1 ECE 3080 Ethics in Electrical and Computer Engineering Lecture #2: Ethical Dilemmas, Choices, and Codes of Ethics Prof. K.M. Passino The Ohio State University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
2 Resolving Moral Dilemmas 1. Moral clarity Need to know something is wrong! Do not ignore problems! Loyalty to employer, responsibilities to public and environment (and complex relations between these) 2. Know the facts Get hard, documented facts, discuss with others Competence matters in gathering technical facts 3. Consider options Diversity of actions to take? Evaluate/discuss. Long-term, short-term perspectives, repercussions? Creative middle solution? 4. Make a reasonable decision Weigh all factors, recognize gray areas /compromises An engineering design problem?
3 NSPE, BER Case 96-4 Engineer A is employed by a software company and is involved in the design of specialized software in connection with the operations of facilities affecting the public health and safety (i.e., nuclear, air quality control, water quality control). As the part of the design of a particular software system, Engineer A conducts extensive testing and although the tests demonstrate
4 that the software is safe to use under existing standards, Engineer A is aware of new draft standards that are about to be released by a standard setting organization-standards which the newly designed software may not meet. Testing is extremely costly and the company s clients are eager to begin to move forward. The software company is eager to satisfy its clients, protect the software company s finances, and protect
5 existing jobs; but at the same time, the management of the software company wants to be sure that the software is safe to use. A series of tests proposed by Engineer A will likely result in a decision whether to move forward with the use of the software. The tests are costly and will delay the use of the software by at least six months, which will put the company at a competitive
6 disadvantage and cost the company a significant amount of money. Also, delaying implementation will mean the state public service commission utility rates will rise significantly during this time. The company requests Engineer A s recommendation concerning the need for additional software testing.
7 Analyzing the case Moral clarity: What is wrong? What is the core issue/ question? Will the software meet the new standards? Why are there new standards? Experience shows new failure modes New tests designed to test new failure modes Engineer s role in new standards? Development of new standards Following new standards
8 Analyzing the case, continued Know the facts It is critical software (health/safety of public) New standards to test new failure modes (that you need to understand) Testing is costly, company finances at stake Need to protect existing jobs Testing will delay release by > 6 months Testing will hurt competitive advantage? Utility rates will rise
9 Analyzing the case, continued Consider options Option 1: Ignore the new tests, take risk to public safety/welfare, save time/money Option 2: Conduct the tests, risk jobs, hurt finances, become certain software will work, protect safety/welfare of the public Option 3: Creative middle of the road solution: Is there are limited version of full tests that could be conducted that would partially test, but save some money/time?
10 Analyzing the case, continued Make a reasonable decision Pick Option 2 since safety/health/welfare of the public is paramount If company says no, pick Option 3 and try to do a limited test for the failure mode (your competence in coming up with an economical test is critical here). In this option, all constraints considered, you try to protect the safety, health, and welfare of the public
11 Resolving moral dilemmas, line-drawing Harris et al. idea to try to make solving moral dilemmas more analytical/ quantitative Given moral dilemma Establish key features, issues Establish extremes of features/issues and paradigms (indicating totally ethical vs. clearly unethical aspects) Construct a line drawing (see below) Evaluate test case (your current moral dilemma)
12 Line-drawing, bribery example (Harris et al.) Victor is an engineer in a large construction firm. He has been assigned the task of being the sole person to recommend rivets for the construction of a large apartment building. After some research and testing, he decides to recommend ACME rivets for the job, which he determines are of the lowest cost and highest quality. On the day after Victor s decision was made, an ACME representative visits him and gives him a voucher for an all-expense-paid trip to the annual ACME Technical Forum, which meets in Jamaica. The trip will have considerable educational value, but will also provide day trips to the beach and other points of interest. If Victor accepts, has he been bribed?
13 Feature Line-drawing, bribery example Paradigm (bribery) (Harris et al.) Test case Paradigm (not bribery) Gift size Large ---X Small (<$1) Timing Before decision X----- After decision Reason Personal gain X Educational Responsibility Sole --X None Product quality Worst X---- Best Product cost Highest ---X Lowest X test case feature evaluation, X important issue Do you see a creative middle solution? What about affect on future decisions on ACME? What is company policy? Is there an appearance of bribery? May not be a bribe, but still may not be a good idea!
14 Codes of Ethics Why are codes important? Serve and protect the public Guidance/support for engineers Inspiration, deterrence, discipline Shared standards, education, mutual understanding Profession s image Limitations of codes Too vague to be useful in every day ethical decisionmaking? Impossible to cover all eventualities
15 National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) Code of Ethics for Engineers Preamble: Engineering is an important and learned profession. As members of this profession, engineers are expected to exhibit the highest standards of honesty and integrity. Engineering has a direct and vital impact on the quality of life for all people. Accordingly, the services provided by engineers require honesty, impartiality,
16 fairness, and equity and must be dedicated to the protection of the public health, safety, and welfare. Engineers must perform under a standard of professional behavior that requires adherence to the highest principles of ethical conduct.
17 Fundamental Cannons 1. Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. 2. Perform services only in areas of their competence. 3. Issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. 4. Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. 5. Avoid deceptive acts. 6. Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputation, and usefulness of the profession.
18 Also Rules of Practice Professional Obligations Several pages long Consider a shorter code
19 Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public How to assess impact on human safety, health, and welfare? Amartya Sen uses a capabilities approach: Being able to live a long life in health Being able to get an education, being able to work Being able to have freedom of expression and association Others Lack of welfare=capability deprivation Note: It does not say the engineer should be encouraged to focus on (even extreme) capability deprivation. Should it?
