Vybzing Youth Forum: Citizen Security Caribbean Development Bank Grand Cayman May 17, 2012

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1 Vybzing Youth Forum: Citizen Security Caribbean Development Bank Grand Cayman May 17, 2012

2 VYBZING ZONE Instructions You are the Experts Eliminate sophistication and ignite childlike Creativity Safe Space VYBZING Introductions

3 Caribbean Human Development Report on Citizen Security Trends

4 Caribbean HDR Citizen Security Citizen security is defined as: The social situation in which all persons are free to enjoy their fundamental rights and public institutions have sufficient capacity, against a backdrop of the rule of law, to guarantee the exercise of those rights and respond efficiently when they are violated.

5 Caribbean HDR The Purpose The central idea of this report is that the Caribbean countries need to complete the shift from state security to citizens security. Changing the relationship between the state and citizen by: Responsive and accountable institutions Greater social integration Active citizen involved in co-production.

6 Caribbean HDR Research Primary Data the Victimization Survey Research sites: The survey was applied in seven countries within the English Dutch Speaking Caribbean, Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago Interviews: A total of 11,155 interviews were conducted in all of the research countries. Period November 2010 February 2011 Sample survey reflected key demographic characteristics of adult population in each country

7 Caribbean HDR Research Secondary Data Official Crime Statistics Results from other surveys in the Caribbean were used to validate survey results

8 Rate per 100,000 Selected Findings 70 Prevalence of Crime Homicide Rate for Selected Caribbean countries (per 100,000) Antigua Jamaica Guyana Barbados Trinidad and Tobago St. Lucia

9 Selected Findings Prevalence of the Gang Problem Table 3.1: Criminal gangs by country in the Caribbean Antigua Barbados St. Lucia Guyana Trinidad and Tobago Suriname Jamaica Caribbean There are criminal gangs in your neighbourhood 12.7% 10.0% 18.7% 14.0% 10.4% 10.4% 11.1% 13.0% Criminal gangs are a big problem in your neighbourhood (if there is a gang problem) 26.3% 18.7% 40.5% 29.7% 39.3% 32.1% 42.0% 33.4%

10 Selected Findings Prevalence of Feelings of security Public Security in the Caribbean, 2010 (Perception of security- %) 78.7% 57.6% 45.5% 45.8% 42.7% 35.8% 37.7% 24.7% Total Region Antigua Barbados Guyana Jamaica St. Lucia Suriname Trinidad & Tobago

11 Risk Factors Trends Inequality Education Youth unemployment Social Cohesion

12 Risk Factors Inequality and Murder Rate Jamaica Haiti Dominican Republic Guyana Trinidad & Tobago Gini coefficient of income inequality

13 Risk Factors Murder rate versus Education Jamaica Dominican Republic Guyana Trinidad & Tobago Barbados Average years of education for adults

14 Cayman Youth Perspectives on Inequality The youth expressed anger, frustration and humiliation because of their living conditions and socioeconomic status. they tease me in school and refuse to play with me because they say that I smell but miss we do not have enough money to buy deodorant or new underwear and clothes. when we go to some of our friends houses and witness something we don t have we feel like if we are at the bottom of the list. It is frustrating really frustrating. our schools don t teach the good education like other schools schools just want to suck the money out of poor people. In Cayman is not black versus white but rich versus poor. people look down on poor people as if they don t have any confidence in us; they think we can t do their high jobs. You have a different attitude towards your goals like you trying but cannot get anywhere, so you quit maybe sell drugs

15 Working Groups Youth Self-Assessment How secure do you feel in your school? Community? Country? How concerned are you about being a victim of crime? How concerned are you about gangs in your neighborhood? Do you have gangs in your community? School? Why do you think lower income persons and persons with lower levels of education are more likely to be murdered? Who s failing who: Young Persons or School? In what ways? What alternatives are there to for young persons that are not able to excel in school?

16 The Main Pain: #1 Problem Frequency Percent 1. Cost of food Cost of living Unemployment Violent Crime Housing Poverty A.Bernard 16

17 Are you ready to be a Change Agent? Without changing our pattern of thought, we will not be able to solve problems we created with our current patterns of thought. Change begins with YOU! Albert Einstein What are the Characteristics of a Change Agent needed to successfully address the challenges faced by Caymanian Youth?

