Future of Electric Distribution Dialogue

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1 Future of Electric Distribution Dialogue Webinar Series Session I: State of U.S. Electric Distribution July 11, :00 3:30 p.m. EDT Session I: State of U.S. Electric Distribution 2:00 p.m. Opening Comments Honorable Orjiakor Isiogu, Commissioner, Michigan Public Service Commission David Owens, EEI 2:10 p.m. Agenda Overview Moderator, Paul DeMartini 2:15 p.m. California Institute for Energy & Environment Presentation Dr. Alexandra von Meier 2:35 p.m. EPRI Presentation Mark McGranaghan Jared Green 2:55 p.m. Regulator Key Questions to Consider Moderator, Paul DeMartini 3:05 p.m. Facilitated Q&A 3:30 p.m. Adjournment 2 1

2 Commissioner Isiogu s s Remarks David Owens David Owens Remarks 2

3 Current State of the U.S. Distribution System EEI Webinar July 11, :00 3:30 p.m. EDT Alexandra von Meier Co-Director, Electric Grid Research Barbara Tyran Director, Washington & State Relations Jared Green Project Manager, Smart Grid 5 Transmission vs Distribution 6 3

4 Distribution System Overview US Electric Distribution system has about 60,000 substations and roughly 500,000 circuits with 6 million miles of wire and cable serving 144 million customers 7 Diversity of US distribution circuits: 500,000 circuits, but no two are exactly alike Differences within and among utilities are historical geographic climate topography population density socio economics Differences drive load characteristics, system design and operation many local idiosyncracies... Distribution systems are extremely data rich 8 4

5 Distribution System Overview 9 Central Generation Distribution substation Transmission substation Distribution transformer

6 Transmission System Redundant Design 11 Distribution System Radial Design radial vs. transmission s redundant network designed for one way power flow

7 Distribution System Design Old design paradigm: If it works at peak load, it always works. Not. 13 Distribution Systems: Protection Key Attributes: Mainly radial lines; network systems in urban centers Location of fault determine # of customers interrupted Limited number of sensors restricts ability to determine location of fault 14 7

8 Distribution Protection A Key aspect of radial architecture: Coordination of circuit protection C 15 Distribution Protection Zone A 16 8

9 Distribution Protection Zone A Zone B 17 Distribution Protection Zone A Zone B Zone C 18 9

10 Distribution Protection Zone A Zone B Zone C Zone D 19 Distribution Protection with DER 20 10

11 Distribution Protection with DER SUBSTATION FEEDER Breaker Increased Fault Current May Cause Fuse-Breaker Coordination Problems Fuse Lateral Fault DG 21 Distribution Protection with DER SUBSTATION Breaker Fault Breaker FEEDER This breaker trips too! Lateral DG Note: substation radial feeder protection is not usually equipped with directional relays and so substation relay cannot discriminate between forward or reverse faults

12 Distribution Engineering: Variation of circuits creates engineering challenges with DER Distribution circuit design challenges: Less help from statistics Irregularities play a greater role load (real power) power factor (reactive power) voltage drop phase imbalance bl generation 23 Distribution System Loading: Macro View at Substation Summer Peaking Substation MW Winter Peaking Substation :00 AM 2:00 AM 4:00 AM 6:00 AM 8:00 AM MW 12:00 AM 2:00 AM 4:00 AM 6:00 AM 8:00 AM 10:00 AM 10:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 PM 2:00 PM 4:00 PM 6:00 PM 8:00 PM 10:00 PM 12:00 AM 2:00 PM 4:00 PM 6:00 PM 8:00 PM 10:00 PM 12:00 AM 24 12

13 Distribution System Loading: Micro View on feeder w/der Graphs courtesy of Tom Bialek, SDG&E 25 Voltage regulation ± 5% 26 13

14 Voltage regulation ± 5% Conservation Voltage Reduction 27 permissible range violation Voltage regulation Substation transformer allows adjustment of initial voltage level through moveable connection (load tap changer, LTC). If feeder is long and voltage drop is too steep to stay within range throughout, out, further adjustments are made along the way (voltage regulators or capacitors). violation violation 28 14

15 Real vs Reactive Power Real vs Reactive Power w/der 30 15

16 Opportunity for Improvement Need for End to End Efficiency Framework The power industry uses approximately 12 15% of the electricity produced (nearly 300 billion kwh in T&D losses in US for example) Industry should look at entire electricity chain for efficiency improvement opportunities & to reduce carbon footprint 31 Distribution System Efficiency: Green Circuits Project Distribution Efficiency Improving Opportunity 1. Reduce Distribution Line losses 2. Reduce Equipment Losses 3. Improve Utilization Technologies to Improve Distribution Efficiency 1A. Re Conductoring 1B. Phase Balancing 1C. Capacitor Placement, Var Control Strategy 2A. Distribution Transformers (High Efficiency and Amorphous Metal Transformers) 3A. Voltage Optimization/Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) 3B. Smart Distribution Control 32 16

