The Clute Institute International Academic Conference San Antonio, Texas, USA 2014

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1 Creating An Enabling Environment For The Teaching And Learning Of Vocational And Technical Education In Nigeria And Sub-Saharan Africa Ethel E. Idialu, Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria ABSTRACT Vocational and technical education can be described as an aspect of education that is geared towards the training of students for skilled performance, training, and retraining of individuals, acquisition of skills, and competences. It is also a tool for training the youths and unemployed persons for jobs and help workers update or extend their job skills. The aim of vocational and technical education is to produce manpower for social, economic, and industrial development. Also, to make the learner more productive through improved performance in either employment or being self employed. To achieve the above, there is the need to create an enabling environment for the teaching and learning of vocational and technical education which is to a large extent lacking in our schools and colleges at various levels currently. The focus of this paper is to discuss vocational and technical education in our schools, current state of teaching and learning in vocational and technical education, an ideal environment for teaching and learning in vocational and technical education. The paper also made suggestions and recommendations on possible ways of creating an enabling environment to achieve efficient and effective teaching and learning in vocational and technical education at various levels of our educational system. Keywords: Vocational Education; Technical Education; Teaching and Learning INTRODUCTION/CONCEPT OF VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION This paper is focused on creating an enabling environment for the teaching and learning of vocational and technical education in our schools and other institutions of learning. It means that environment has a strong influence in teaching and learning processes, because effective teaching can only take place in an environment that is organized, motivating and peaceful. The environment where teaching and learning in vocational and technical education takes place is an important educational factor that needs to be considered by everyone concerned, the environment needs adequate attention in the area of infrastructural facilities, and made conducive for learning purposes in order to achieve the set goals and objectives. The National policy on Education NPE (2004) regarded vocational and technical education as an integral part of general education in Nigeria. It therefore defined it in the following way. Technical and vocational education is used as a comprehensive term referring to those aspects of the educational process involving. The study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life. In the light of this, vocational and technical education is the preparation of individuals to acquire practical skills as well as basic scientific knowledge, it provides skilled manpower, for the world of work, that is increasing the workforce in the country, individuals with specialized skill as offshoots of efficient vocational and technical education as they are trained, equipped, with workable practical/skills, knowledge, aptitude and competencies required in specific occupations. Copyright by author(s) 33 The Clute Institute

2 Okorie and Ezeji (1991) highlighted that the theories of vocational and technical education, is based on the acquisition of requisite skills which is a means of increasing the productive power of a nation. Gills (1999) emphasized that the weather or poverty of any nation depends on the quality of higher education. This goes further to buttress the fact that those with productive skills and tendency for learning can achieve all that they are set to achieve and gain fulfillment in all their endeavor. According to Okolocha and lie (2005) Vocational education programs focus on the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competencies as necessary equipment for the individual to live in adapt to the real work situation and contribute to the development of his society. Vocational and technical education assists all young people to secure their own future by enhancing their transition to a lot of opportunities after school. Vocational and technical education can be seen as an aspect of education which utilizes scientific knowledge in the acquisition of practical and applied skill in the solution of technical problems. It is the process of acquiring attitude, knowledge, competencies relating to occupations in various factors of economics and social life (UNESCO 1988). Vocational and technical education has also been described by Udoye (2005) as the education that prepares students mainly for occupations requiring manipulative skills and is designed to develop skills, abilities, understanding, attitude and work habits needed for useful and productive basis. It therefore means that vocational and technical education is that type of education that needs the inculcation of practical skills into recipients so that they will be able to practice experiences, they acquired in real life situations. This can provide employment for its recipients. Fafunwa, (1974) described technical and vocational education as an important practical skill development program designed to equip persons of trainable qualities with skills that employers of labor want in the industries, in fact, it is considered as the launching pad for technological development, yet it had a very slow take off in the history of education in Nigeria. To a great extent, the image of this type of education has greatly affected its popularity. Beal (1976) observed that for too long, vocational and technical education has been for someone else s child, therefore relegated to the bottom of the national education priority list. The program was stereo