MOSL. Earth Watch. As part of the Space Lab s ongoing program you will monitor Earth s weather using satellite images.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "MOSL. Earth Watch. As part of the Space Lab s ongoing program you will monitor Earth s weather using satellite images."

Transcription

1 MOSL Earth Watch As part of the Space Lab s ongoing program you will monitor Earth s weather using satellite images. You will work closely with the ADAO (Atmospheric Data Analysis Officer) in Mission Control. You are responsible for tracking a hurricane that formed in the Atlantic Basin over the last week, and is now heading towards the United States mainland. If necessary, you will be responsible for issuing hurricane warnings. You will study satellite images of environmental changes. Record all information in your Mission Log. VSSEC Mission to the Space Lab Earth Watch 1

2 This material has been developed by: Victorian Space Science Education Centre 400 Pascoe Vale Road Strathmore, VIC VSSEC Mission to the Space Lab Earth Watch 2

3 Background Briefing There are two primary types of weather satellites. Weather Satellites Geostationary Satellites Geostationary satellites orbit the equator at a distance of 36,000 km at the same rate that the earth rotates. (The International Space Station orbits at 350 km). This high altitude allows a continuous fulldisc view of the Earth, but also means the resolution, or picture quality is lower. Fig 1 Geostationary Orbit In effect geostationary satellites orbit above a fixed spot on the Earth s surface and can transmit images in real time. Movies, or animations, can be compiled from these images to show such sequences as cloud movement, and the progress of large weather systems such as hurricanes. Polar Orbiting Satellites Polar Orbiting Satellites make approximately 14 orbits a day, passing over the north and south pole each revolution. As the Earth rotates beneath the satellite the instruments monitor an area to the west of the previous pass. Fig 2 Polar Orbit Their low orbital altitude of 850 km provides high-resolution images and detailed information about violent storms and cloud systems. However, images from Polar Orbiting Satellites are delayed, and each spot is only passed a couple of times a day. But their near-polar orbit allows global coverage over north and south latitudes, which are distorted by the angle of geostationary satellites. Polar Orbiting Satellites are often used for mapping and high resolution photography. Satellites can also capture images of dramatic events. VSSEC Mission to the Space Lab Earth Watch 3

4 Fig 3 Before and after images tsunami on December 26, 2004 Question 1: Which type of satellite provides the best high-resolution images? Question 2: Which type of satellite is best for continuous coverage of a major weather event? Question 3: What are the disadvantages of using a Polar satellite to track a hurricane? Weather Satellites Images Fig 4 Visible satellite image Fig 5 Infrared satellite image Visible satellite images are much like a black and white photo taken on earth. Bright areas reveal where the sunlight is reflected by clouds or snow cover. Land surfaces show as grey, and ocean surfaces as near black. They are useful during daylight, but cannot be used at night. Infrared satellite images are based on heat radiation. The warmer the surface the more infrared radiation it emits. Cooler surfaces are bright, whereas warmer surfaces are dark. IR images can be captured 24 hours a day. VSSEC Mission to the Space Lab Earth Watch 4

5 Fig 6 Enhanced Infrared satellite image Fig 7 Water vapour satellite image Enhanced Infrared Satellite images are shaded in different colours to reflect different temperatures. The warmest areas appear as black, and the coldest as red. Water vapour satellite images are modified from infrared data. Dry areas show up as black, and moisture as white. Jet streams may show up as grey streaks. Satellite visible and infrared images may help to locate storms but do not reveal the surface intensity. Only an active microwave sensor, for example the Scatterometer, can measure both wind speed and direction under a wide range of conditions with high spatial resolution. Fig 8 Scatterometer image Hurricane Floyd Weather satellites can also receive data from remote collection platforms on the surface. These can include instrumented buoys, river gauges, automatic weather stations, seismic and tsunami stations, and ships. Question 4: What are the advantages of using infrared images? Question 5: What information does a scatterometer provide? VSSEC Mission to the Space Lab Earth Watch 5

6 Tropical Storms All tropical storms begin when the sun heats up the ocean near the equator and enormous quantities of moisture evaporate high into the atmosphere. If the conditions are right, the storm might grow and develop into a cyclone or hurricane. Hurricanes (and cyclones) are classified as large tropical storms with winds of more than 119 km per hour. Cyclones can only form between 5 and 15 degrees latitude of the equator (north and south), and when the ocean temperature is above 26.5 o C. The warmer the ocean the more energy will be fed into the cyclone, and the faster the winds. First, convection currents inside a low pressure system begin to gather clouds. The system starts to spin and pulls in more clouds. Cyclones spin because the Earth spins, and south of the equator winds circle clockwise (creating cyclones), and to the north anti-clockwise (creating hurricanes). Fig 9 Anticyclone Fig 10 Blue ocean is visible through the eye of a hurricane. Fig 11 A typhoon. Cyclones are called typhoons near the South China sea. The relatively peaceful centre of a hurricane is called the eye. Low pressure in the centre of a hurricane causes the surface of the ocean to rise by several metres. This increased height creates a storm surge. A hurricane loses power if it crosses land or cooler water. VSSEC Mission to the Space Lab Earth Watch 6

