1 Cellular Analysis for Legal Professionals Larry E. Daniel Digital Forensic Examiner and Cellular Analyst EnCE, DFCP, BCE, ACE, CTNS, AME Copyright 2015, Guardian Digital Forensics
2 Cellular Telephone Easy to Understand Just a two way radio (Talks) Sends on one channel (Listens) Receives on another channel But does both all the time. Channel (frequency) 610 Channel (Frequency) 1560
3 For cell phone to make or receive a call, it needs two radio channels One channel to receive and on channel to transmit Each cellular company only has a limited number of channels to use. Cellular Telephone Easy to Understand Channel (frequency) 610 Channel (Frequency) 1560
4 The Cellular System Cell Towers
6 The Cellular System A Cell Site Antennas send and receive signals from cell phones The Base Station Transceiver Manages the tower and calls on the tower. Talks to the phone network via cables.
7 Cellular Tower Sectors Sector Layout and Azimuth Cell towers can have from0 to 6 sectors. Most common is three sectors.
8 3 1 2 Example of expected 3 sector cell tower radio coverage using prediction software Image Source:
9 Anatomy of the Cellular System Lots of cell sites are connected together to make up the cellular network. Groups of cell sites talk to Radio Network Controllers via cables.
10 The Cellular System In a Nutshell. Cell phones talk to towers. Everything else talks to the standard telephone network over telephone cables.
11 Cell coverage range is determined by customer needs. Each Cellular Site may have 200 Channels (100 calls). In rural areas with small populations this works fine.
12 As subscribers increase: Go Small to Serve More Customers Each Cellular Site may have 200 Channels (100 calls). Rather than have 1 big cell that serves 100 people, we have 7 cells, that serve 700 people. January 11,
13 January 11, January 11, This group of frequencies can be used again January 11, January 11, City Wide Coverage By repeating this pattern of 7 cell clusters, any size city can be fully covered by a cellular system by allowing frequencies to be used over and over again.
14 Example of expected 3 sector cell towers radio coverage using prediction software
15 CDMA Best Server Prediction Map using prediction software
16 GSM Best Server Prediction Map using prediction software
17 Registration Tower A Tower B On power up your phone tunes to a known frequency and starts to listen 4.1 Miles 1.3 Miles
18 January 11, 2007 Phone scans neighboring cells for best signal and will select a cell as needed for when a call connects. January 11, 2007 January 11, 2007
19 January 11, 2007 When a call connects the phone will stay on the selected tower until it needs to change to a new tower. (hand off) January 11, 2007 January 11, 2007
20 The Hook Up! Choosing a Tower Tower A Tower B Pick me! Pick me! How does the phone choose a tower?
21 Registration On power up the cell phone connects to the Best Signal Tower A 95dbm Tower B 85dbm 4.1 Miles 1.3 Miles The closest tower will normally have the best signal
22 Registration On power up the cell phone connects to the Best Signal Tower A 95dbm Tower B 85dbm 3.0 Miles 3.0 Miles When equally distant from both towers, the power output from the antennas may come into play.
23 Registration On power up the cell phone connects to the Best Signal Tower A 95dbm Tower B 85dbm 3.0 Miles 3.0 Miles I can t see you Tower A! When equally distant from both towers, clutter may be the deciding factor.
24 Registration On power up the cell phone connects to the Best Signal Tower A 95dbm Sorry, all channels are busy! Tower B 85dbm 3.0 Miles 3.0 Miles Channels must be available for the phone to use.
25 Operation The cell phone connects or hands off to the Best Signal as needed as it moves around. Tower A Tower B 95dbm 85dbm
26 As the cell phone moves around, it will change to a new cell tower as needed to maintain the call. This is called a hand off. Source : images.yourdictionary.com
27 Call Detail Records (CDRs) Legal Proof of a Service Provided A Technical Road Map of a Call A Financial Transaction Record Used to determine the cell tower used by a phone. Tower Locations are then plotted on a map.
28 Call Detail Records (CDRs) Network Element Name Mobile Directory Number Dialed Digit NumberCall Direction Seizure Dt Tm Seizure Duration First Serving Cell Site First Serving Cell Face Last Serving Cell Site Last Serving Cell Face Calling Party Number Richmond (434) /24/200911: Richmond (434) /24/200912: Richmond (434) /24/200913: Richmond (434) /24/200913: Chantilly (434) /25/20099: Chantilly (434) /25/200912: Chantilly (434) /25/200919: Chantilly (434) /25/200919: Chantilly (434) /25/200919: Chantilly (434) /25/200919: Chantilly (434) /25/200920: Chantilly (434) /25/200920: Chantilly (434) /25/200920: Chantilly (434) /25/200922: Richmond (434) /25/20097: Richmond (434) /25/20097: Richmond (434) /25/20099: Richmond (434) F 7/25/200911: Richmond (434) F 7/25/200911: Richmond (434) F 7/25/200911: Richmond (434) F 7/25/200911: Note the cell face numbers are 2,3,4.