typed and seen as designed for the less priviledge in the society. Vocational education is an area of study designed for the redevelopment of skills, attitudes and appreciation needed by workers to enter into and progress successfully in a chosen vocation. Olaitan (1998) also, Eya (2001), stated that it is a preparation for occupation endeavors in agricultural education and business education. This means that vocational education is a training, that equips learners with the knowledge and skills in the productive, distributive, and service industries for self or paid employment, vocational technical education can also be regarded as the education that enables one to acquire knowledge and skills in the vocational and technical areas to systematically solve human or societal problems (Okwo, 2000). This type of education trains and prepares it s recipients for the world of work. It lays great emphasis on skill acquisition and development to meet the human resources required in the world of work. Vocational and technical education refers to that integral part of general education (FRN, 2004: 30). Including the Junior Secondary School, the Senior Secondary School and Technical Education obtained in polytechnics, monotechnics, colleges of education (technical) and in the universities. Osuala (1998) viewed this type of education as a training intended to prepare the student to earn a living in an occupation in which success is dependent largely on technical information and on the understanding of the laws of science and technology as applied to modern design, production, distribution, and services. From the foregoing, Vocational Education can be described as an aspect of education which is concerned with, the preparation of skilled manpower. It is the form of education, training that is directed towards developing the students to become productive, employable or in self employment. It is therefore the bedrock in which a country s socio-economic, technological and cultural advancement must be built (Idialu, 2007) also, vocational education, enhances opportunities for all types of learning, it has the function of providing qualified manpower demanded by changing the individual and enabling him to use complex technology. To achieve the objectives of vocational and technical education, there is the need to create an enabling environment for the teaching and learning of vocational and technical education in our schools in order to ensure Copyright by author(s) 34 The Clute Institute

3 good quality teaching and learning environment that is crucial to helping students in high academic standards, improved quality in teaching and examination, has become very necessary because graduates who pass through training in this form of education are unable to perform adequately as they ought to and as such, unemployment, poverty has engulf most of them. The overall aim of quality teaching and learning is to create opportunity for high quality learning which will be evaluated through performance at the long run. This form of education has its own function as stated by the National Policy on Education (1981) in Nigeria as follows: To provide manpower in applied science, technology and commerce particularly at sub-professional levels. To provide the technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for Agriculture, industrial, commercial, and economic development. To provide people who can apply scientific knowledge to the improvement and solution of environmental problems for the convenience of man. To give an introduction to professional studies in engineering and other technologies. To give training and impart the necessary skills leading to the production of craftsmen, technicians, and other skilled personnel who will be enterprising and self reliant, and to enable young men and women to have an intelligent understanding of the increasing complexity of technology. These expectations cannot be realized if good quality teaching and learning environment is not created. CURRENT STATE OF TEACHING AND LEARNING IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS With the introduction of the national policy on education i.e. ( ) system, the public teachers, students to some extent became aware of the need to develop necessary useable skills required to operate our various industries. Subjects taught are offered with the aim of training the students in various skills and competencies required for their future developments. Osuji (2004) asserted that government strongly believes that the objectives of job creation and poverty reduction can only be realized through appropriate education which empowers the product of the education system with skills and competencies to become self employed. This hope can only be achieved if the vocational and technical subjects are well taught and appropriate learning environment created in our schools at various levels. Vocational and technical education programs are designed for people who can profit and progress by it, in order to accomplish this outcomes, an enabling environment must be provided for quality teaching and learning program. Unfortunately, the teaching and learning of subjects in vocational and technical education has been besieged by numerous problems which include poor organization and slow pace of implementation. Some of the constraints that led to the problems of this type of education as stated by Okon (2003) are irregular and gross under funding, governments negative attitude vocational and technical education, Lack of political will to address the compelling needs of Vocational and Technical Education curriculum reforms, in adequate infrastructure, low student enrolments and achievements, academic corruption, societal consumptive rather than productive attitude, among others (Yakubu, 2006). Vocational education cannot function properly unless there is high quality in the standard of teaching, materials available, infrastructure, teaching methods, proper evaluation of students in the program where they are lacking, effective and efficient teaching and learning cannot be guaranteed. In Nigeria today vocational and technical education program in institutions are severely underfunded as most institution programs are run on deficit budgets. The difficult economic and political conditions made it difficult to increase fees in schools. Some of the current situation existing in our educational environment that affects the quality of teaching and learning in vocational and technical education are as follows: Lack of / Deteriorating Infrastructure o Infrastructure as described by Ehiametalor (2001) are the operational inputs of every instructional program and they constitute elements that are necessary for teaching and learning e.g buildings, Copyright by author(s) 35 The Clute Institute