7 * View an IR movie of Hurricane Katrina. Note the intensity of the hurricane lessens as it crosses Florida, intensifies as it crosses warm water in the Gulf of Mexico, and finally begins to dissipate when it makes landfall. (movie 1) Hurricanes are classified by the typical damage they cause and are based on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale Category Wind gust speed Storm surge Damage 1 Less than 125 km/h m Mild damage km/h m Significant damage to trees km/h Structural damage, power failure likely km/h m Most roofing lost 5 More than 280 km/h More than 5.4 m Almost total destruction * View an animation of Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Hurricane Tracking The path of a hurricane can be influenced by many factors. Atlantic hurricanes begin off the coast of Africa and are pushed towards North America by the prevailing easterly winds. As they approach land they are also influenced by Low and High pressure systems moving across the United States. High pressure systems blow in a clockwise direction. Low pressure winds blow in a counter-clockwise direction. A hurricane s progress can by slowed by westward-moving cold fronts. 1. Use the Tracking Data to plot the path of the hurricane for days 1-5 on the Atlantic Basin Hurricane Tracking Chart. Number each day and indicate AM or PM as you plot each position. 2. Connect the dots with a dashed line ( ) when the maximum wind speed is less than 125 km/h. Use a solid line if the maximum speed is more than 125 km/h (hurricane). Tracking Data Day LATITUDE LONGITUDE TIME WIND STATUS TROPICAL STORM HURRICANE HURRICANE HURRICANE HURRICANE HURRICANE HURRICANE HURRICANE HURRICANE HURRICANE 4 VSSEC Mission to the Space Lab Earth Watch 7

8 The ADAO will provide tracking information for days 6-7. Plot the path of the hurricane. The ADAO will provide tracking information for days Plot the path of the hurricane. The ADAO will provide tracking information for days Plot the path of the hurricane. Questions 6-9: As you receive new information from the ADAO consider the following points and make appropriate recommendations: Suggest reasons for any increase or decrease in hurricane intensity Predict when and where the hurricane will hit the United States mainland and identify any cities that might be under threat. Based on the Saffir-Simpson scale, issue warnings for the type of storm damage, and size of the storm surge that can be expected. Make a recommendation to residents whether they should evacuate, or attempt to ride out the storm in their homes. Were your predictions accurate? Can you explain what happened? VSSEC Mission to the Space Lab Earth Watch 8

9 Global Warming Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earth s atmosphere and oceans over the last few decades. Human activity, particularly the burning of fossil fuels, is largely responsible for the increase in atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide. Since the Industrial Revolution atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide have increased by 30% - enhancing the heattrapping capability of the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide acts like a blanket, creating a greenhouse effect. The Earth is warming up. Fig 12 Global Temperatures Ice Melt One of the most dramatic effects of global warming can be seen near the poles. About 90% of the world s ice (and 70 percent of its fresh water) covers the Antarctica landmass to an average of 2,133 metres thick. The Larsen Ice Shelf stretches along the eastern edge of the Antarctica Peninsula. Because the ice shelf sits on water, rather than the landmass, it is more vulnerable to rises in ocean temperatures. Scientists have been observing the ice shelf retreat for the last two decades. Then in just over a month in 2002, an entire section of the Ice Shelf collapsed, launching a flotilla of icebergs into the sea. Fig 12 and Fig 13, recorded by NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer satellite sensor, show the Larsen B ice shelf and parts of the Antarctic Peninsula (on left). Fig 13 The first photo on January 31, 2002 shows the shelf in late summer. Fig 14 The next photo shows the main collapse on March 7, 2002, with thousands of sliver icebergs where the shelf formerly lay. VSSEC Mission to the Space Lab Earth Watch 9

10 Like the Antarctica shelf ice, sea ice at the North Pole floats on the ocean. Satellite images show that since 1979 the summer polar ice cap has shrunk by more than 20%. If this trend continues by 2100 there will be no ice at the North Pole in summer. Fig 15 Arctic sea-ice melt as measured by satellite data September Fig 16 Arctic sea-ice melt September Greenland holds the world s second largest ice cap, containing more than 2.85 million cubic kilometres of ice. Being closer to the equator than Antarctica, it is more vulnerable to ice melt. NASA has been surveying the Greenland ice sheet since Fig 17 Greenland ice-melt, 1992, Rising Sea Levels As the polar ice melts what s likely to happen to sea levels? It is estimated that sea levels have been rising by about 0.3 metres per century, but the biggest contributor to date is not melting ice, but warmer oceans. As oceans warm up the water expands and sea levels actually rise. Water is at its most dense at 4 0 C, above and below this temperature the density of water decreases (the same weight of water occupies a bigger space). This is called thermal expansion. If all the Antarctica ice melted sea levels would rise by about 61 metres. But because temperatures in most parts of the continent never get above freezing, this is most unlikely to happen. If the North Pole melts its affect on sea levels would be very small. But if the ice covering Greenland melted, sea levels would rise by about 7 meters. Scientists have estimated that an annual average temperature rise of 3 0 C would be enough to melt Greenland s ice-sheet. A sea level rise of just 1 meter would submerge a substantial part of Bangladesh and the Nile Delta. Less ice also means that less sunlight is reflected, thus increasing global warming. Water and earth, being darker than ice, absorb more sunlight and warm the whole planet. VSSEC Mission to the Space Lab Earth Watch 10