17 Distribution System Efficiency: Green Circuits Project Example Source: EPRI Distribution Green Circuits Collaboration Project 33 Distribution Reliability: Aging infrastructure compounding traditional reliability management External influences are always nearby weather trees animals Vehicles...? Aging infrastructure is increasingly a major factor Average age of systems are increasing Individual components are operating beyond expected life Dynamic operating conditions may accelerate failures of older equipment U.S. Distribution Equipment Age 30% Beyond Expected Life 49% Near Expected Life Within Expected Life 21% Source: Black & Veatch 2008 Electric Utility Survey Utility Pole Age Example Source: HarrisWilliams adapted from Quanta 34 17

18 Illustration: Michael Sowa Transmission Operations Circa 1995 Present 36 18

19 7/5/2012 Distribution Operations Circa Distribution Circuit Maps 38 19

20 Distribution Circuit Maps Reflect Operational State Information 39 Circuit Maps Include Other Critical Operational Information 40 20

21 Circuit Maps Include Other Relevant Operational Information 41 Distribution Operations 2005 Present Source: SDG&E 42 21

22 SCADA Substation Screen 43 SCADA/DMS Recloser Control Screen 44 22

23 Dynamic SCADA/DMS Circuit Map Screen 45 Distribution Operating Systems Number of Software Applications, Analytics and Models Increasing SCADA 46 23

24 Distribution Management System: Distribution SCADA provides the foundation Field Devices Distribution SCADA (Distribution Automation) provides Real-Time Monitoring and Control of power apparatus in substations and in the field Distribution SCADA Substation Devices 47 Distribution Management System: Advanced Apps Use SCADA Capabilities Advanced applications support electronic decision making and automatic control capabilities for system optimization Build on SCADA monitoring and control capabilities Advanced Applications Data Management Operating model On-line power flow Volt VAR Auto restoration DER management PEV Management DR management Distribution SCADA Field Devices Substation Devices 48 24

25 Distribution Management System: Interactions with Operational Support Systems Advanced Metering System (AMI) Field Devices Outage Management System (OMS) Advanced Applications Distribution SCADA Geographic Information System (GIS) Substation Devices External Interfaces 49 Traditional Point to Point Integration Characteristics Complex environment High integration costs High maintenance costs Message tracking non existent Guaranteed delivery nonexistent Frequent broken interfaces This type of system developed from paper filing systems

26 Advanced System Architecture: Standards Based Integration Characteristics Enterprise semantic model Little or no custom code Lower integration cost Lower maintenance costs Message tracking Guaranteed delivery Reliable Millions of Field Devices Requires Vendor Adoption of Open Architecture & Interoperability 51 Cyber Security for Field Equipment Current Status Fortressing Still Used Practices o Ad Hoc o Varying Capabilities o Mismatched Technologies Reactive Response Perceptions o Denial o Misconceptions 52 26

27 Expanding Attack Surface Example: Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) 53 Expanding Attack Surface Example: Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) 54 27

28 Expanding Attack Surface Example: Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) ZIGBEE, SEP Proprietary, IP (v4, v6) TCP/IP(v4, v6) HAN Meter RFLAN, PLC Data Concentrator Cellular, WiMax, Fiber Backend System 55 Increased Threat Exposure Hybrid Attack Surface Mixed Landscape o Mechanical ldevices o Embedded Decision Making Increased Data Flow o Bi directional o Open Standards o Secure and Unsecured No/Remote Access and Control Varied Levels of Integration Embedded Devices Network Communications Control Server OS Control Server Applications 56 28

29 Expanded Attack Potential Proven Attack Methods Increased Exposure o Proven Attack Methods Network mapping o Known Vulnerabilities Increased Capabilities o Available Tooling o Available Skill Sets o Multi use Tooling Metasploit RF Network Analysis Man in the Middle Reverse Engineering Backtrack Vulnerabilities OWASP Penetration Probing 57 Q&A 58 29

30 Future of Electric Distribution Dialogue Webinar Series Thank you for participating p in Session I. Please join us for Session II: State of U.S. Electric Distribution July 18, :00 3:30 p.m. EDT This second session will be a moderated webinar including prepared presentations from industry and academic experts. The purpose of this session is to provide an overview of the future of U.S. electric distribution systems and the factors shaping policy, business andtechnology decisions. This webinar will expandon the changing requirements for distribution to provide cost effective delivery services as well as enable generation interconnection, dynamic and responsive loads, electric vehicles and energy storage while maintaining reliable and secure service. This session will include a discussion of the scope and scale of the distribution changes anticipated over the next two decades in the context of the energy and information and telecommunications technology development and infrastructure investment decisions today. Key takeaways will be highlighted to support further discussion in the webinar and throughout the collaborative series

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