4 laboratories, machinery, furniture and electrical fixtures. Infrastructure represent the empirical relevance of the totality of school environment for the realization of school business. He identifies the following as components of infrastructure: landscape, playgrounds, buildings, classrooms, library, laboratory blocks, sick bays, toilets, hostels, administrative blocks and so on, utilities such as electricity, pipe-borne water, and security facilities walls (fences) gates, telephone and information technology system. It also includes the basic systems and services that are necessary for smooth organization of buildings, transport, water, power supplies and administrative systems. To a large extent the issues discussed above are lacking in our educational institutions, classes are overcrowded, libraries, offices, estates, hostels, etc. the shortage of equipment and facilities can hinder quality of teaching and learning, quality reduces when the facilities required for imparting and learning are not provided. Olaitan (1996) remarked that the condition under which vocational and technical education is imparted is poor, most secondary and tertiary institutions lack equipment for training, lack workshops and workshop facilities, have ill-equipped laboratories and libraries. Students in this program are supposed to be exposed to a work environment while in school to enable them fit in and outside the school environment. The acute shortage/lack of infrastructure and equipment e g machinery, laboratories, tools, is a result of successive government in Nigeria starving vocational and technical education of funds leading to poor or lack of laboratories, workshops, and training facilities. This situation, has affected the production of skilled manpower, useful for employment and nation building from the foregoing, the lack/deterioration of infrastructure in schools can not in any way guarantee effective delivery of technical and vocational education. It was observed that in some schools, workshop equipment are not spaced enough to accommodate students they are either crowded together or are outside the workshop during practical work which is improper for any meaningful academic work. Funding o Inadequate funding has been a very serious problem in the effective implementation of teaching and learning in vocational and technical education. Oguntoye (2001) emphasized that, since vocational education is not accorded much recognition by general educators in this country, it naturally follows that only meager resources are allocated to it at every level of vocational education in Nigeria, enough funds are never allocated to it for acquiring the right environment. Due to inadequate funds, it becomes difficult to purchase and procure laboratory equipment and materials for vocational/technical education, accommodation, training program, for teachers, infrastructure and services. All the above problems border on inadequate funding and non-commitment on the part of government, and this is bound to affect the efficiency of the products and the program. The Image of Vocational and Technical Education in the Society o The society still believes that vocational / technical education is meant for dropouts and children of poor people. It is seen as inferior to other types of education. Salami (1992) asserted that the Nigerian society of our time regards technical education as a form of education meant for people who are backward academically, that is why most people enroll in it as the last resort and prefer to invest in or contribute to science and liberal education. Some parents view it as education meant for other people s children and prefer theirs to read medicine, engineering, law etc. it is proper to note that vocational and technical education cannot yield the desired benefits unless there is a re-orientation of the society on the need to embrace it fully. Shortage of Manpower o There is a severe shortage of vocational and technical Education teachers to man, the program in the schools, the need for qualified teachers in this field of study is very necessary in order to ensure employment and self employment for the teaming youths who go about looking, for white collar jobs. The implication of this is that people who do not acquire training in vocational technical education drafted in some situations to teach vocational / technical education courses. o Mkpa (2005) assets that no educational program can succeed without an adequate crop of committed teachers. The objective of vocational education cannot be achieved in the face of gross inadequacy of teachers, it is obvious from his data that non vocational subject teachers are being conscripted to teach vocational subjects in schools and this may have been responsible for the poor performance in school certificate examination. Copyright by author(s) 36 The Clute Institute