11 Fig 18 Potential impact of sea-level rise on Bangladesh Question 10: Why is Greenland s ice-sheet more vulnerable to global warming than the Antarctica? Question 11: Why would the melting of the North Pole be unlikely to affect sea levels? Observing the Earth from Space The most abundant life forms in the ocean are phytoplankton, microscopic marine plants that drift on or near the surface of the sea. Phytoplankton take in about half of all the world s carbon dioxide, using the carbon for growth and releasing oxygen during photosynthesis. When phytoplankton die their microscopic bodies settle to the bottom; storing vast amounts of carbon over geological time. In this way the oceans act as a sink, disposing of global carbon that would otherwise accumulate in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. During the last 20 years there has been a marked decline in phytoplankton populations, and the greatest loss has occurred where ocean temperatures have risen most significantly. VSSEC Mission to the Space Lab Earth Watch 11

12 Fig 19 The Carbon Cycle The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project provides satellite data on global bio-optic properties ocean colour. Phytoplankton numbers are estimated by using satellite images, which monitor the green pigments in plants, or chlorophyll, which are responsible for the greenish-tint in ocean waters photographed from space. Satellite sensors can distinguish even slight variations in colour. Different shades of ocean colour reveals the presence of differing concentrations of sediments, organic materials, or even phytoplankton. * View animation of the SeaWiFS daily coverage of the world s oceans. (movie 2) Question 12: What sort of orbit does SeaWiFS cover? Suggest why. VSSEC Mission to the Space Lab Earth Watch 12

13 Fig This sequence of SeaWiFS ocean colour imagery shows the impact of the El Niño on the productivity of phytoplankton around the Galapagos Islands in the Pacific Ocean. The first image was taken during the height of the El Niño, while the last image was taken during the La Niña. Note the gradually flourishing bloom of phytoplankton as the surface waters cool, allowing the deeper, more nutrient-rich waters to upwell. Fig 20 Fig 21 Fig 22 Fig 23 Question 13: How do phytoplankton contribute to the carbon cycle? Draw a diagram if necessary. VSSEC Mission to the Space Lab Earth Watch 13

14 Marine Food Web Phytoplankton forms the base of the marine food web. Phytoplankton depend on sunlight, water and nutrients to survive, and are responsible for the major share of primary productivity in the marine environment. In the Arctic, loss of sea ice associated with global warming could diminish phytoplankton populations, leading to a knock-on-effect throughout the Arctic food chain, diminishing plankton-feeding fish, and other species such as marine mammals and seabirds. Fig 24 Marine Food Web Phytoplankton Phytoplankton are mainly unicellular plants known as algae, the two major groups are Diatoms and Dinoflagellates. Diatoms Diatoms are recognizable by their protective glass skeletons made from silica. Diatoms can be classified by their variety of shapes and can occur as single cells or in chains. Circular, triangular, and modified square shapes are known as centric diatoms. Elongated shapes are classified as pennate diatoms. Fig 25 Pennate diatom Fig 26 Colony of pennate diatoms Fig 27 Centric diatom Fig 28 Diatom top and side view VSSEC Mission to the Space Lab Earth Watch 14

15 Dinoflagellates Dinoflagellates usually occur as single cells, and are generally smaller than diatoms. They can swim using tiny whip-like flagella. They may possess spines, horns or other projections. Most dinoflagellates are photosynthetic, but some eat other organisms. Fig 29 Unarmoured Fig 30 Armoured Fig 31 Projections Fig 32 Exotic Fig 33 Bioluminescent Some dinoflagellates are bioluminescent and create light when disturbed by waves, boat wakes or predators. Other dinoflagellates produce toxins. Fig 34 Bioluminescent dinoflagellates Fig 35 Bioluminescent dinoflagellates in a Peruvian lake Fig 36 Dinoflaggellates ceratium Fig 37 Dinoflaggellates Ceratium create a Red Tide VSSEC Mission to the Space Lab Earth Watch 15

16 Harmful Algae Blooms Several species of phytoplankton produce toxins that cause illness or death in both marine life and humans. If environmental conditions allow toxic phytoplankton to increase rapidly they can create a harmful algae bloom or HAB. Algae blooms are influenced by such factors as warm weather and the availability of nutrients rich in phosphorous such as water run-off over land used for agriculture. Sometimes they are described as toxic Red Tides. HABs are of major concern globally. Their occurrence, spread and frequency of duration has been increasing over the past decades. Fig 38 Algae bloom in the Baltic Sea, July Identifying Phytoplankton Phytoplankton are currently being studied aboard the Space Lab. Carefully pipette a sample onto a clean slide and view under the microscope. Question 14: Describe your specimen with regard to the following: Colour of the phytoplankton colony: Size: Individual or colony formation: Mobility: Colour of individual phytoplankton: Visible features (eg. projections, armour, flagella.): Are any intracellular features visible? (eg. nucleus): VSSEC Mission to the Space Lab Earth Watch 16

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Chapter Overview CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction The atmosphere and the ocean are one independent system. Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis. There are three major wind belts in each hemisphere.

More information

How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate?

How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate? How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate? In Learning Set 2, you explored how water heats up more slowly than land and also cools off more slowly than land. Weather is caused by events in the atmosphere.

