Electronic Biosensors Henrique Leonel Gomes Office: 2.82 Phone: ext Fax:

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1 Electronic Biosensors Henrique Leonel Gomes Office: 2.82 Phone: ext Fax:

2 Welcome Welcome to electronic biosensors course. This is a useful course if you are looking to: Understand what is a biosensor. How to design a biosensor for a specific applicanon. Will give you a good overview of most of the electrical characterizanon techniques to address a biosensor, design biosensors for living cells, learn about measurements of ultra small electrical signals embedded in noise, measure electrical noise and design circuits for biosensors. The prerequisite for this course is a previous course in basic electronics and or InstrumentaNon.

3 Outline of this lecture Biosensing: Concept, ApplicaNons, SensiNvity. Bioelectronics: A bit of history ApplicaNons Discussions

4 Approximate course schedule Week Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Theme IntroducNon to Biosensors, basic concepts, preparanon of Lab work, assignments. Fundamentals about TFTs, basic models AC and DC Electrical characterizanon TFTs to detect( bio)chemical substances Electrical impedance based techniques, characterizanon of sensors using impedance Cell based sensors using impedance TFTs to measure living cells Lab- on- Chip

5 Approximate course schedule Week Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Week 12 Week 13 Week 14 Theme Bioelectrical signals and noise Piezoelectric sensors OpNcal sensors Electronic tongue and nose ConnecNon to wireless networks (in collaboranon with telecom group) Student seminaries /conclusion o f Lab work Student seminaries /conclusion o f Lab work

6 Goal of this lecture You will: learn the monvanons behind biosensing and bioelectronics learn the basic concepts in biosensing and bioelectronics be able to solve typical problems in biosensing and bioelectronics

7 What is a Biosensor? Definitions A device used to measure biologically relevant information Oxygen electrodes, neural interfaces, etc. A device using a biological component as part of the transduction mechanism Antibodies Enzymes DNA, RNA Whole cells Whole organs/systems

8 Assessment Grading Lab: 30% Midterm I, II: 30% Review Paper: 10% Final Exam: 30%

9 Course syllabus 1- Overview about technologies for detecnon of biochemical species, applicanons DNA chips, molecular recogninon, lab- on a chip, etc. 2- TFTs, operanon, compact models, electrical characterizanon, equivalent circuits, TFTs with nanoparncles, TFTs as sensors. 3- Basic concepts about impedance, Impedance measurements, Instruments, artefacts (Ultra- low frequency). Ffrequency response of MIS capacitors and MISFET devices. Frequency response in electrolyte environment (electrical double layer). Eequivalent circuit analysis. 4- Dielectric propernes of cells and Nssues. Electrical equivalent networks, electrical double layers, interacnon with living cells. 5- TFTs to measure living cells.

10 Course syllabus 6- Lab on chip. Microfluidics and Micro- Total- Analysis Systems (μ- TAS) Physics of microfluidics, Microfluidics vs. microelectronics, FabricaNon of microfluidic devices, sof lithography and rapid prototyping, InjecNon molding, laser ablanon μ- TAS: Microfabricated PCR, cell lysis at microscale μ- TAS: HST immunoassay, micro- cytometry 7- Bioelectronics signals and noise Measuring ultra- small signals, noise. Electrical signals produced by cells (acnon potennals. Analysis of electrical noise, applicanons of noise. Examples. 8- OpNcal sensors Photometric sensors, waveguides basics, waveguide analyses and examples, OpNcal fibres, opncal spectroscopic techniques for biosensors.

11 Course syllabus 9- Mass SensiNve Transducers MEMS acousnc wave devices, piezoelectric effect, ElectrostaNc TransducNon. CapaciNve Sensing, Comb- drives, micro machined mechanical sensors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Biosensors, surface acousnc wave, modes of operanon, mass sensinvines of acousnc wave devices, capacinve ultrasonic transducers, MEMS cannlevers, CanNlever operanon, deflecnon detecnon, MEMS acousnc wave devices, cannlever- based biosensors, piezoresisnve deflecnon sensor cannlever sensors. 10- ConnecNng biosensors to wireless networks.

12 Useful Sources Course material: On the Web: hlp://w3.ualg.pt/%7ehgomes/html/classes/biosensores/outline.htm Other courses online: hlp://www.pce.uw.edu/courses/biosensors.html hlp://www.lbb.ethz.ch/educanon hlp://ocw.mit.edu/courses/materials- science- and- engineering

13 Literature [1] I. Willner and E. Katz (eds.) (2005). Bioelectronics: From Theory to ApplicaNons, Wiley- VCH, ISBN: [2] NaNonal Research Council (2009), A New Biology for the 21st Century, The NaNonal Academies Press, Washington, D.C., ISBN- 13: (PDF) [3] M. Zourob (Ed.) (2010), RecogniNon Receptors in Biosensors, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, e- ISBN: [3] Bilitewski, U. and Turner, A.P.F Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring. Harwood, Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. ISBN: [4] Ligler, F.S. and Rowe Tail, C.A OpNcal Biosensors: Present & Future. Elsevier, The Netherlands. ISBN: [5] Yang, V.C. and T.T. Ngo Biosensors and Their ApplicaNons. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY. ISBN: [6] B. Eggins, Biosensors: an introducnon, 1996, John Wiley & Sons. [7] Ajit Sadana, Engineering Biosensors: KineNcs and Design ApplicaNons, 2001, Academic Press. [8] Donald G. Buerk, Biosensors: Theory and ApplicaNons, 1995, CRC. [9] A. E. G. Gass, Jon Cooper, Biosensors: A pracncal Approach, 2ª ed., 2004, Oxford University Press, USA. [10] Robert S. Marks, Christopher R. Lowe, David C. Cullen, et al., Handbook of Biosensors and Biochips, Wiley, [11] F.S. Ligler and C.A. Rowe Tail (editors), OpNcal Biosensors: Present and Future, 2002, Elsevier Science

14 DefiniGons Biosensor: 1. A device that detects, records, and transmits informanon regarding a physiological change or process. 2. A device that uses biological materials to monitor the presence of various chemicals in a substance. Bioelectronics: 1. The applicanon of the principles of electronics to biology and medicine. 2. The study of the role of intermolecular electron transfer in physiological processes

15 Problems Solved with Biosensors Today Glucose Monitoring From a drop of blood High throughput analysis in diagnosncs and in drug- discovery

16 Main Players on the Market

17 ApplicaGons of Bioelectronics Biochips (Biosensors) Implantable Medical Devices ProstheNc Devices (Hearing Aids, ArNficial Sight, Limb Replacement) ArNficial Organs Electronic Pills Surgical and Medical Devices Biofuel Cells Molecular Motors Molecular Electronics BiofabricaNon Templates hlp://www.bioelectronicscorp.com/ hlp://www.sric- bi.com/explorer/ngt- BE.shtml

18 A bit of history (bioelectricity) On the Web: hlp://www corrosion- doctors GalvaniBio hlp://www.answers.com/topic/galvanic- cell hlp://en.ion doctors.org/biographies/galvanibio.htm hlp://www.informaworld.com/smpp/ content~db=all~content=a ~tab=content

19 A bit of history

20 A bit of history hlp://www.answers.com/topic/voltaic- pile

21 A bit of history

22 Transducers by Signal Type RadioacNvity OpNcal waveguides, ellipsometry, SPR, fluorescence, Electrical enzymanc, amperometric, potennometric, Mechanical Quartz crystal microbalance, SAW device, annlever devices,

23 Specialized sensors

24 SAW sensors

25 Field effect transistors

26 MagneGc Bead Biosensor

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