5 Ineffective administration / Supervision of Teaching and Learning Vocational and Technical Education in Schools o Ineffective administrations/supervision of teaching and learning vocational and technical education in school can hinder effective development of vocational education program, the lack of coordination required between the various federal, state and local agencies/ministries responsible for the administration of the program can lead to a total disintegration of order in the school system whereby people do what they like and ignore the main thrust of their job. The management of the program seems to have been neglected by government and the institutions. Most of the policies evolved by the government are far from being implemented. They include class size, infrastructure, funding, staffing, remuneration, and transitions from one class to the other. Monitoring, evaluation, supervision and inspection of the program can be a way of keeping with set standards but these are near extinction in the school system today. The lack of coordination has resulted in duplication of efforts at the various spheres of government/administration and has a great effect in the design of appropriate curricula for the youth. Low training quality o The quality of training in this program is low due to much emphasis being laid on theory and certification, rather than on skills/competency acquisition and proficiency testing. This is besieged with inadequate training of instructors, obsolete equipment, lack of experts to operate equipment, lack of instructional materials, lack of quality class space, and instructors all these are factors that leads to ineffectiveness of training in attaining the desired knowledge and skills expected. AN IDEAL ENVIRONMENT FOR THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION It is a known fact that no meaningful teaching and learning can take place in an environment that is not conducive. Observation, experience, and numerous studies have revealed that most of our schools are lacking adequate infrastructural facilities and have obsolete equipment. For there to be good result/output, teaching and learning environment need to be conducive, adequately funded. Infrastructural facilities and services are basically the sure way of attaining this fit. The schools need to be better equipped with good teaching and learning environment, workshops and laboratories. Educational environment posses a strong influence in the teaching and learning processes because effective learning takes place in an environment that is properly organized. This is an important factor that must be taken into consideration for effective teaching and learning. There is the need for the provision of necessary infrastructural facilities and the environment made conducive for teaching and learning to take place. Enabling environment in education cannot be overlooked. Environment can be defined as a system within which living organisms interact with the physical elements. While educational environment is a learning place where the learners learn to interact with learning facilities in order to be socialized and face the challenges in the society, (Essien, 1990) The school physical environment according to Chiu (1997) include the school building and the surrounding grounds such as noise, temperature, and lighting as well as physical, biological, or chemical agents. He highlighted that school environment can include material and human resources, a place of learning that is made up of the entire interactive setting like classrooms, workshops, libraries, fields and offices, administration, staff students relationship and management student relationship. Okoro (1999) opined that effective vocational education can be rendered where the training jobs are carried out the same way, with tools and machines as in the occupation itself. This means that vocational and technical education will be efficient and effective in proportion to the environment in which the learner is trained replica of the environment in which the learner must eventually work. To achieve this, a well planned and organized environment must be made available for students to learn. Onyehalu (1988) viewed the educational environment from three perspectives such as physical, social and abstract. He described physical environment as that which is made up of objects, materials, infrastructural resources and structures from home, schools or community and that this can have great influence on the academic performance of the students and Nations development. Copyright by author(s) 37 The Clute Institute

6 An ideal environment for the teaching and learning of vocational and technical education, should have enough space to accommodate students during instructional/industrial experience, also space/to keep available equipment, materials and tools needed for instructional purposes in a particular working environment, students need to be actively involved in the practical training of vocational and technical education in schools. Learning to a great extent is influenced by the environment students and teachers are exposed to and the facilities that are available in such environment can lead to experience, and this plays an important role in ensuring effective teaching and learning of vocational and technical education. To create a conducive learning environment all effort should be geared towards the provision of adequate buildings, classrooms, workshops, laboratories, water, electricity modern equipments, facilities and other infrastructure. POSSIBLE WAYS OF CREATING AN ENABLING ENVIRONMENT TO ACHIEVE EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT TEACHING AND LEARNING IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION In creating an enabling environment, Egbuonye (1983) clearly emphasized that availability of necessary equipment will enable the students make use of their senses for learning. National Business and Technical Examination Board (NABTEB) reported that candidates are no more committee to learning this behavior has resulted in the low performance of candidates in public examinations. This may be due to poor learning environment. It is therefore necessary to provide an enabling environment for proper teaching and learning to take place in our educational institutions. To achieve this