More information

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence shows us that our climate is

More information

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the

More information

Hurricanes. Characteristics of a Hurricane

Hurricanes. Characteristics of a Hurricane Hurricanes Readings: A&B Ch. 12 Topics 1. Characteristics 2. Location 3. Structure 4. Development a. Tropical Disturbance b. Tropical Depression c. Tropical Storm d. Hurricane e. Influences f. Path g.

More information

Understanding weather and climate

Understanding weather and climate Understanding weather and climate Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence

More information

Geography affects climate.

Geography affects climate. KEY CONCEPT Climate is a long-term weather pattern. BEFORE, you learned The Sun s energy heats Earth s surface unevenly The atmosphere s temperature changes with altitude Oceans affect wind flow NOW, you

More information

Section 3 What Is Climate?

Section 3 What Is Climate? Section 3 What Is Climate? Key Concept Earth s climate zones are caused by the distribution of heat around Earth s surface by wind and ocean currents. What You Will Learn Climate is the average weather

More information

Data Sets of Climate Science

Data Sets of Climate Science The 5 Most Important Data Sets of Climate Science Photo: S. Rahmstorf This presentation was prepared on the occasion of the Arctic Expedition for Climate Action, July 2008. Author: Stefan Rahmstorf, Professor

More information

MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH

MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH BAL BHARATI PUBLIC SCHOOL, PITAMPURA, DELHI 110034 UNIT TEST II CLASS 6 SOCIAL SCIENCE MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH Q1. What is Lithosphere? The solid portion of the earth on which we live is called the

More information

Coral Reefs Lecture Notes

Coral Reefs Lecture Notes Coral Reefs Lecture Notes (Topic 10D) page 1 Coral Reefs Lecture Notes Corals Polyps & Zooxanthellae Coral Polyps Are coral polyps algae or animals? Description (What do coral polyps look like? Make a

More information

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity Seasonal & Daily Temperatures Seasons & Sun's Distance The role of Earth's tilt, revolution, & rotation in causing spatial, seasonal, & daily temperature variations Please read Chapter 3 in Ahrens Figure

More information

The concepts developed in this standard include the following: Oceans cover about 70% of the surface of the Earth.

The concepts developed in this standard include the following: Oceans cover about 70% of the surface of the Earth. Name Date Grade 5 SOL 5.6 Review Oceans Made by SOLpass - www.solpass.org solpass100@comcast.net Reproduction is permitted for SOLpass subscribers only. The concepts developed in this standard include

More information

CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate

CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate Name: Date: Day/Period: CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate Chapter 12 in the Making Connections textbook deals with Climate Connections. Use pages 127-144 to fill

More information

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test.

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test. Select the be answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this te. 1. Weather is be defined as the A. changes that occur in cloud formations from day to day. B. amount of rain or snow that

More information

Water Pollution and Algal Blooms in the Coastal Waters of the U.S.

Water Pollution and Algal Blooms in the Coastal Waters of the U.S. Water Pollution and Algal Blooms in the Coastal Waters of the U.S. edited by David L. Alles Western Washington University e-mail: alles@biol.wwu.edu Last updated 2008-2-27 Note: In PDF format most of the

More information

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE 1. What is climate change? Climate change is a long-term shift in the climate of a specific location, region or planet. The shift is measured by changes in features associated

More information

Weather and climate. reflect. what do you think? look out!

Weather and climate. reflect. what do you think? look out! reflect You re going on vacation in a week and you have to start thinking about what clothes you re going to pack for your trip. You ve read the weather reports for your vacation spot, but you know that

More information

The Polar Climate Zones

The Polar Climate Zones The Polar Climate Zones How cold is it in the polar climate? Polar areas are the coldest of all the major climate zones The Sun is hardly ever high enough in the sky to cause the plentiful ice to melt,

More information

2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States.

2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 1. Which weather instrument has most improved the accuracy of weather forecasts over the past 40 years? 1) thermometer 3) weather satellite 2) sling psychrometer 4) weather balloon 6. Wind velocity is

More information

Elements of the Weather

Elements of the Weather Elements of the Weather The weather is made up of different elements, which are measured either by special instruments or are observed by a meteorologist. These measurements are then recorded and used

More information

Clouds and the Energy Cycle

Clouds and the Energy Cycle August 1999 NF-207 The Earth Science Enterprise Series These articles discuss Earth's many dynamic processes and their interactions Clouds and the Energy Cycle he study of clouds, where they occur, and

More information

The Sun and Water Cycle

The Sun and Water Cycle reflect Have you ever jumped in a puddle or played in the rain? If so, you know you can get very wet. What you may not know is that a dinosaur could have walked through that same water millions of years

More information

Biomes: Extreme Climate: Teacher s Guide

Biomes: Extreme Climate: Teacher s Guide Biomes: Extreme Climate: Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 6-8 Curriculum Focus: Ecology Lesson Duration: Two class periods Program Description Travel to the Arctic with a team of environmental research scientists

More information

The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System

The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System NASA Facts National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System The Sun is the major source of energy for Earth s oceans, atmosphere, land, and biosphere.

