and White identity development in working with children, families, and colleagues from an antibias perspective. Written for elementary school teachers, it is equally relevant to ECCE. Jacobson, Tamara. (2003). Confronting our discomforts: Clearing the way for anti-bias in early childhood. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Offers a conceptual framework and methods for engaging teachers in developing the selfawareness essential for carrying out anti-bias education with children. Kendall, Frances. (2012). Understanding White privilege: Creating pathways to authentic relationships across race. (2nd ed.) New York: Routledge. While written specifically for corporate and academic settings, this book offers a clear and thoughtful approach to developing relationships across race. The author examines the impact of White privilege on workplace interactions and provides strategies for becoming an ally. Ladson-Billings, Gloria. (2009). The dreamkeepers: Successful teachers of African-American children (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Based on interviews with and observations of elementary school teachers skilled in culturally relevant practice, the book identifies the key aspects of pedagogy, curriculum, and relationships needed to be inclusive of differences in cultural background in the classroom. Nieto, Sonia. (2013). Finding joy in teaching students of diverse backgrounds: Culturally responsive and socially just practices in U.S. classrooms. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Based on interviews with teachers from varying backgrounds and settings, the author shares insight into the personal and professional challenges and successes involved in culturally responsive teaching in diverse schools. Her stories consider how teachers bring their identities into public schools beset by standardization.
6 Leading Anti-Bias Early Childhood Programs 6 Tatum, Beverly. (2003). Why are all the Black kids sitting together in the cafeteria: And other conversations about race. New York, NY: Basic Books. Discusses the research about children s and adults social identity development in a very accessible manner. This is a foundation book for teachers and program leaders who implement anti-bias education. Also see Derman-Sparks & Edwards (2010), Derman-Sparks & Ramsey (2011), and Ramsey (2004) in the Working with Children section for activities to extend teachers understanding of themselves and of working with children. Resources for Working with Families Allen, JoBeth. (2007). Creating welcoming schools: A practical guide to home school partnerships with diverse families. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Drawing on a framework of culturally relevant teaching and family funds of knowledge, the author eloquently describes an in-depth process and specific activities for building inclusive partnerships with families in an elementary school setting. Gonzales-Mena, Janet. (2013). 50 strategies for communicating and working with diverse families (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Pearson. Practical strategies for partnering with families and guidance on how to develop useful programs that include families and individuals of all cultural backgrounds. Strategies reflect current themes and research. Keyser, Janice. (2006). From parents to partners: Building a family-centered early childhood program. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press; and Washington, DC: NAEYC. The foundation book about ways to create school family relations essential for implementing an effective anti-bias approach in an early childhood program. Marsh, Monica M., & Turner-Vorbeck, Tammy. (2007). Other kinds of families: Embracing diversity in schools. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. This book considers a range of cultural and equity issues related to diversity of family structures and cultural backgrounds, and offers strategies for creating welcoming environments for all families. Valdes, Guadalupe. (1996). Con respeto: Bridging the distances between culturally diverse families and schools An ethnographic portrait. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. A case study of several new immigrant families, this book will help both program leaders and teachers understand the experiences and needs of new immigrant families and better prepare them for building effective, respectful relationships between family and school. Several books in the first two sections also discuss issues and strategies for working with families. See, for example, Casper and Schultz (1999); Derman-Sparks and Edwards (2010); Derman-Sparks and Ramsey (2011); and Gonzalez-Mena (2008). Resources for Families Bertelli, Yantra, Silverman, Jennifer, & Talbot, Sarah. (2009). My baby rides the short bus: The unabashedly human experience of raising kids with disabilities. Oakland, CA: PM Press. An anthology of first-person stories by parents of children with special needs that is supportive, funny, provocative, and real. Kelly, Matt, & Root, Maria. (2003). Multiracial child resource book. Seattle, WA: Mavin Foundation. Written from both a developmental and mixedheritage-specific approach, this book provides a complex portrait of the mixed-race experience from birth to adulthood. Practical resource for families and professionals. Nakazawa, Donna. (2004) Does anybody else look like me? A parent s guide to raising multiracial children. Boston, MA: DeCapo Press.
