1 SPARC Europe in the Open Access Movement: A Master Plan to tackle the barriers? Astrid van Wesenbeeck, Executive Director SPARC Europe Athens, December
2 Agenda A very brief introduction Open Access in Europe SPARC Europe focus areas Questions & Discussion
3 Agenda A very brief introduction Open Access in Europe SPARC Europe focus areas Comments & discussion
4 Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) Europe SPARC Europe lobbies, advocates, informs, collaborates, initiates and organizes to bring the Open Access Movement forward. 4
5 Open Access: respectful To researchers: increases visibility, impact To libraries: financial balance, dissemination & preservation To funding bodies: increases visibility To publishers: they still get paid for the services they deliver To universities: impact & visibility / marketing Increased returns on research & development Open Access is good for all; it does not place anyone in a corner, but it does imply a shift in relationships and financial systems.
6 Agenda A very brief introduction Open Access in Europe Policies Publishing Repositories Advocacy SPARC Europe focus areas Questions & Discussion I will focus on 4 themes in the OA Movement.
7 Policies First theme: Policies: the one that gives the money, is the one that can set requirements (and force a certain desired behaviour).
8 The General OA Policy includes Publications (and sometimes data) should be made freely available within 6 to 12 months upon formal publication, via an (or the) institutional repository. Preferably the final, publisher, version. Open Access Policies (mandates) of funding bodies do create author awareness Generally Open Access Policies include: 8
9 Funding Agencies implemented OA policies (source: ROARmap): Wellcometrust United Kingdom Austrian Science Fund Austria NWO Open Access Fund The Netherlands Irish Research Counsil for Science, Engineering and Technology Hungarian Scientific Research Fund Hungary National Institute of Health USA European Commission for EC funded research output (EC FP7) Some examples. All policies to be found in ROARmap. 9
10 Challenges To make them really work; what happens now if you ignore the policy? To communicate them properly Embargoes (a compromise for the publishers) delay the transformation toward Open Access Copyright issues hardly touched in this area Policies mainly refer to depositing in Institutional Repositories (Green OA), not to publishing in Open Access journals (Gold OA) The largest funding body, the EC, had started an Open Access Pilot: Can this pilot make a difference on national levels?
11 Institutional and funders Open Access Policies & Mandates In ROARmap you can find broad collection of institutional policies and mandates: Funder mandate Institutional mandate Thesis mandate Proposed x mandates NO mandates Sherpa Juliet: Research funders Open Access Policies
12 Open Access Publishing Next theme: Publishing. Because in the end, it is all about publishing. I refer to book and journal publishing.
13 Some challenges To find sustainable business models for OA publishers Participation of authors, license to publish To break open the relation between the current research assessment system (ISI) and the traditional toll access journals Traditional publishers must transform to Open Access >> decrease subscription prizes Open Letter Chinese libraries to International Publishers: prize increases unreasonable and unacceptable Call of Research Libraries UK: will not support future Big Deals if pubioshers don t show serious prize reductions
14 Sustainable Business Models Open Access Publishers: Springer Open European BioMedCentral European BMJ Group SAGE Open (spring 2011) > HINDAWI Co Action European Public Library of Science Copernicus Publications European And more! Article processing charges & Memberships Springer and SAGE: setting up NEW journals, they are not transforming
16 Directory of Open Access Journals: 5800 journals, app. 4 new per day The DOAJ will probably not be used by researchers, but it is THE place to register your new OA journal and to find all OA journals. The DOAJ is hosted by LUND University in Sweden.
17 Sustainable Business Models The challenge is bigger for smaller Open Access publishers, such as Library initiatives Igitur, Utrecht Publishing and Archiving Services RevistasCSIS more Individual initiatives Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management (JIEM) Cellular Therapy and Transplantation More John Willinsky, December 16: a new journal is a sign of academic freedom
18 Additional challenges for new, young open access publishers: Commit to editorial policies Attract authors Select quality; thus reject articles (Continuous) publication schedule Impact factors; Web of Science Find hosts >> libraries!
19 Open Journal Systems: used by more than 7500 journals worldwide (source: Heather Morrisson, Dec 2010) The Public Knowledge Project supports these small ones, with for example Open Journal Systems. Currently more than 7500 journals are published with OJS and most of them operate in a non professional publishing area.