More information

Answers. Sun, Earth, Moon. Year 7 Science Chapter 10

Answers. Sun, Earth, Moon. Year 7 Science Chapter 10 Answers Sun, Earth, Moon Year 7 Science Chapter 10 p216 1 Geocentric indicates a model in which Earth is the centre of the universe. 2 Pythagoras reasoning was that the sphere is the perfect shape and

More information

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1 MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1. The volume of a given mass of water at a temperature of T 1 is V 1. The volume increases to V 2 at temperature T 2. The coefficient of volume expansion of water may be calculated

More information

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills Climate and Climate Change Name Date Class Climate and Climate Change Guided Reading and Study What Causes Climate? This section describes factors that determine climate, or the average weather conditions

More information

MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH

MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH 5 MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH Word Origin In the Greek language, Lithos means Stone; Atmos means Vapour; Hudor means Water; and Bios means Life. Can you make words using the above? As you have read in the

More information

Orbital-Scale Climate Change

Orbital-Scale Climate Change Orbital-Scale Climate Change Climate Needed for Ice Age Warm winter and non-frozen oceans so lots of evaporation and snowfall Cool summer so that ice does not melt Ice Age Model When ice growing ocean

More information

FOURTH GRADE WORKBOOK

FOURTH GRADE WORKBOOK FOURTH GRADE WORKBOOK student Math/Science Nucleus 1990,2001 WATER CYCLE - WATER (4) TRY AND LOCATE THE PARTS OF THE WATER CYCLE ON THE ABOVE CARTOON. USE THE NUMBERS. DRAW IN ITEMS THAT MIGHT NOT BE DRAWN.

More information

The atmosphere has a number of gases, often in tiny amounts, which trap the heat given out by the Earth.

The atmosphere has a number of gases, often in tiny amounts, which trap the heat given out by the Earth. The Earth is wrapped in a blanket of air called the atmosphere, which is made up of several layers of gases. The sun is much hotter than the Earth and it gives off rays of heat (radiation) that travel

More information

Seasonal Temperature Variations

Seasonal Temperature Variations Seasonal and Daily Temperatures Fig. 3-CO, p. 54 Seasonal Temperature Variations What causes the seasons What governs the seasons is the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground What two primary factors

More information

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM Name the planets in their order from the sun. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The asteroid belt is between and Which planet has the most moons? About how many?

More information

Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development

Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development Chapter 24: Tropical Cyclones Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development Hurricane Characteristics Definition: Hurricanes have sustained winds of 120 km/hr (74 mph) or greater. Size:

More information

WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test

WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What role does runoff play in the water cycle? a. It is the process in

More information

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere BRSP - 10 Page 1 Solar radiation reaching Earth s atmosphere includes a wide spectrum of wavelengths. In addition to visible light there is radiation of higher energy and shorter wavelength called ultraviolet

More information

Heating the Atmosphere. Dr. Michael J Passow

Heating the Atmosphere. Dr. Michael J Passow Heating the Atmosphere Dr. Michael J Passow Heat vs. Temperature Heat refers to energy transferred from one object to another Temperature measures the average kinetic energy in a substance. When heat energy

More information

Ocean Floor Continental Slope Begins at the Continental Shelf Very sharp drop to depths over 2 miles Covered with thick layers of sand, mud, and rocks

Ocean Floor Continental Slope Begins at the Continental Shelf Very sharp drop to depths over 2 miles Covered with thick layers of sand, mud, and rocks Ocean Floor Continental Shelf Begins at the shoreline Gently slopes underwater Average depth of 430 feet Thick layers of sand, mud, and rocks The beach is part of the Continental Shelf Ocean Floor Continental

More information

Peacehaven Community School, East Sussex Independent KS3 study task: Impact of humans on global warming

Peacehaven Community School, East Sussex Independent KS3 study task: Impact of humans on global warming Independent KS3 study task: Impact of humans on global warming Newspaper article: Will polar bears become extinct? Polar bear by Ansgar Walk Polar bears live in the northern (Arctic) parts of Alaska, Canada,

More information

Section 1 The Earth System

Section 1 The Earth System Section 1 The Earth System Key Concept Earth is a complex system made up of many smaller systems through which matter and energy are continuously cycled. What You Will Learn Energy and matter flow through

More information

Water Cycle Webquest

Water Cycle Webquest Grade 7 Science Calamity Day #8 Water Cycle Webquest In early 2014, NASA will launch an important satellite that will enable us to learn more about our home planet. The Global Precipitation Measurement

More information

The Atmosphere and Winds

The Atmosphere and Winds Oceanography 10, T. James Noyes, El Camino College 8A-1 The Atmosphere and Winds We need to learn about the atmosphere, because the ocean and atmosphere are tightly interconnected with one another: you

More information

The Oceans Role in Climate

The Oceans Role in Climate The Oceans Role in Climate Martin H. Visbeck A Numerical Portrait of the Oceans The oceans of the world cover nearly seventy percent of its surface. The largest is the Pacific, which contains fifty percent

More information

GLOBAL WARMING: THE SIGNS AND THE SCIENCE

GLOBAL WARMING: THE SIGNS AND THE SCIENCE GLOBAL WARMING: THE SIGNS AND THE SCIENCE PBS Home Video Host: Alanis Morissette Corporate Funding (always check out sponsors to determine the possibility of advocacy and influence by sponsors) Toyota

