Unit 2 The Basic Accounting Cycle

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1 Unit 2 The Basic Accounting Cycle Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Business Transactions and the Accounting Equation Transactions That Affect Assets, Liabilities, and Owner s Capital Transactions That Affect Revenue, Expenses, and Withdrawals Recording Transactions in a General Journal Posting Journal Entries to General Ledger Accounts The Six-Column Work Sheet Financial Statements for a Sole Proprietorship Chapter 10 Completing the Accounting Cycle for a Sole Proprietorship Chapter 11 Cash Control and Banking Activities 0

2 Chapter 8 The Six-Column Work Sheet What You ll Learn Explain the purpose of the work sheet. Describe the parts of a six-column work sheet. Prepare a six-column work sheet. Calculate net income and net loss. Define the accounting terms introduced in this chapter. 1

3 Chapter 8, Section 1 Preparing the Work Sheet What Do You Think? Why would it be difficult to use ledger accounts to prepare financial reports? 2

4 SECTION 8.1 Preparing the Work Sheet Main Idea The work sheet organizes general ledger account information for the financial statements. You Will Learn the purpose of a work sheet. the sections of a work sheet. 3

5 SECTION 8.1 Preparing the Work Sheet Key Terms work sheet ruling 4

6 SECTION 8.1 Preparing the Work Sheet The Sixth Step of the Accounting Cycle: The Work Sheet A work sheet is a working paper used to collect information from the ledger in one place. An accountant uses a work sheet to: gather information to prepare financial statements. complete other end-of-period activities. 5

7 SECTION 8.1 Preparing the Work Sheet The Work Sheet Sections There are five work sheet sections: 1. the heading 2. the Account Name section 3. the Trial Balance section 4. the Income Statement section 5. the Balance Sheet section 6

8 SECTION 8.1 Preparing the Work Sheet The Work Sheet Heading The heading contains three kinds of information: Who The name of the business What The name of the accounting form When The period covered by the work sheet 7

9 SECTION 8.1 Preparing the Work Sheet The Account Name Section This section contains a listing of all accounts from the general ledger. Include accounts with a zero balance to avoid accidentally omitting an account. 8

10 SECTION 8.1 Preparing the Work Sheet The Account Name Section 9

11 SECTION 8.1 Preparing the Work Sheet The Trial Balance Section The Trial Balance section contains each account s end-ofperiod balance from the general ledger. A line is drawn through the normal balance column of accounts with a zero balance. There are two steps to follow after this section is complete: ruling the Trial Balance section totaling the Trial Balance section 10

12 SECTION 8.1 Preparing the Work Sheet The Trial Balance Section 11

13 SECTION 8.1 Preparing the Work Sheet Ruling the Trial Balance Section Ruling means drawing a line. A single line is drawn under the balance columns to indicate that the columns are ready to be totaled. 12

14 SECTION 8.1 Preparing the Work Sheet Ruling the Trial Balance Section 13

15 SECTION 8.1 Preparing the Work Sheet Totaling the Trial Balance Section A ledger is in balance if the total debits equal the total credits. A double line is drawn under the totals to identify the above numbers as totals. 14

16 SECTION 8.1 Preparing the Work Sheet Totaling the Trial Balance Section 15

17 SECTION 8.1 Preparing the Work Sheet Key Terms Review work sheet A working paper used to collect information from the ledger accounts for use in completing end-ofperiod activities. ruling Drawing a line; a single rule (line) drawn under a column of figures indicates that the entries above the rule are to be added or subtracted. If an amount is a total and no further processing is needed, a double rule is drawn under it. 16

18 Chapter 8, Section 2 Completing the Work Sheet What Do You Think? If a business has a net loss, what does this tell you about the accounting equation? 17

19 SECTION 8.2 Completing the Work Sheet Main Idea After completing the work sheet, you will know the net income or net loss for the accounting period. You Will Learn how amounts are entered in the work sheet sections. how to calculate net income. how to enter totals. a summary of steps used to prepare a work sheet. 18

20 SECTION 8.2 Completing the Work Sheet Key Terms matching principle net income net loss 19

21 SECTION 8.2 Completing the Work Sheet The Balance Sheet and Income Statement Sections There are two financial statements prepared at the end of the accounting period: Balance Sheet Income Statement These are organized on the work sheet. 20

22 SECTION 8.2 Completing the Work Sheet The Balance Sheet Section In this section, amounts are transferred, or extended, from the Trial Balance section for these account types: asset liability owner s equity Extend debit amounts to the Debit column and credit amounts to the Credit column. 21