7 Appendix A: Resources for Building Anti-Bias Early Childhood Programs 7 Drawing on psychological research and input from more than fifty multiracial families, this book addresses the special questions and concerns facing these families, explaining how we can best prepare multiracial children of all ages to make their way confidently in our color-conscious world. Steiner, Naomi (with Hayes, Susan). (2010). 7 steps to raising a bilingual child. New York, NY: AMA- COM Press. This book helps parents in both monolingual and multilingual families determine and achieve their bilingual goals for their child, whether those goals are understanding others, the ability to speak a second language, reading and/or writing in two languages, or some combination of all of these. Wardy, M. (2014). Redefining girly: How parents can fight the stereotyping and sexualizing of girlhood, from birth to tween. Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press. Helpful information, resources, and practical advice on how to encourage children to think critically about the stereotypical and sexualized messages that surround us in the media and society. Resource Websites The Children s Peace Education & Anti-Bias Library (www.childpeacebooks.org/cpb) is a collection of children s books reflecting a range of identity, diversity, and social justice/ anti-bias issues, organized into several strands. These are: Knowledge of Self and Connection to Others, Joy in Diversity, Creative Conflict Resolution & Sense of Justice, Imagination & Playfulness, Care & Love of Nature, and Global Awareness. All books in the library must have vivid, enticing language; beautiful art work; and stories or poems that delight. They cannot perpetuate stereotypes about any group of people or carry hurtful messages that misinform children about their world. The Cooperative Children s Book Center (CCBC) (ccbc.education.wisc.edu) is a noncirculating examination, study, and research library for early childhood, primary, and secondary educators. Its early childhood collection covers a wide range of topics, including children s books about diversity and anti-bias issues. Oyate, The People, (oyate.org) is a Native American/American Indian advocacy and education organization, which reviews children s literature and advocates for Native Americans/American Indians to be portrayed with historical accuracy, cultural appropriateness, and without anti-indian bias and stereotypes, and teaches others to do the same. Their work includes critical evaluation of books and curricula with Indian themes and conducting workshops on Teaching Respect for Native Peoples. Rethinking Schools (rethinkingschools.org) publishes an excellent journal about current issues in education and teaching strategies for primary school through high school. It occasionally has articles about early childhood education. Teaching for Change (www.teachingforchange. org/books/bookstore and articles) offers outstanding resources for working with children from preschool through high school and a large selection of anti-bias books for children and adolescents. It has a resource list of young children s anti-bias books and an occasional blog about early childhood issues. Teaching Tolerance (www.tolerance.org) is a project of the Southern Poverty Law Center. They have a wealth of resources, activities, and articles about anti-bias issues and topics for educators of children of all ages. They offer a weekly newsletter, biannual journal, and free curriculum materials to teachers.
8 APPENDIX B Self-Study Guide for Reflecting on Anti-Bias Curriculum Planning and Implementation Note. Excerpted from Becoming a culturally responsive early childhood educator: A tool to support reflection by teachers embarking on the anti-bias journey, by D. W. Chen, J. Nimmo, & H. Fraser, in Multicultural Perspectives, 11(2), pp Reprinted by permission of the National Association for Multicultural Education (NAME) (http://www.nameorg.org) and Taylor & Francis (www.tandfonline.com).
9 Appendix A: Resources for Building Anti-Bias Early Childhood Programs 9 NOT YET: This is new territory for me / Not applicable to my age group now SOMETIMES: I have a beginning awareness of this area USUALLY: But it still requires conscious effort for me CONSISTENTLY: I do this with ease now THE NEXT STEPS FOR ME: My goal is... A. RAISING SELF-AWARENESS TAKING A LOOK WITHIN 1. Am I aware of my own cultural identity and history? How comfortable am I about who I am? 2. Am I aware of biases I may hold? 3. Do I view diversity and exceptionalities as strengths? Do I believe that ALL children can succeed regardless of their race, gender, ethnicity, language, or physical disabilities? 4. Am I able to give accurate, honest answers to children s questions about differences and am I comfortable admitting when I do not know the answer to a question? 5. Am I able to intervene with ease when I hear comments that exclude someone, show bias, or are discriminatory? Do I know what to say and how to say it with ease? Do I model ways for responding to bias? 6. Do I have access to a colleague who can act as a trusted ally in my diversity and anti-bias work? Other:
10 Leading Anti-Bias Early Childhood Programs 10 NOT YET: This is new territory for me / Not applicable to my age group now SOMETIMES: I have a beginning awareness of this area USUALLY: But it still requires conscious effort for me CONSISTENTLY: I do this with ease now THE NEXT STEPS FOR ME: My goal is... B. THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 1. Are the materials and equipment in my classroom easily accessible to ALL (e.g., can a child or adult in a wheelchair get around the classroom or reach all materials?) 2. Do all children have an equal opportunity to participate in activities (e.g., girls have an equal opportunity to use large motor toys and boys have an equal opportunity to do crafts)? 3. a. Does my classroom display pictures of the children and their families? b. Are there materials that relate to the children s background and experiences (e.g., pictures of their houses or familiar places)? 4. Does my classroom provide equal representation of images, materials, music, and so on... that reflect: a. different cultures and ethnicities (e.g., homes, foods, transportation, rural/urban scenes)? b. different family styles and compositions (e.g., step families, gay/lesbian families, single parent families)? c. different abilities (e.g., physical, visual, auditory )? d. different age groups across the life span, from infants through the elderly? e. different life styles (e.g., farming, city)? f. different genders in nonstereotypical roles (e.g., women in construction, men taking care of children)? 5. Is there a fair balance of dolls and clothing that represent male/ female and different ethnicities/ skin color? 6. Is there a large variety of art materials that students can use to express themselves and allow them to accurately represent their physical characteristics (e.g., clay, paints, pencils, natural materials, blocks)? Other:
11 Appendix A: Resources for Building Anti-Bias Early Childhood Programs 11 NOT YET: This is new territory for me / Not applicable to my age group now SOMETIMES: I have a beginning awareness of this area USUALLY: But it still requires conscious effort for me CONSISTENTLY: I do this with ease now THE NEXT STEPS FOR ME: My goal is... C. THE PEDAGOGICAL ENVIRONMENT 1. Are my verbal and non-verbal messages free of stereotypes and hidden biases? In my intended and unintended messages to children: a. Do I effectively provide opportunities for students to value and explore diversity in themselves and others? b. Are the colors black and brown equally available and valued as other colors in my classroom? c. Do I actively encourage critical thinking about differences, stereotypes, and biases? d. Do I teach about minority and nonminority groups who have devoted their lives to ending injustice? 2. Do I equally acknowledge ALL children on their efforts and accomplishments? Have I enabled ALL children to feel that their work is appreciated and respected by me? 3. Do I hold and convey high expectations of ALL children, seeing and treating all as capable of learning and achievement? 4. Do I see and treat EACH child both as an individual and as a member of different social and cultural group? 5. In my communications and curriculum, do I recognize that children may be cared for by family members other than parents and/or have family composition other than a male/female parent? 6. Do I recognize and respect children s individual and culturally based learning styles: a. Do I effectively differentiate instruction to reach the diverse learning styles of the children in my classroom? b. Do I integrate other methods of communication to support children s learning (e.g., visual, auditory)? c. Do I use a variety of methods to evaluate children s learning and academic performance? 7. Do I promote cooperation and integration of children from diverse groups through the curriculum and classroom routines? 8. Do I help children critically think about fairness issues in daily classroom activities and routines? Do I help them problem-solve about things that are unfair? Other:
12 Leading Anti-Bias Early Childhood Programs 12 NOT YET: This is new territory for me / Not applicable to my age group now SOMETIMES: I have a beginning awareness of this area USUALLY: But it still requires conscious effort for me CONSISTENTLY: I do this with ease now THE NEXT STEPS FOR ME: My goal is... D. RELATIONSHIPS WITH FAMILIES AND COMMUNITY 1. Do I initiate conversations in a culturally responsive way with all families? Do I use all parents name when speaking with them even when their names are in a different language? 2. Do I provide the option for providing translations of newsletters and at meetings for families who do not speak English? 3. When food is provided at classroom functions, is it food that is reflective of the community and families? 4. Do I support different transitions and caregiving routines (e.g., napping, diapering, feeding) while being aware of the school/center policies? Do I respond to their requests respectfully and fairly? 5. Do I genuinely work to reach an agreement with families when there is disagreement about preferences and beliefs when caring for the children? 6. Do I truly welcome family involvement in my classroom? If they are unable to come in, do I encourage involvement in other ways? 7. Do I include families in creating classroom environment and curriculum experiences for children? 8. Do I have enough knowledge of the local community to extend children s learning beyond the classroom walls? Am I able to effectively use resources and other adults in the community to enhance children s learning about diversity and bias? Other:
What If All the Kids are White? Multicultural/Anti-Bias Education with White Children Louise Derman-Sparks & Patricia G. Ramsey- 5/02 This article is a work in progress. We want to open a dialogue on the
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