More information

INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17

INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17 INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17 STD V WORKSHEET Page 1 of 7 SOCIAL STUDIES LESSON - 1. KNOW YOUR PLANET Fill in the blanks: 1. A book containing maps is called an. 2. A Flemish map maker,

More information

Teacher s Guide For. Glaciers and Ice Caps The Melting

Teacher s Guide For. Glaciers and Ice Caps The Melting Teacher s Guide For Glaciers and Ice Caps The Melting For grade 7 - College Program produced by Centre Communications, Inc. for Ambrose Video Publishing, Inc. Executive Producer William V. Ambrose Teacher's

More information

climate science A SHORT GUIDE TO This is a short summary of a detailed discussion of climate change science.

climate science A SHORT GUIDE TO This is a short summary of a detailed discussion of climate change science. A SHORT GUIDE TO climate science This is a short summary of a detailed discussion of climate change science. For more information and to view the full report, visit royalsociety.org/policy/climate-change

More information

How to analyze synoptic-scale weather patterns Table of Contents

How to analyze synoptic-scale weather patterns Table of Contents How to analyze synoptic-scale weather patterns Table of Contents Before You Begin... 2 1. Identify H and L pressure systems... 3 2. Locate fronts and determine frontal activity... 5 3. Determine surface

More information

For public information only; not an official document. March 2013

For public information only; not an official document. March 2013 For public information only; not an official document March 2013 1) There is a strong scientific consensus that the global climate is changing and that human activity contributes significantly. This consensus

More information

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

More information

PMEL Press Releases and NOAA News Stories FY09- FY14

PMEL Press Releases and NOAA News Stories FY09- FY14 PMEL Press Releases and NOAA News Stories FY09- FY14 PMEL WIDE Oceanographer named to head NOAA s Seattle research laboratory http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2011/20111018_pmel.html CLIMATE THEME most

More information

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth This chapter is concerned with the nature of energy and how it interacts with Earth. At this stage we are looking at energy in an abstract form though relate it to how it affect

More information

Temperature affects water in the air.

Temperature affects water in the air. KEY CONCEPT Most clouds form as air rises and cools. BEFORE, you learned Water vapor circulates from Earth to the atmosphere Warm air is less dense than cool air and tends to rise NOW, you will learn How

More information

CLIMATE, WATER & LIVING PATTERNS THINGS

CLIMATE, WATER & LIVING PATTERNS THINGS CLIMATE, WATER & LIVING PATTERNS NAME THE SIX MAJOR CLIMATE REGIONS DESCRIBE EACH CLIMATE REGION TELL THE FIVE FACTORS THAT AFFECT CLIMATE EXPLAIN HOW THOSE FACTORS AFFECT CLIMATE DESCRIBE HOW CLIMATES

More information

8.5 Comparing Canadian Climates (Lab)

8.5 Comparing Canadian Climates (Lab) These 3 climate graphs and tables of data show average temperatures and precipitation for each month in Victoria, Winnipeg and Whitehorse: Figure 1.1 Month J F M A M J J A S O N D Year Precipitation 139

More information

Hyperspectral Satellite Imaging Planning a Mission

Hyperspectral Satellite Imaging Planning a Mission Hyperspectral Satellite Imaging Planning a Mission Victor Gardner University of Maryland 2007 AIAA Region 1 Mid-Atlantic Student Conference National Institute of Aerospace, Langley, VA Outline Objective

More information

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 1: OCTOBER 1, 2015 Outline How exactly the Sun heats the Earth How strong? Important concept

More information

Storm tide is the water level rise during a storm due to the combination of storm surge and the astronomical tide.

Storm tide is the water level rise during a storm due to the combination of storm surge and the astronomical tide. INTRODUCTION TO STORM SURGE Introduction to Storm Surge BOLIVAR PENINSULA IN TEXAS AFTER HURRICANE IKE (2008) What is Storm Surge? Inland Extent Storm surge can penetrate well inland from the coastline.

More information

The Science and Ethics of Global warming. Global warming has become one of the central political and scientific issues of

The Science and Ethics of Global warming. Global warming has become one of the central political and scientific issues of The Science and Ethics of Global warming Global warming has become one of the central political and scientific issues of our time. It holds a fascination for scientists because of the tremendous complexity

More information

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles I. Air Temperature: Five important factors influence air temperature: A. Insolation B. Latitude C. Surface types D. Coastal vs. interior

More information

Biomes An Overview of Ecology Biomes Freshwater Biomes

Biomes An Overview of Ecology Biomes Freshwater Biomes Biomes An Overview of Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environments. Ecology can be divided into four increasingly comprehensive levels: Organismal

More information

Thermal Expansion and Sea Level Rise

Thermal Expansion and Sea Level Rise Thermal Expansion and Sea Level Rise A demonstration or group activity directed at grade levels 5 9 Activity Summary: This activity provides an opportunity for students to investigate how thermal expansion

More information

Study Guide: Water Cycle & Humidity

Study Guide: Water Cycle & Humidity Earth Science Name Date Per. Study Guide: Water Cycle & Humidity 1. Explain the difference between Specific Humidity and Relative Humidity. Specific humidity refers to the actual amount of water vapor

More information

WEATHER AND CLIMATE WHY DOES IT MATTER?