23 SECTION 8.2 Completing the Work Sheet The Income Statement Section In this section, amounts are extended from the Trial Balance section for these account types: revenue expense Extend revenue accounts to the Credit column and the expense balances to the Debit column. 22

24 SECTION 8.2 Completing the Work Sheet Totaling the Income Statement and Balance Sheet Sections A single line is drawn below the entries in the Income Statement and Balance Sheet sections to indicate they are ready for totaling. Once the columns are totaled, they will not be equal until the net income or net loss is added. 23

25 SECTION 8.2 Completing the Work Sheet Totaling the Income Statement and Balance Sheet Sections 24

26 SECTION 8.2 Completing the Work Sheet Showing Net Income or Net Loss on the Work Sheet Matching expenses with revenue in the same period will provide a measure of profit. The results of this matching principle are used by managers for: analyzing results. making decisions. 25

27 SECTION 8.2 Completing the Work Sheet Showing Net Income or Net Loss on the Work Sheet To find the net income on net loss, subtract the total expenses from the total revenues. There are three steps to show net income or net loss on the work sheet: A - After the last account, skip a line and enter the words Net Income or Net Loss in the Account Name column. B - On the same line, enter the net income total under the Income Statement Debit column or the net loss under the Credit column. C - On the same line, enter the net income amount under the Balance Sheet Credit column or the net loss under the Debit column. 26

28 SECTION 8.2 Completing the Work Sheet Showing Net Income on the Work Sheet 27

29 SECTION 8.2 Completing the Work Sheet Completing the Work Sheet D - Draw a single rule across the four Income Statement and Balance Sheet columns below net income. E - Bring down the Income Statement Debit and Credit column totals (after adding net income or net loss). F - Bring down the Balance Sheet Debit and Credit column totals (after adding net income or net loss). G - Draw a double rule under the four Balance Sheet and Income Statement totals. Total debits should equal total credits. 28

30 SECTION 8.2 Completing the Work Sheet Showing net income Showing net loss 29

31 SECTION 8.2 Completing the Work Sheet A Review of the Steps in Preparing a Six-Column Work Sheet There are eight steps to preparing a six-column work sheet: Enter the heading. Enter account numbers, names, and balances. Show that Trial Balance debits and credits are equal. Transfer the Trial Balance values to the Income Statement and Balance Sheet sections. 30

32 SECTION 8.2 Completing the Work Sheet A Review of the Steps in Preparing a Six-Column Work Sheet Total the Income Statement and Balance Sheet columns. Determine the net income or net loss. Enter the net income or net loss in the Income Statement and Balance Sheet columns. Total and rule the four columns. 31

33 SECTION 8.2 Completing the Work Sheet Key Terms Review matching principle Principle requiring that the expenses incurred in an accounting period are matched with revenue earned in the same period. net income The amount by which total revenue exceeds total expenses for the accounting period. net loss The amount by which total expenses exceed total revenue for the accounting period. 32

34 CHAPTER 8 Chapter 8 Review Question 1 List the steps involved in completing a six-column work sheet. 33

35 CHAPTER 8 Chapter 8 Review Answer 1 Step 1: Write the heading on the work sheet. Step 2: Enter the account numbers, names, and balances for all general ledger accounts in the Account Name and Trial Balance sections. Step 3: Prove the equality of the Trial Balance total debits and credits. Step 4: Extend the amounts of the Trial Balance section to the appropriate columns of the Balance Sheet and Income Statement sections. (continued) 34

36 CHAPTER 8 Chapter 8 Review Answer 1 Step 5: Total the columns in the Income Statement and Balance Sheet sections. Step 6: Determine the amount of the net income or net loss for the period. Step 7: Enter the net income or net loss amount in the appropriate columns of the Income Statement and Balance Sheet sections. Step 8: Total and rule the Income Statement and Balance Sheet sections. 35

37 CHAPTER 8 Chapter 8 Review Question 2 Why are the Balance Sheet columns not equal for a business that has net income? 36

38 CHAPTER 8 Chapter 8 Review Answer 2 The Trial Balance will be equal, but when the revenue and expense items (temporary capital accounts) are separated from the Balance Sheet accounts, the Income Statement and Balance Sheet columns will be out of balance by the same amount. This happens because revenues increase and expenses decrease the owner s equity account (capital). Net income occurs when revenue exceeds expenses. Therefore, the capital account will be out of balance by the amount of the net income. 37

39 Resources Glencoe Accounting Online Learning Center English Glossary Spanish Glossary 38

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