The Internet is Flat: A brief history of networking over the next ten years. Don Towsley UMass - Amherst

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1 The Internet is Flat: A brief history of networking over the next ten years Don Towsley UMass - Amherst 1

2 What does flat mean? The World Is Flat. A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century, Thomas Friedman sociologically flat empowering people equalizing experiential opportunities technologically flat why ten years? 2

3 Flattening the Internet social networks knowledge sharing content sharing personalized browsers, search engines and much more 3

4 Flattening the Internet: technological perspective hierarchical structure flat structure network resource management end-host resource management complexity simplicity increased robustness, performance 4

5 Ten years from now End hosts resource allocation simple, local randomized policies Networks rich connectivity no resource allocation Information organized in swarms... 5

6 Outline today s Internet P2P and BitTorrent economic challenges network management resource allocation joint routing/rate control swarms parting words 6

7 The current Internet to B not to A to C if from D NOC 7

8 Ten years from now NOC 8

9 P2P applications VoIP video streaming file sharing 9

10 Rise of P2P WWW 1993 academic traffic news ftp other 10

11 Rise of P2P 1993 academic traffic 1995 web appears other news ftp WWW news

12 Rise of P2P ftp 1993 academic traffic 1995 web shows up 2000 almost 75% web traffic streaming other WWW

13 Rise of P2P 1993 academic traffic 1995 web shows up 2000 almost 75% web traffic % P2P traffic (30% during day) P2P other WWW

14 within P2P other P2P mix, Germany Oct mostly the same elsewhere exceptions e.g., edonkey in Korea edonkey Gnutella Bit Torrent 14

15 Content mix content mix, Germany Oct video dominant large files s/w audio video 15

16 Where are we 30 70% traffic P2P approximately half BT Aside: much of daily traffic large scientific data sets implications? but before 16

17 BitTorrent Basics large file (~GB), large demand (10s, 1000s or more clients) divide file into small pieces (256KB). utilize all peers upload capacities peer server peer peer 17

18 Bittorrent schematic new peer gets random list of peers (~50) chooses 4 peers randomly from list seed (peer with entire file) tracker new peer 18

19 Bittorrent basics Who to upload to? tit-for-tat: upload to peers from which most data downloaded in last 30 seconds incentive to upload in order to be chosen by other peers! What piece to send? rarest-first: upload piece rarest among your neighbors first 19

20 Peer reselection (unchoking) four peers selected at a time every 30 seconds drop peer with lowest download rate select new peer randomly multi-purpose mechanism allow bootstrapping of new clients balances loads among peers -> lower delays maintain connected network; every peer has nonzero chance of interacting with any other peer 20

21 Where are we 30 70% traffic P2P approximately half BT performs load balancing implications economics of ISPs impact on network management, routing interaction between application and network 21

22 Client-server economics server Internet transit ISP transit ISP $$ $$ $$ $$ access ISP access ISP access ISP 22

23 P2P economics server Internet transit ISP transit ISP access ISP $$ $$ $$ access ISP access ISP 23

24 Solutions filter out P2P traffic but P2P increases access demands ($$) add caches take advantage within access ISP enrich connectivity peering between access ISPs flattens Internet 24

25 P2P economics server Internet transit ISP transit ISP access ISP access ISP access ISP 25

26 BT: Traffic flows server Internet transit ISP transit ISP access ISP access ISP access ISP Effect on network configuration, routing? 26

27 Routing and network configuration available tool OSPF (Open Shortest path First) distributed protocol that finds shortest paths ISP interested in load balancing e.g., minimize maximum link utilization 27

28 Balancing link loads formulate optimization problem minimize maximum link utilization given traffic demands solve problem to obtain routes determine link weights so that routes are shortest paths (dual problem) set link weights run OSPF 28

29 Balancing link loads traffic demands estimated not measured (errors) + complicated algorithm to set weights infrequent route changes 29

30 Solutions over provision (current practice) Valiant load balancing single ISP solution failures? jmultiple paths edge-based routing, rate control 1/3 1/3 1/3 30

31 Joint routing/rate control Consider source-destination pair provide each session set of paths let session balance load across paths falls within Kelly network optimization framework 31

32 P2P P2P systems deploy multipath routing/rate control requestor file-storers Large data set transfers don t! 32

33 Components multipath controller can be independent TCP controllers as in BT path selection multihoming stepping stones 33

34 Multihoming each host has two addresses allows four paths feasible under IPv6 34

35 Residential multihoming Towsley residence cable + DSL 15/16 chance of non-overlapping access 35

36 Stepping stones ISPs set aside stepping stone routers one direct path one or more indirect paths source routing 36

37 Stepping stones random selection of stepping stones spreads load across links, networks similar to Valiant load balancing note similarity to BT two paths suffice reliability reselection when initial selection poor 37

38 Performance under multipath maximum capacity single path multi path two paths + two paths resampling 38

39 Universal swarm point-to-point (unpopular content) BT torrent (popular content) Can we improve on this? Universal swarms 39

40 BT torrents Internet 40

41 Universal swarm Internet 41

42 Universal swarm Coming bundling in BT better load balancing Tribler social network based swarms 42

43 Universal swarm maximum capacity U-swarm two paths + resampling 43

44 Ten years from now End hosts resource allocation simple, local randomized policies universal swarm Networks rich connectivity sets of paths as needed Universal swarms... 44

45 Parting thoughts services will be increasingly provided by end hosts networking higher-level simplifies network management network responsibility: rich connectivity 45

46 Parting thoughts: Research agenda details to work out technology for swarms intra-application incentives searching for information content economics of swarms how to incentivize ISPs, content providers economics for multipath routing/rate control 46

47 The end Thanks and questions Slides (will be) available at 47

48 Wireless and swarms ad hoc wireless getting flatter backpressure algorithm joint rate/routing control, MAC s 3 source s 2 48

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