WEATHER AND CLIMATE WHY DOES IT MATTER? WEATHER AND CLIMATE Rising global average temperature is associated with widespread changes in weather patterns. Scientific studies indicate that extreme weather events such as heat waves and large storms

More information

Graphing Sea Ice Extent in the Arctic and Antarctic

Graphing Sea Ice Extent in the Arctic and Antarctic Graphing Sea Ice Extent in the Arctic and Antarctic Summary: Students graph sea ice extent (area) in both polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic) over a three-year period to learn about seasonal variations

More information

Anticyclones, depressions, hot & drought, cold & snow

Anticyclones, depressions, hot & drought, cold & snow AS/A2-Level Geography Anticyclones, depressions, hot & drought, cold & snow Learning Objectives: To describe and explain the weather associated with high and low pressure systems and their links to extreme

More information

Sustainable Living Student Worksheets

Sustainable Living Student Worksheets Sustainable Living Student Worksheets Stage 4 Design & Technology FW4DT1 Name: Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to keep

More information

Storm tide is the water level rise during a storm due to the combination of storm surge and the astronomical tide.

Storm tide is the water level rise during a storm due to the combination of storm surge and the astronomical tide. INTRODUCTION TO STORM SURGE Introduction to Storm Surge National Hurricane Center Storm Surge Unit BOLIVAR PENINSULA IN TEXAS AFTER HURRICANE IKE (2008) What is Storm Surge? Inland Extent Storm surge can

More information

Continents join together and split apart.

Continents join together and split apart. KEY CONCEPT Continents change position over time. BEFORE, you learned Earth s main layers are the core, the mantle, and the crust The lithosphere and asthenosphere are the topmost layers of Earth The lithosphere

More information

Waves disturbances caused by the movement of energy from a source through some medium.

Waves disturbances caused by the movement of energy from a source through some medium. Oceanography Chapter 10 Waves disturbances caused by the movement of energy from a source through some medium. Floating Gull- Figure 10.1 water is not moving only the energy is moving through the water.

More information

Planetary Energy Balance

Planetary Energy Balance Planetary Energy Balance Electromagnetic Spectrum Different types of radiation enter the Earth s atmosphere and they re all a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. One end of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum

More information

Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor

Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 2: 9/30/13 Water Water is a remarkable molecule Water vapor

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives Ecosystem Ecology Community interacts with abiotic factors Objectives Compare the processes of energy flow and chemical cycling as they relate to ecosystem dynamics. Define and list examples of producers,

More information

The Carbon Cycle: Teacher Led Lesson Plan

The Carbon Cycle: Teacher Led Lesson Plan : Teacher Led Lesson Plan Subject/Strand/Topic: Science Sustainability of Ecosystems Carbon Cycle Grade(s) / Course(s): 10 / SNC 2D/2P Ontario Expectations: BY1.01D/P Key Concepts: carbon cycle, sources,

More information

First Grade Science Vocabulary

First Grade Science Vocabulary data conclusion predict describe observe record identify investigate evidence recycle dispose reuse goggles air cloud precipitation temperature weather wind precipitation property season temperature weather

More information

GETTING TO THE CORE: THE LINK BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND CARBON DIOXIDE

GETTING TO THE CORE: THE LINK BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND CARBON DIOXIDE DESCRIPTION This lesson plan gives students first-hand experience in analyzing the link between atmospheric temperatures and carbon dioxide ( ) s by looking at ice core data spanning hundreds of thousands

More information

4/14/2012. The Oceans. Ocean Floor Geologic Provinces. Continental Margin. Turbidity Currents. Major Ocean Basins:

4/14/2012. The Oceans. Ocean Floor Geologic Provinces. Continental Margin. Turbidity Currents. Major Ocean Basins: The Oceans Major Ocean Basins: Pacific Ocean largest and deepest Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean S. Hemisphere Arctic smallest and most shallow Ocean Floor Geologic Provinces Continental Margin Continental

More information

Ms Chairman and distinguished guests,

Ms Chairman and distinguished guests, Ms Chairman and distinguished guests, On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment, I am honored to open this conference that brings together scientists, policymakers and civil society from the Barents

More information

THE EARTH S RELIEF UNIT 2:

THE EARTH S RELIEF UNIT 2: UNIT 2: THE EARTH S RELIEF Summary 1. Inside Earth The Earth is made of many different and distinct layers. The deeper layers are composed of heavier materials, they are hotter, denser and under much greater

More information

LONG TERM ARCTIC ICE TRENDS AND GLOBAL WARMING. A comment by Tom Goreau. January 8 2010

LONG TERM ARCTIC ICE TRENDS AND GLOBAL WARMING. A comment by Tom Goreau. January 8 2010 LONG TERM ARCTIC ICE TRENDS AND GLOBAL WARMING A comment by Tom Goreau January 8 2010 Those who seek to deny global warming constantly use transparently obvious tricks, selecting data from a single time,

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Natural Disasters 6 th Grade

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Natural Disasters 6 th Grade The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

ES 106 Laboratory # 3 INTRODUCTION TO OCEANOGRAPHY. Introduction The global ocean covers nearly 75% of Earth s surface and plays a vital role in

ES 106 Laboratory # 3 INTRODUCTION TO OCEANOGRAPHY. Introduction The global ocean covers nearly 75% of Earth s surface and plays a vital role in ES 106 Laboratory # 3 INTRODUCTION TO OCEANOGRAPHY 3-1 Introduction The global ocean covers nearly 75% of Earth s surface and plays a vital role in the physical environment of Earth. For these reasons,

More information

Ch. 15 - Air, Weather, and Climate. Outline

Ch. 15 - Air, Weather, and Climate. Outline Ch. 15 - Air, Weather, and Climate 1 Outline The Atmosphere and Climate Convection Currents Greenhouse Effect Weather Winds Frontal Systems Cyclonic Storms Climate El Nino Climate Change Kyoto Protocol

More information

It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2015 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. Montessori Model United Nations. All rights reserved.