20 IEEE Code of Ethics We, the members of the IEEE, in recognition of the importance of our technologies in affecting the quality of life throughout the world, and in accepting a personal obligation to our profession, its members and the communities we serve, do hereby commit ourselves to the highest ethical and professional conduct and agree:
21 1. To accept responsibility in making engineering decisions consistent with the safety, health, and welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment; Concern: Disclose phrase nice, but consistent vs. ABET (NSPE), engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare... is a weaker statement? What does consistent even mean?
22 2. To avoid real or perceived conflicts of interest whenever possible, and to disclose them to affected parties when they do exist; Example: Ownership in a supplier s company
23 3. To be honest and realistic in stating claims or estimates based on available data; Examples: When dishonest claims give you an advantage over a competitor, or when unrealistic claims endanger individuals
24 4. To reject bribery in all its forms; Example: Supplier gifts, when are they big enough to constitute a bribe?
25 5. To improve the understanding of technology, its appropriate application, and potential consequences; Examples: Importance of teaching youth about engineering, importance of publishing engineering results in IEEE publications
26 6. To maintain and improve our technical competence and to undertake technological tasks for others only if qualified by training or experience, or after full disclosure of pertinent limitations; Example: A coop student who took on task that affected safety on a manufacturing line
27 7. To seek, accept, and offer honest criticism of technical work, to acknowledge and correct errors, and to credit properly the contributions of others; Note: Important to keep an emotional separation to your work so that when it is criticized you do not take it personally
28 8. To treat fairly all persons regardless of such factors as race, religion, gender, disability, age, or national origin; Note: There are certainly still problems in industry with these issues. We will discuss this more later.
29 9. To avoid injuring others, their property, reputation, or employment by false or malicious action; Example: Speaking poorly of someone s project results when they do not deserve it
30 10. To assist colleagues and co-workers in their professional development and to support them in following this code of ethics. Example: If you are a manager, giving them opportunities for professional development (e.g., taking courses or attending a conference)
31 Critique the code You have moral autonomy - do not take it as given - challenge it! Demand that right! Some problems: paramount vs consistent disussed earlier + Short! Compare to NSPE, ASCE, ASME... Leaves out possibility of much education/ guidance by reading it. Omissions? Yes! Consider our earlier definitions of professionalism that lead others to put in statements on public service
32 Relevant portions of IEEE Code of Ethics We, the members of the IEEE, in recognition of the importance of our technologies in affecting the quality of life throughout the world, and in accepting a personal obligation to our profession, its members and the communities we serve, do hereby commit ourselves to the highest ethical and professional conduct and agree: To improve the understanding of technology, its appropriate application, and potential consequences;
33 National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) III. 2. A. Engineers shall seek opportunities to participate in civic affairs; career guidance for youths; and work for the advancement of the safety, health, and wellbeing of their community. This is THE code for the professional engineer!
34 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Code Cannon 1(e) says Engineers should seek opportunities to be of constructive service in civic affairs and work for the advancement of the safety, health and well-being of their communities,....
35 Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice ACM/IEEE-CS Joint task force on software engineering ethics and professional practices Principle 1: Public: software engineers shall, as appropriate: Be encouraged to volunteer professional skills to good causes and contribute to public education concerning the discipline.
36 American Medical Association (AMA), Principles of Medical Ethics (June 2001) Section VII: A physician shall recognize a responsibility to participate in activities contributing to the improvement of the community and the betterment of public health Section VII: A physician shall recognize a responsibility to participate in activities contributing to the improvement of the community and the betterment of public health. For example: Free clinics, Doctors Without Borders
37 American Bar Association (ABA), Model Rules of Professional Conduct, ABA 2003 Rule 6.1: Voluntary Pro Bono Publico Service:... Every lawyer has a professional responsibility to provide legal services to those unable to pay. A lawyer should aspire to render at least (50) hours of pro bono publico legal services per year.
38 The 1979 IEEE Code of Ethics Article IV: Members shall, in fulfilling their responsibilities to the community: 1. Protect the safety, health, and welfare of the public and speak out against abuses in these areas affecting the public interest; 2. Contribute professional advice, as appropriate, to civic, charitable or other nonprofit organizations; 3. Seek to extend public knowledge and appreciation of the profession and its achievements
39 IEEE destroyed a key aspect of the spirit of professionalism with their 1990 revision/shortening of the 1979 code
40 Social justice perspectives Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public, and encourage engineers to focus on improving the worst safety, health, and welfare problems? Better? Paid, or gratuitous, engineering with this goal: Catholic: preferential option for the poor demands special attention for poor, and demands that everyone contribute to the common good Jewish/Muslim: Views on charity (which in some cases can be service, not money) Rawls: Difference Principle as it applies to a state s institutions, inequalities are only allowed that will reduce inequalities Sen: Broad view of how to focus on promoting justices and avoiding injustices
41 Individual obligations to serve vs. a profession s encouragement to serve Does an engineer have an obligation to serve humanity (e.g., for free)? Does an engineer have an obligation (even in paid employment) to help with the worst cases of capability deprivation? Are such obligations duties (certainly, engineers should not be coerced in any way to do these things)? If individuals do not have an obligation, does the profession as a whole? In connection with this, should engineering profession s codes of ethics encourage engineers to do these things (or aspire to doing these things)? Not a requirement that any one engineer does these things.
42 Attendance Question The following phrase is from the IEEE Code of Ethics: To improve the understanding of technology, its appropriate application, and potential consequences. Please identify as many strategies as you can for satisfying this statement. Please: Put your name on the sheet of paper and turn it in...
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