objective, there must be a well organized environment for the students to learn. There is also the need to provide adequate space for instruction/industrial environment to accommodate students, available equipment, materials, and tools meant for instructional purpose in a given industrial environment. In some schools, workshop equipment are not spaced enough to accommodate students, hence the students are either crowded together or are outside workshop during practical work and this may discourage them from learning, as a result of poor school environment. Adequate infrastructure, equipment and facilities should be in sufficient supply to schools, more schools should be built and existing ones repaired to accommodate pupils/students that will be admitted into the program to address the problem effectively and create the right environment for teaching and learning in Vocational, and technical education. It is pertinent to consider the following: Adequate provision of infrastructural facilities, equipment and tools: To teach this subject area effectively, there should be adequate provision of facilities in terms of space, equipment, tools, machines, and other instructional materials in order to acquire the desired knowledge. Adequate workshops, laboratories, classrooms should also be provided to enable students acquire practical experience in the program. Proper Funding: It is very important to state that proper funding is a prerequisite for success in creating an enabling environment in the teaching and learning of vocational and technical education. This program requires money for the procurement of equipment, machines, tools, infrastructure, personnel and materials, Government at various levels, need to make concerted effort to provide adequate fund for the effective implementation of vocational and technical education. Other stakeholders such as parents, community, alumni, philanthropists, schools, and industrial organization should also be committed to the provisions of vocational and technical education. Improve public image: The government and members of the public should endeavor to give recognition to the program, and graduates of vocational and technical education. Positive attitude towards vocational and technical education is highly required to enhance the interest of student enrolling into or already in the program. The government on its part should try to create public awareness on the benefits of vocational and technical education and also provide all that is necessary to enable it achieve the desired objectives so that when the benefits are evidently observed, people may eventually appreciate the course and its realistic value. Personnel Problems: Creating an enabling environment for teaching and learning in vocational and technical education, will largely depend on the availability of qualified, skilled and motivated teachers/lecturers who will teach the graduate the required knowledge, skills and values for technological growth of the nation. More qualified and skilled teachers should be recruited, trained and retrained to teach Copyright by author(s) 38 The Clute Institute

7 vocational and technical subjects and courses in schools, these teachers need to be encouraged by all possible means in order to increase their levels of productivity. Improved Training Quality: This will require the curriculum to include vocational and technical entrepreneurship skills, with emphasis on acquisition of practical knowledge and skills rather than theory and certification. Skills/competency acquisition and proficiency testing should be the core of the program. Obanya (2002) suggested that there is need to address the issue of redesigning vocational and technical education program in Nigeria to meet our commitments in creating workshops, instructional stimulations that are relevant to the practice of industrial and commercial activities for viable business engagements. This requires all hands to be on deck to ensure quality training program, in vocational and technical education. It must be stressed that vocational and technical education graduates are expected to possess entrepreneurial skills so that they can embark on self employed enterprises. Effective Administration/Supervision of teaching and learning in Schools: The administration/supervision of vocational and technical education program in schools should be placed in the hands of qualified professionals in the field of study, the program, courses and all it entails, should be adequately supervised by experts in vocational/technical education, this can be done periodically to ensure that the right knowledge and skills are imparted to the students. The general school environment also need to be catered for, it has to be conducive for the right type of learning to take place. CONCLUSION/RECOMMENDATIONS Going through this paper, there is a great need to create an enabling environment for the teaching and learning of vocational and technical education in our various schools in Nigeria and Sub-Saharan Africa. The fact that institutions are characterized by poor results due to poor teaching and learning environment cannot be overemphasized. This situations occasioned by a myriad of factors which include inadequate funding, poor supply of qualified and experienced staff, non-availability of adequate tools, machines, reagents, materials and equipment amongst others, for partial training and skills acquisition. The resultant effect of these is the creation of not conducive environment, which in turn gives rise to poor results and unskilled graduate. The immediate correction of the above weaknesses is very imperative in order to achieve the objectives of vocational and technical education in our schools and in the lives of graduates from the program. Since vocational and technical education is paramount in National developments, all those concern should make real effort to creating an enabling environment for the teaching and learning of vocational technical education