1 Developing Applications for ios Lecture 1: Mobile Applications Development Radu Ionescu Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science University of Bucharest
2 Content Key concepts of mobile applications development Limitations of mobile devices Features of mobile devices General advices Overview of the mobile environments Requirements ios Overview ios Technology Layers
3 Introduction Mobile applications development is the process of building software applications for small handheld devices such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, tablets, etc.
4 Introduction Platforms for mobile applications: Android, ios, BlackBerry OS, Windows Phone, HP webos, Symbian, etc. Mobile applications are pre-installed on phones during manufacturing, or downloaded by customers from various mobile software distribution systems: App Store (ios), Android Market (Android), OVI Store (Nokia), etc.
5 Key concepts Smartphones and tablets are becoming the computer of choice for more and more people. Despite the attention paid to mobile development in the last years, a lot of developers still lack the basics when it comes to building mobile applications. Many developers are just used to the desktop.
6 Key concepts Even if it may be easy to make an application, it is hard to create a good user experience. Mobile devices have different limitations and features compared to the desktop computers. The emergence of mobile devices and their smaller screens means some serious adjustments in perspective.
7 Key concepts We need to make a transition to a new perspective.
8 Limitations of mobile devices Smaller screen: Instead of building for large PC screens (13 to 27 inches wide), developers could be dealing with a 2 to 5 inches wide Android, iphone or BlackBerry screen. Because of the screen size constraint, every pixel counts to some degree. Even the ipad's larger screen (7.3 by 9.5 inches) needs to be considered differently because the screen resolution is still less that of most desktop monitors.
9 Limitations of mobile devices Less memory and bandwidth: Mobile devices really do not have a lot of memory. Although a typical PC can have 4-8 GB of memory, a smartphone might have just 128 MB. (e.g.: developers loading 100 images onto a phone would run out of memory) Network connectivity for smartphones and tablets incurs limits on downloading. Memory, space and battery life are some of the parameters that have to be taken into account when you develop all your apps.
10 Limitations of mobile devices Different user interaction: Mobile devices have no mouse. The physical keyboard is much smaller or even missing. This means mobile applications don't respond to double clicks or keyboard shortcuts. Most smartphones can interact using touch screens or capacitive displays. This can also be a feature.
11 Features of mobile devices Better user interaction: Most smartphones can interact using touch screens or capacitive displays. Capacitive displays enable the use of multi-touch gestures which allow a natural interaction with the device. (e.g.: pinch-open to zoom in, pinch-close to zoom-out, swipe to delete, etc.)
12 Features of mobile devices Using multi-touch gestures
13 Features of mobile devices Using built-in devices: Most smartphones have built-in devices such as: camera, accelerometer, gyroscope, GPS, compass, etc. Mobile applications should make use of this capabilities whenever this is possible. Detecting the device orientation using the accelerometer (to adjust the display) can be used for creating a better user experience. Building augmented reality applications requires the GPS, the compass, the camera and even the accelerometer.
14 Features of mobile devices Using built-in devices for mobile applications
15 General Advices Focus on user experience: reduce navigation for users, go with defaults, remember what users did last time. Choose carefully between native and web development: web-based development is less expensive and not as complex, but it doesn't deliver the kind of experience the user might expect. Think about how to take advantage of location: location services enable developers to offer a more customized experience.
16 General Advices Design and code for touch interfaces: developers need to understand the user flows first, then translate the basis of touch interfaces into coding language. Expect users to make mistakes: developers should anticipate users pressing the wrong buttons. Smaller size of smartphones and unfamiliar users guarantee input mistakes. Mobile applications should be more tolerant and recover without extra effort.
17 Simple can be harder than complex: You have to work hard to get your thinking clean to make it simple. But it s worth it in the end because once you get there, you can move mountains. - Steve Jobs
18 Overview of the mobile environments Each of the platforms for mobile applications has an IDE which provides tools to allow a developer to write, test and deploy applications into the target platform environment. An alternative to native applications are web-based mobile applications which are less expensive to build. This alternative represents a trade-off between cost and user experience.