29 Cell Site Listing Switch Name Cell Number E-911 Latitude Degrees (NAD83) E-911 Longitude Degrees (NAD83) Street Address City State Zip Code Sector Azimuth (deg) Richmond West Osbourne Rd. Farmville VA D1 50 Richmond West Osbourne Rd. Farmville VA D2 180 Richmond West Osbourne Rd. Farmville VA D3 290 Richmond Back Hampden-Sydney Rd. Prince Edward VA D1 60 Richmond Back Hampden-Sydney Rd. Prince Edward VA D2 180 Richmond Back Hampden-Sydney Rd. Prince Edward VA D3 300 Richmond Persimmon Tree Fork Rd. Farmville VA D1 20 Richmond Persimmon Tree Fork Rd. Farmville VA D1 20 Richmond Persimmon Tree Fork Rd. Farmville VA D2 140 Richmond Persimmon Tree Fork Rd. Farmville VA D3 260 Richmond Winterpock Rd. Midlothian VA D1 60 Richmond Winterpock Rd. Midlothian VA D2 180 Richmond Winterpock Rd. Midlothian VA D3 300 Richmond Genito Road Moseley VA D1 60 Richmond Genito Road Moseley VA D2 180 Richmond Genito Road Moseley VA D3 300 Richmond TREXLER RD Richmond VA D1 30 Richmond TREXLER RD Richmond VA D2 145 Richmond TREXLER RD Richmond VA D3 270 Richmond THREE CHOPT RD. Richmond VA D1 60 Richmond THREE CHOPT RD. Richmond VA D2 180 Richmond THREE CHOPT RD. Richmond VA D3 300 Richmond Midlothian Turnpike Richmond VA D1 50 Richmond Midlothian Turnpike Richmond VA D2 170 Richmond Midlothian Turnpike Richmond VA D3 290 Richmond Coalfield Road Midlothian VA D1 60 Richmond Coalfield Road Midlothian VA D2 180 Richmond Coalfield Road Midlothian VA D3 300 CHAN STORK RD FREDERICKSBURG VA D1 4 CHAN STORK RD FREDERICKSBURG VA D2 124 CHAN STORK RD FREDERICKSBURG VA D3 244 CHAN ST ROUTE 631 SUMMER DUCK VA D1 4 CHAN ST ROUTE 631 SUMMER DUCK VA D2 124 CHAN ST ROUTE 631 SUMMER DUCK VA D3 244 VA Fairmont Avenue Winchester VA D1 4 VA Fairmont Avenue Winchester VA D2 124 VA Fairmont Avenue Winchester VA D3 244 VA University Drive Winchester VA D1 4 VA University Drive Winchester VA D2 124 VA University Drive Winchester VA D3 244 VA Eddys Lane Winchester VA D1 70 VA Eddys Lane Winchester VA D2 190 VA Eddys Lane Winchester VA D3 310
30 Cell Towers Are Divided Into Sectors Some towers have no sectors and some have 2, 3, 4 or 6 sectors
31 How far can a cell phone be from a tower and still make or receive a phone call? Assuming a perfectly flat earth, with a very tall cell tower. And the cell tower must be at maximum legal allowable power. And no other cell towers in the area GSM (AT&T or T-Mobile) the maximum theoretical distance is 22 about miles. CDMA (Sprint, Verizon, etc.) the maximum theoretical distance is about 35 miles. What Limits the Distance? Terrain Ground clutter Proximity of other cell towers. (Signal Interference) Signal strength at the tower The cell phone being used
32 Tower locations can be plotted on a map using the information from tower lists. <.75 miles
33 How far can a cell phone be from a tower and still make or receive a phone call? The practical connection distance for a cell phone is determined by the distance and density of other cell towers in the area for that carrier.
34 How far can a cell phone be from a tower and still make or receive a phone call? The practical connection distance for a cell phone is determined by the distance and density of other cell towers in the area for that carrier.
35 Locating Phones The Methods Call Detail Records This is the most common type of location analysis perform for cell phones. Call detail records record the cell site that was used to connect a phone call, and in some cases, a text message. ATT (GSM) Provides the cell tower used for voice calls and text messages and data transmissions. Data transmission locations is considered unreliable and should not be plotted for the analysis of a cell phone s location. Sprint, Verizon, Metro PCS (CDMA) Provides the cell tower used for voice calls only. They send all text messages through gateways.
36 Locating Phones The Methods Call Detail Records Call detail records record the cell site that was used to connect a phone call, and in some cases, a text message. You cannot triangulate the location of a phone using call detail records. The cell tower and sector (side) of the tower used by a phone can be determined in most cases (Not for Cricket) At most you can determine the cell tower location and a general area where a phone could be, you cannot pinpoint a phone using call detail records.
37 Locating Phones The Methods Call Detail Records
38 Locating Phones The Methods Call Detail Records
39 Locating Phones The Methods Call Detail Records
40 Locating Phones The Methods Call Detail Records
41 Locating Phones The Methods Per Call Measurement Data or Reveal Records Sprint and Verizon Only PCMD is NOT a call detail record. Call detail records have been in use for many years and are widely accepted as being an accurate record of phone call activity. Per Call Measurement data is used for load balancing, to determine system health and optimizing the cellular system over time. It is not used as a method for locating cell phones. PCMD is a measurement of the distance of the phone from the tower using Round Trip Delay (RTD) The accuracy is affected by several factors: Multi Pathing Repeaters in the network A phone in a multiple hand off situation.