It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2015 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. Montessori Model United Nations. All rights reserved. Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2015 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. The following pages intend to guide you in the research of the topics that will be debated at MMUN

More information

We already went through a (small, benign) climate change in The Netherlands

We already went through a (small, benign) climate change in The Netherlands We already went through a (small, benign) climate change in The Netherlands 15-16 October 1987, gusts till 220 km/h, great damage 2004, almost 1400 tornado s December (!!) 2001, Faxai, 879 mbar 27 December

More information

Temporal variation in snow cover over sea ice in Antarctica using AMSR-E data product

Temporal variation in snow cover over sea ice in Antarctica using AMSR-E data product Temporal variation in snow cover over sea ice in Antarctica using AMSR-E data product Michael J. Lewis Ph.D. Student, Department of Earth and Environmental Science University of Texas at San Antonio ABSTRACT

More information

SIXTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SIXTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SIXTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Evaluating components of the water cycle. LAB: Experimenting with porosity and permeability.

More information

The Earth System. The geosphere is the solid Earth that includes the continental and oceanic crust as well as the various layers of Earth s interior.

The Earth System. The geosphere is the solid Earth that includes the continental and oceanic crust as well as the various layers of Earth s interior. The Earth System The atmosphere is the gaseous envelope that surrounds Earth. It consists of a mixture of gases composed primarily of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. The atmosphere and

More information

FOURTH GRADE WEATHER

FOURTH GRADE WEATHER FOURTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different reservoirs of water. LAB: Experimenting with surface tension and capillary

More information

For public information only; not an official document. November 2013

For public information only; not an official document. November 2013 For public information only; not an official document November 2013 1) There is a strong scientific consensus that the global climate is changing and that human activity contributes significantly to this

More information

Algae Plankton Arctic Cod Seals Polar Bears

Algae Plankton Arctic Cod Seals Polar Bears Why is Climate Change such a Hot issue for the North Pole? Student Handout Scientists expect northern regions to warm up more than other parts of the world as the Earth s climate changes. If you have flown

More information

Earth Systems. atmosphere, geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere. Made by Liesl at homeschoolden.com

Earth Systems. atmosphere, geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere. Made by Liesl at homeschoolden.com Earth Systems atmosphere, geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere You may make as many copies as you need for your homeschool or classroom. Feel free to link to the original post. Feel free to use the image

More information

Perth Academy. Geography Department

Perth Academy. Geography Department Perth Academy Geography Department Natural Hazards Tropical Storms Natural Hazards Natural Hazards affect a large percentage of the world s population. Despite the damage and destruction caused, there

More information

Storms Short Study Guide

Storms Short Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Storms Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A(n) thunderstorm forms because of unequal heating

More information

Welcome to the Understanding Dissolved Oxygen learning module. This section provides information on the following topics:

Welcome to the Understanding Dissolved Oxygen learning module. This section provides information on the following topics: Introduction Welcome to the learning module. This section provides information on the following topics: How dissolved oxygen is defined and measured in numbers Why dissolved oxygen is important Natural

More information

SPQ Module 3 Solar Power

SPQ Module 3 Solar Power SPQ Module 3 Solar Power The sun is the source of all life on earth. Yet we sometimes forget how central it is to our every activity. We stumble through our daily routine worrying about the mundane tribulations

More information

Present Status of Coastal Environmental Monitoring in Korean Waters. Using Remote Sensing Data

Present Status of Coastal Environmental Monitoring in Korean Waters. Using Remote Sensing Data Present Status of Coastal Environmental Monitoring in Korean Waters Using Remote Sensing Data Sang-Woo Kim, Young-Sang Suh National Fisheries Research & Development Institute #408-1, Shirang-ri, Gijang-up,

More information

Consider How can you collect solar energy for use in your school? What are other alternatives?

Consider How can you collect solar energy for use in your school? What are other alternatives? 5 a 5 Energy Sources a - Energy from the sun Purpose To explore sourcing our energy from the sun Key concepts Solar energy is a natural and renewable resource Heat energy from the sun can be used to heat

More information

Estimating Firn Emissivity, from 1994 to1998, at the Ski Hi Automatic Weather Station on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Using Passive Microwave Data

Estimating Firn Emissivity, from 1994 to1998, at the Ski Hi Automatic Weather Station on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Using Passive Microwave Data Estimating Firn Emissivity, from 1994 to1998, at the Ski Hi Automatic Weather Station on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Using Passive Microwave Data Mentor: Dr. Malcolm LeCompte Elizabeth City State University

More information