18 Risk Factors Measures of Social Cohesion Personal feelings of social cohesion Participate in community activities Involved in community organizations/activities Work together w/others to improve community 28% 31% 36% Feel respected by the people who live here Feel loyal to the people of this community Proud of being in your community Feel like you belong in this community 54% 55% 58% 62% Living here gives me a sense of community 77%

19 Policy Orientation Social Citizenship = Social Justice Social Citizenship is defined as: A society in which economic and social rights of the population are respected and individuals have the: right to participate in the making of policy choices and the ability to capitalize on existing best practices to shape the future for subsequent generations

20 Policy Orientation A Social Justice Approach to Security Support for social intervention Invest more in education Invest more in programmes for Young people Invest more in job creation Invest more in communities of urban poor Invest more in reducing poverty

21 Policy Orientation Voluntarism (%) Percent Willing to Work Together with Others to Reduce Violent Crime Antigua Barbados St. Lucia Guyana Trinidad & Tobago Suriname Jamaica Willingness to Work Together

22 Messages 2. Empower Young People by Investing in their Development

23 Messages Put YOUNG people at the centre 3. Opportunities matter! However, a sense of belonging, participating in political and community life, being respected by others, having ones rights respected also matters, and in the case of young people in particular, perhaps even more. 4. Social cohesion is generally higher in communities without street gangs and lower in communities with street gangs.

24 Messages 5. Security efforts are more effective when the rights of the people are respected and the people are involved as active agents and co-producers of their own security (eg, drug dealing; domestic violence) 6. The institutions of the justice system are in need of fundamental change to make them more responsive, more accountable and more effective 7. There Is Considerable Popular Support for Social Crime Prevention. -

25 Working Groups What is your vision for change? Begin with clearly understanding your perspective of the problem (the main pain) Visualize the change you desire What meaningful difference will occur once the problem is remedied

26 Recommendations Youth: Opportunities for Change Institutionalising youth in conflict with the law should be a last resort. Greater attention should be paid to non-custodial sentences, restorative justice and alternative means for providing care and protection Develop programmes for promoting pro-social behaviour (in schools, after school, voluntary youth service type) Develop a systematic regional system for monitoring youth development and for evidence based programming including; development of a Youth Development Index which would be used as part of the process of monitoring the implementation of the CARICOM Plan of Action on Youth

27 Recommendations What works Pro Social training Pre School/ Early Ed n Home visitation Parenting Training Educational incentives for at-risk students Educational enrichment programmes School Dating Violence Prevention Mentorship and Family Therapy What doesn t Boot Camps Drug resistance education Gun buy backs Individual counselling Shock probation or parole Residential Programme in Psyciatric/correctional institutions Progammes modelled on basic military training Peer mediation Multi-component gang resistant training WHO Implementing the Recommendations of the World Report on Violence and Health, 2006

28 Opportunities for Change What are the social, economic and political factors that could help you achieve your vision? What programs (best-practices) exist that provide related services and how do/can they work together to achieve the vision? Start with what exists, and ask how can they be better utilized? Ask yourself how can you be better utilized? (Inspiring, Informed, Engaged)

29 Social Citizenship in Action Building consensus and institutional capacities, Mobilizing resources, and Insuring democratic participation required for effective implementation of best practices

30 Social Citizenship in Action To create a context for social citizenship for youth development that can achieve these outcomes would require: the strategic and meaningful engagement of youth and civil society with government, the private sector and international actors as well as continued and effective investment in education, entrepreneurship and job attachment, diversionary programs, youth affairs and sports.

31 Ok Alright You ve got your vision? You re involved in making it real? Now Take the Change Agent Pledge Be a positive role model for social citizenship in action Lead the Way! Use your Change Agent skills Make ethical decisions and Recognize the global implications of your actions Envision and create positive scenarios for the future of society Involve and inspire others and negotiate across differences Act with integrity and courage Tolerate ambiguity and cope effectively with change

32 Thank You

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