19 Android Developers can use Eclipse or NetBeans IDEs to build applications using the Java programming language. Android is based on a Linux kernel with libraries and APIs written in C. There are more than apps available for Android, that can be downloaded from online stores such as Android Market.
20 Windows Phone Developers can build applications with Visual Studio 2010 IDE using the C# programming language. Windows Phone is the successor of Windows Mobile. It's a new mobile operating system compared to Android and ios. The applications are available in the Windows Phone Marketplace.
21 ios Integrated with Xcode IDE. Developers must have Intelbased Mac computers and Mac OS X Snow Leopard or Lion installed. ios applications are based on a propretary programming language, called Objective-C. This is an OOP language derived from C. ios is based on a UNIX kernel with libraries written in C and Objective-C.
22 Requirements Must have an Intel-based Mac with Snow Leopard or Lion installed. Hardware: iphone 4/4S/5, ipod Touch 4th/5th Generation, ipad 1/2/3 Textbook: Apple online documentation Prerequisites: Object-Oriented Programming
23 Requirements Object-Oriented Terms: Class (description/template for an object) Instance (manifestation of a class) Message (sent to objects to make them act) Method (code invoked by a Message) Instance Variable (object-specific storage) Inheritance (code-sharing mechanism) Superclass/Subclass (Inheritance relationships) Protocol (non-class-specific method declaration)
24 What will I learn in this course? How to build cool ios apps: Easy to build even for very complex applications. Join a vibrant development community. Real-life Object-Oriented Programming: The heart of Cocoa Touch is 100% object-oriented. Application of MVC design model. Many computer science concepts applied in a commercial development platform: Databases, Graphics, Multimedia, Multithreading, Animation, Networking and much more. We want you to be able to go on and sell products on the AppStore.
25 ios Overview ios comprises the operating system and technologies that you use to run applications natively on devices, such as ipad, iphone, and ipod Touch. Although it shares a common heritage and many underlying technologies with Mac OS X, ios was designed to meet the needs of a mobile environment, where users needs are slightly diferent. Some technologies are available only on ios, such as the Multi-Touch interface and accelerometer support.
26 ios SDK Overview The ios SDK contains the code, information, and tools you need to develop, test, run, debug, and tune applications for ios. Xcode provides the launching point for testing your applications on an ios device, and in ios Simulator. ios Simulator is a platform that mimics the basic ios environment but runs on your local Macintosh computer.
27 Platform Components Tools Language [label settextcolor:[uicolor bluecolor]]; Frameworks Core Data Foundation Map Kit Core Motion Design Strategies MVC UI Kit
28 ios SDK Overview Xcode and ios Simulator:
29 ios Technology Layers The kernel in ios is based on a variant of the same basic Mach kernel that is found in Mac OS X. On top of this UNIX kernel are the layers of services that are used to implement applications on the platform. This layering gives you choices when it comes to implementing your code.
30 ios Technology Layers The Core OS and Core Services layers contain the fundamental interfaces for ios, including those used for accessing low-level data types, network sockets, and so on. On the upper layers you find more advanced technologies. For example, the Media layer contains the fundamental technologies used to support 2D and 3D drawing, audio, and video.
31 ios Technology Layers Core OS: OSX Kernel Power Management Mach 3.0 Keychain Access BSD Sockets Certificates POSIX Threads File System Security Bonjour and DNS Services
35 Practical Advice The starting point for any new project is the Cocoa Touch layer, and the UIKit framework in particular. When deciding what additional technologies to use, you should start with frameworks in the higher-level layers. The higher-level frameworks make it easy to support standard system behaviors with the least amount of effort on your part. You should fall back to the lower-level frameworks only if you want to implement custom behavior that is not provided at a higher level.
36 Next Time MVC Design Concept Introduction to Objective-C Objective-C Example
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