R Graphics Cookbook. Chang O'REILLY. Winston. Tokyo. Beijing Cambridge. Farnham Koln Sebastopol

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1 R Graphics Cookbook Winston Chang Beijing Cambridge Farnham Koln Sebastopol O'REILLY Tokyo

2 Table of Contents Preface ix 1. R Basics Installing a Package Loading a Package Loading a Delimited Text Data File Loading Data from an Excel File Loading Data from an SPSS File 5 2. Quickly Exploring Data Creating a Scatter Plot Creating a Line Graph Creating a Bar Graph Creating a Histogram Creating a Box Plot Plotting a Function Curve Bar Graphs Making a Basic Bar Graph Grouping Bars Together Making a Bar Graph of Counts Using Colors in a Bar Graph Coloring Negative and Positive Bars Differently Adjusting Bar Width and Spacing Making a Stacked Bar Graph Making a Proportional Stacked Bar Graph Adding Labels to a Bar Graph Making a Cleveland Dot Plot Line Graphs 49 iii

3 4.1. Making a Basic Line Graph Adding Points to a Line Graph Making a Line Graph with Multiple Lines Changing the Appearance of Lines Changing the Appearance of Points Making a Graph with a Shaded Area Making a Stacked Area Graph Making a Proportional Stacked Area Graph Adding a Confidence Region Scatter Plots Making a Basic Scatter Plot Grouping Data Points by a Variable Using Shape or Color Using Different Point Shapes Mapping a Continuous Variable to Color or Size Dealing with Overplotting Adding Fitted Regression Model Lines Adding Fitted Lines from an Existing Model Adding Fitted Lines from Multiple Existing Models Adding Annotations with Model Coefficients Adding Marginal Rugs to a Scatter Plot Labeling Points in a Scatter Plot Creating a Balloon Plot Making a Scatter Plot Matrix Summarized Data Distributions Making a Basic Histogram Making Multiple Histograms from Grouped Data Making a Density Curve Making Multiple Density Curves from Grouped Data Making a Frequency Polygon Making a Basic Box Plot Adding Notches to a Box Plot Adding Means to a Box Plot Making a Violin Plot Making a Dot Plot Making Multiple Dot Plots for Grouped Data Making a Density Plot of Two-Dimensional Data Annotations Adding Text Annotations Using Mathematical Expressions in Annotations 150 iv Table ofcontents

4 7.3. Adding Lines Adding Line Segments and Arrows Adding a Shaded Rectangle Highlighting an Item Adding Error Bars Adding Annotations to Individual Facets Axes Swapping X- and Y-Axes Setting the Range of a Continuous Axis Reversing a Continuous Axis Changing the Order of Items on a Categorical Axis Setting the Scaling Ratio of the X- and Y-Axes Setting the Positions of Tick Marks Removing Tick Marks and Labels Changing the Text of Tick Labels Changing the Appearance of Tick Labels Changing the Text of Axis Labels Removing Axis Labels Changing the Appearance of Axis Labels Showing Lines Along the Axes Using a Logarithmic Adding Ticks for a Logarithmic Axis 190 Axis Making a Circular Graph Using Dates on an Axis Using Relative Times on an Axis Controlling the Overall Appearance of Graphs Setting the Title of a Graph Changing the Appearance of Text Using Themes Changing the Appearance oftheme Elements Creating Your Own Themes Hiding Grid Lines Legends Removing the Legend Changing the Position of a Legend Changing the Order of Items in a Legend Reversing the Order of Items in a Legend Changing a Legend Title Changing the Appearance of a Legend Title 235 Table of Contents v

5 Table Removing a Legend Title Changing the Labels in a Legend Changing the Appearance of Legend Labels Using Labels with Multiple Lines of Text Facets Splitting Data into Subplots with Facets Using Facets with Different Axes Changing the Text of Facet Labels Changing the Appearance of Facet Labels and Headers Using Colors in Plots Setting the Colors of Objects Mapping Variables to Colors Using a Different Palette for a Discrete Variable Using a Manually Defined Palette for a Discrete Variable Using a Colorblind-Friendly Palette Using a Manually Defined Palette for a Continuous Variable Coloring a Shaded Region Based on Value Miscellaneous Graphs Making a Correlation Matrix Plotting a Function Shading a Subregion Under a Function Curve Creating a Network Graph Using Text Labels in a Network Graph Creating a Heat Map Creating a Three-Dimensional Scatter Plot Adding a Prediction Surface to a Three-Dimensional Plot Saving a Three-Dimensional Plot Animating a Three-Dimensional Plot Creating a Dendrogram a Creating Vector Field Creating a Q Q Plot Creating a Graph of an Empirical Cumulative Distribution Function Creating a Mosaic Plot Creating a Pie Chart Creating a Map Creating a Choropleth Map Making a Map with a Clean Background 317 vi of Contents

6 Creating a Map from a Shapefile Output for Presentation Outputting to PDF Vector Files Outputting to SVG Vector Files Outputting to WMF Vector Files Editing a Vector Output File Outputting to Bitmap (PNG/TIFF) Files Using Fonts in PDF Files Using Fonts in Windows Bitmap or Screen Output Getting Your Data into Shape a Creating Data Frame Getting Information About a Data Structure Adding a Column to a Data Frame Deleting a Column from a Data Frame Renaming Columns in a Data Frame Reordering Columns in a Data Frame Getting a Subset of a Data Frame Changing the Order offactor Levels Changing the Order of Factor Levels Based on Data Values Changing the Names of Factor Levels Removing Unused Levels from a Factor Changing the Names of Items in a Character Vector Recoding a Categorical Variable to Another Categorical Variable Recoding a Continuous Variable to a Categorical Variable Transforming Variables Transforming Variables by Group Summarizing Data by Groups Summarizing Data with Standard Errors and Confidence Intervals Converting Data from Wide to Long Converting Data from Long to Wide Converting a Time Series Object to Times and Values 369 A. Introduction to ggplot2 373 Index 385 Table of Contents vii

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