# Practice of rapid load testing in Japan

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3 Practice of rapid load testing in Japan 49 f Pile node τ max Soil adjacent to pile Shear stress f k s c r Soil far from pile (fixed) Figure 1 Model of soil surrounding pile under dynamic loading. Time Figure 2 Change of shear stress, f, with time. f = ksws + crw s (3) where w s is the vertical displacement of the soil adjacent to the pile shaft. The solution of Eq. (3) is given as follows with the initial conditions that w s = ẇ s = at time t =. f k s ws() t = 1 exp t k c s s (4) The ratio k s /c s is approximated as follows from Eq. (2): ks 2.75Vs Vs = c πd d r (5) Hence, Eq. (4) is rewritten as f Vs ws() t = 1 exp t k d s (6) The change with time of soil displacement w s is shown in figure 3. In figure 3, the soil displacement is normalized by f/k s (final soil displacement) and time is normalized by d/v s so that R T = t/(d/v s ). R T is called relative relaxation time. For an example, if difference of soil displacements in static loading and rapid (or dynamic) loading is prescribed to be 5% [w s (t) =.95w s ( )], the corresponding relative relaxation time R T is 3. For piles having 1 m diameter in soils having V s = 3 3 m/s, relaxation time,

7 Practice of rapid load testing in Japan 53 where M is the pile mass and α(i) is the measured pile acceleration at time step i. The soil resistance F soil is the sum of the spring resistance (static resistance) F w, and the dashpot resistance, F v. F () i = F () i + F () i = F () i + C() i v() i (8) soil w v w where C(i) is the damping coefficient and v(i) is the pile velocity at time step i. At the first step (i = 1), the initial stiffness, K(1), is calculated by the initial static load F w (1) divided by the initial displacement w(1). K(1) = Fw (1) / w(1) = Fstatic / wstatic (9) At the next step (at step i + 1), the soil spring K(i + 1) is assumed to be equal to K(i) as indicated by Eq. (1). Hence, the static resistance F w (i + 1) at step i + 1 is calculated by Eq. (11). The value of C(i + 1) can be determined by means of Eq. (12). Ki ( + 1) = Ki ( ) (1) w w { } F ( i + 1) = F ( i) + K( i + 1) w( i + 1) w( i) (11) { } Ci ( + 1) = Fsoil( i+ 1) Fw ( i+ 1) vi ( + 1) (12) At the following step i + 2, C(i + 2) is assumed to be equal to C(i + 1) as indicated by Eq. (13). Therefore, the values of F w (i + 2) and K(i + 2) can be determined by means of Eqs. (14) and (15), respectively. Ci ( + 2) = Ci ( + 1) (13) F ( i + 2) = F ( i + 2) C( i + 2) v( i + 2) w soil (14) Ki ( + 2) = Fw( i + 2) Fw( i + 1) wi ( + 2) wi ( + 1) (15) By repeating the procedure from Eq. (1) to Eq. (15), the values of K and C for following steps are alternately updated consecutively. Finally, whole static load-displacement relation F w vs. w is constructed as shown in Figure 8. 5 A CASE OF COMPARATIVE STATIC AND RAPID LOAD TESTS Comparisons of static load tests and rapid load tests were carried out to validate the rapid load testing using the Spring Hammer device (Matsuzawa et al. 26, Nakashima et al. 26). The results of these comparative tests are briefly introduced.

8 54 Rapid Load Testing on Piles Figure 9 shows the profiles of the soil layers and SPT N-values at the test site. The ground at the test site blow a depth of 2 m consists of alternating layers of silt and sand. The SPT N-values are less than 7 to a depth of 7 m, and about 15 from 8 m to 11 m in depth. A total of 7 test piles were constructed. Static and rapid load tests were performed on pile No.1 and pile No. 3 out of the 7 test piles (see Table 1). Each test pile was steel H-shaped pile with an end circular plate so as to increase the end-bearing capacity, as shown in Figure 1. Construction procedure of the test pile is as follows: i borehole is made by a screw auger. ii fresh cement mortar is poured in the borehole. iii pile is inserted into the borehole. iv the inserted pile is driven by a drop hammer. During this stage, rapid pile load test is carried out using the Spring Hammer device. v when the required end-bearing capacity is obtained, driving and testing are terminated. One of advantages of this pile and construction procedure is that performance of all the constructed piles can be obtained promptly at the site. The pile is called MSSP (Marubeni Super Safety Pile). Figure 11 shows the measured dynamic signals during rapid load test of pile No. 3 during construction. The force on the pile top is measured by a load cell, the displacement and accelerations at the pile head are measured by an optical displacement transducer and accelerometers. In this test, load duration is.14 s (14 ms) that can SPT N-value Fill (clay) Depth from G.L. (m) Silt Sandy silt Fine sand Sandy silt Silt Sandy silt Fine sand Silt Fine sand Depth from G.L. (m) P3 P5 P6 P1 P2 P4 P7 S teel H pile End plate 12 Silty fine sand 12 Figure 9 Profiles of soil layers and SPT N-values, together with seating of the test piles. Figure 1 Steel H pile with end-plate.

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