considering the value of quality vocational and technical education, the following recommendations have been proffered: Adequate funding of vocational education program to enable it achieve its aim. Government should provide the necessary equipments, machines facilities and infrastructure needed in the effective teaching and learning of vocational and technical education. School administrators, government and all stakeholders should provide an enabling environment and stimulate the active participation of the private sector, communities, civil society, organizations, and development partners in vocational and technical education development. Improve the competence, resourcefulness, and efficiency of teachers and other personnel through training, capacity building, and motivations. There should be adequate supply of qualified staff to teach in the program. The welfare of teachers should be taken seriously, their salaries, allowances promotions etc should be promptly attended to. Teachers should adequately prepare for their lessons, employ real and concrete items as instructional materials. There should be proper administration and supervision of the schools and learning program to ensure that the desired goal is achieved also to promote hard-work and discipline in schools. Schools need to be adequately equipped with good teaching and learning environment, workshops, laboratories as well as good libraries, should be available to make teaching and learning easy and enjoyable. Improved esteem by the government and the general public to stimulate the interest of students in vocational and technical education. Copyright by author(s) 39 The Clute Institute

8 REFERENCES 1. Beal, J.G. (1976) Vocational education 1976 and beyond. American vocational Journal, Vol. 51, No Chiu, L. (1997) Development and validation of the school achievement, motivating rating scale, education and psychologist measurement, Nigeria vocational Journal 57 (2) Egbuonye, E. (1983). A problem of some method used for teaching chemistry in schools in Nsukka educational zone. Unpublished B.Sc thesis. 4. Ehiametalor, E.T. (2001) School facilities: Management practice in Nigeria. Benin City Nigeria: NAEAP. 5. Essien, M. (1990), Philosophy and objective of vocational education in Nigeria secondary schools. An appraisal of the philosophy and objectives of vocational technical education in Nigeria. 4, Eya, G.M. (2001) Development and constraints of vocational and technical education in Nigeria: Implication for nation building in Nigeria Journal of Curriculum and Instruction Vol. 10 No. 1 P Fafunwa, A.B. (1974) History of education in Nigeria, Long, George Allen and union. 8. Federal Republic of Nigeria (1981) National policy on education. Lagos: NERD press. 9. Federal Republic of Nigeria (200) National policy on education. Lagos. NERD Press. 10. Gills, W. (1999), Convocation address at Rice University, 12, Feb., Idialu, E.E. (2007) Improving the quality of vocational and technical education through globalization (NAEAP) Journal. 12. Mkpa, M.A. (2005) Challengers of Implementing the school curriculum in Nigeria. Journal of curriculum Studies Vol. 12 No. 1 P Obanya, P.A.I. (2002) Education as a catalyst for human development in Nigeria. Paper delivered at the maiden post budget seminar on human capital development of the maneu main society of Nigeria at muson centre, Lagos 6 th March. 14. Ogbiji, J.E. Tobotndip J.E, Ada, M.J., & Besong, J.B. (2007) Providing an enabling environment for the teaching and learning of vocational and Technical Education in Cross River State Public Secondary Schools. (NAEAP) Journal. 15. Oguntoye, A. O.O. (2004) Education for national development, self reliance in a deregulated economy. A paper presented at the national conference of the school of technical education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka. 16. Okon, P. (2003), Input evaluation of technical college Program in Cross River State. Journal of education, Vol. 2, No Okoro, O.M. (1999), Principles and methods in vocational and technical Education. Nsukka Nigeria. University first publishers. 18. Okoro, O.M. (1999). Principles and method in vocational and technical Education. Anambra university trust publishers. 19. Okwo, F.A. (2000) Educational technology and nation building in Nigeria Journal of curriculum and instruction Vol. 10, No. 1 P Olaitan, S.C. (1996) Vocational and technical education in Nigeria: Issues and Analysis. Onitsha: Noble graphics. 21. Olaitan, S.O. (1998) Vocational and technical education in Nigeria and other countries: A comparative analysis, Onitsha noble publishers. 22. Onih, U.R., Onwuka, E.M. (2007) management of vocational and technical education for national development (NAEAP) Journal. 23. Onyehalu, A.S. (1988). Psychological foundation of education. Awka: Mack unique publishers. 24. Osuji, H. (2002). Historical perspective of educational administration. Owerri: Tony Ben publishers. 25. Salami, K.A. (1992) Technology teacher training for development in Nigeria: problems and remedies. In Awotunde, P.O. (ed) issues in technology education for national development, National Ass. of teachers of technology (NATT) monographs services (1). 26. Subair, S., & Ashiru, A.O. (2007) Technology education and national development the place of infrastructure: NAEAP Journal. 27. Udoye, R.N. (2005) Vocational education for nation building in MULJORED Vol. 5 No. 6 P Wordu, Chichuhiegem, C.R. (2011). Influence of learning environment on effective teaching and learning of vocational/technical educations. A theoretical and conceptual framework. Journal of technical technology and vocational educators (JATTAVE) Vol. 2, No. 1. Copyright by author(s) 40 The Clute Institute

9 29. Yakubu, N.A. (2006). New approaches to technical and vocational education. Paper presented at ETF zonal sensitization workshops on the importance of technical and vocational education. Copyright by author(s) 41 The Clute Institute

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