42 Locating Phones The Methods Per Call Measurement Data or Reveal Records Sprint and Verizon Only
43 Locating Phones The Methods Per Call Measurement Data or Reveal Records Sprint and Verizon Only
44 Locating Phones The Methods IMSI Catchers IMSI Catchers basically trick phones into either sharing information with them or by forcing a phone to connect to them. They can work because the encryption for 2G and 3G has been compromised for a long time. By bypassing the encryption, an IMSI catcher can trick a phone into making a connection without authenticating properly with the cellular network.
45 Locating Phones The Methods IMSI Catchers GSM (2G cell network) Identifiers IMEI: International Mobile Equipment Identifier Identifies a handset. Easily changed, illegal to do so. IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identifier Secret? Kind of. Identifies an account - stored in SIM (Subscriber Identification Module) card. TMSI: Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identifier Assigned by network to prevent IMSI transmission. Auth with IMSI, use TMSI from then on Unless, of course, the BTS asks for it.
46 Locating Phones The Methods IMSI Catchers Tricking GSM Phones We want to trick GSM phones into thinking that our fake base station is a genuine and better one Then he will handover to our base station Better Stronger signals. Will trigger handover Genuine Consistent with nearby base station information Nearby base station will provide handover candidate base stations and frequencies. Copy that information into our fake station.
47 Locating Phones The Methods Tricking GSM Phones IMSI Catchers 3G network has mended the vulnerability of GSM Users and base stations must authenticate each other However, we may selectively jam 3G phones When 3G network fails, phones will fall back to GSM mode
48 Locating Phones The Methods StringRay and Other IMSI catchers Can work in Active or Passive Mode Can intercept voice and text content. Can localize (locate) a cellular device. PASSIVE MODE: IMSI Catchers Simulates the behavior of a cell tower, but does not act as a cell tower. The activity of base station surveys allows extracting information on cell sites that includes identification numbers, signal strength, and signal coverage areas. StingRay operates as a mobile phone and collects signals sent by cell stations near the equipment
49 Locating Phones The Methods StringRay and Other IMSI catchers ACTIVE MODE IMSI Catchers StingRay equipment operating in active mode will force each cellular device in a predetermined area to disconnect from its legitimate service provider cell site and establish a new connection with the attacker s StingRay system. StingRay broadcasts a pilot signal that is stronger than the signals sent by legitimate cell sites operating in the same area, forcing connections from the cellular device in the area covered by the equipment.
50 Locating Phones The Methods StringRay and Other IMSI catchers ACTIVE MODE IMSI Catchers The principal operations made by the StingRay are: Data Extraction from cellular devices StingRay collects information that identifies a cellular device (i.e. IMSI, ESN) directly from it by using radio waves. Run Man In The Middle attacks to eavesdrop on Communications Content Writing metadata to the cellular device Denial of Service, preventing the cellular device user from placing a call or accessing data services. Forcing an increase in signal transmission power Forcing an abundance of signal transmissions Tracking and locating
51 Locating Phones The Methods IMSI Catchers
52 Locating Phones The Methods IMSI Catchers
53 Locating Phones The Methods Emergency 911 System Police can activate the E911 system to actively track a phone s location in near real time. Supposed to only occur in the case of an exigent circumstance. Threat to national security Immediate threat to a person or persons In reality, phone companies will start the system even without the proper paperwork. The phone companies charge for this service.
54 E-911 Location
55 E-911 Location E-911 System Consists of 2 Phases Phase 1 and Phase 2 Phase 2 is the best location Phase 2 is not always available
56 E-911 Location E-911 System Consists of 2 Phases Phase 1 requirement is: Calling Number Sector of a cell tower (hundreds of acres)
57 E-911 Location E-911 System Consists of 2 Phases Phase 2 requirement is: Calling Number GPS location with 150 feet accuracy. Must be manually updated by 911 operator to get best accuracy. This is called a bid.
58 58 Locating Phones The Methods Emergency 911 System
59 Correct Case Analysis Steps Perform an independent analysis of the telephony facts of the matter. Build a timeline Place calls along timeline Develop Map of towers for correct date of incident (Radio Frequency Plan aka Coverage Map) Show location and path of phones based on discovery Get original data sources AFTERanalysis of phones, THEN review incident in light of facts to form opinion, rather than unscientifically using cell phone evidence to fit the desired facts of the incident.
60 Key Takeaways The analysis is only as good as the analyst While this seems simple, it is very complex: Not just drawing towers on a map. Must understand the cellular system. Must understand the different carriers technology. Must be able to properly interpret call detail records. Must be able to explain in plain language to juries.
61 Questions? Contact Information: Web: Blog: Phone: Digital Forensics for Legal Professionals By Larry E. Daniel and Lars E. Daniel
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