20 October December: PKP, SPARC Europe and OJS users are exploring the establishment of a European PKP Network A platform for sustainability, development, improvement of the software and a platform for editors & publishers For reinforcing the businesses First meeting with initial participants TODAY
21 OAPEN: an important model for book publishing. OAPEN is an online library & publication platform.
22 OAPEN Aims to promote Open Access book publishing by building a branded collection of Open Access peer reviewed titles, to increase the visibility and retrievability of high quality European research and to set quality standards for Open Access books, based on transparent procedures for peer review and recommendations for Open Access licenses
23 Chalenge OAPEN Address to Funding Agencies >> Open Access Policies for book publishing
24 Some other initiatives that address some of these challenges SCOAP3 SOAP Project MESUR
26 SCOAP3 Consortium of funding bodies, libraries and publishers SCOAP3 facilitates Open Access publishing in High Energy Physics by redirecting subscription money Members will contribute to the consortium according to their share of the HEP scientific production Calculated that Open Access is cheaper University of Patras is a member of SCOAP3 SCOAP3 is transformation for the involved publishers. SCOAP3 does grow awareness amongst authors.
27 SOAP: A project that aimed to study the new open access business models. Results to be disseminated in January 2011.
28 SOAP results to be presented at January 13 th, Berlin: in depth study of the business models, market success, similarities and differences of several thousand Open Access journals, and a unique largescale survey on the (surprising) attitudes, drivers and barriers for Open Access Publishing of tens of thousands of researchers across disciplines and around the world.
29 The Research Assessment System (ISI) The Impact Factors are an obstacle for each new journal to enter the market MESUR project >> aims to enrich the toolkit that can be used for assessment of the impact of scholarly communications with metrics that derive from usage data. Conclusionis that citations are only a tiny spot on the map of scholarly communications It is an alternative, but not a sustainable service yet: what will happen with MESUR? Are there other initiatives in this area? The toughest barrier to tackle will probably be the research assessment system that is currently mainly focused on impact and citations. This system is deeply The MESUR project aimed to prove that there s lot of other indicators in the dynamic, inter disciplinary system of Scholarly Communications.
30 Third theme: Repositories and Infrastructures Institutional Repositories
31 Challenges Improve and focus on dissemination Metadata quality Content quality Completeness Indexing for Google etc. Disseminating research data & linking to articles Semantic web / linked data: starting now! Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR) The first point is important because it forms a basis for developing additional services. 31
32 Improve and focus on dissemination National repository programs support this challenge Aim to disseminate the national research output Aim to develop institutional repositories: guarantee each university establishes one Aim to share knowledge & expertise with regard to technology, communication One of the trends is a national repository program; which aims to harvest all data from all IR s. 32
33 National Repository Programs United Kingdom Sherpa Partnership: search all repositories throughout the UK ( Netherlands NARCIS (DAREnet) : all Dutch Repositories harvested ( Ireland RIAN: all Irish Repositories harvested ( Italy PLEIADI: all Italian repositories harvested ( 33
34 European Repository Program to support the Open Access Pilot OpenAIRE: 27 countries national helpdesks Based on existing Repositories December 2 nd : launched On the highest level the European Commission underwrites the importance of openness to data and interoperability of research infrastructures. The Open Access Pilot is evidence for this. 34
35 Arxiv: eprint service for physics, mathematics, Comp Sc, Quantative Bio and Quant Finance & Stats The Arxiv is not only the oldest one, but it is also special because it is highly important to researchers; ones you have your preprint ready you deposit it in the Arxiv ASAP. I believe the Arxiv is one of the few that really meets the needs of the scholars; it s fully integrated in their processes.
36 Services built on existing repositories > development Subject Repositories / harvest programs Aim to provide an information container for specific academic disciplines / academic cultures > focus on researchers Aim to collect the newest articles via submitting and / or harvesting One place to find all Once the infrastructure is ready, we can start developing additional services on top of them, such as subject repositories. I mention here some that have proven to be successful (= used) and one that has high potential but is hardly used 36
37 PubMed Central: the U.S. N.I.H s free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature At Utrecht University a small user survey showed that students and researchers in health sciences do use PubMed the most, besides, of course, Google.
38 Eprint service for economics Repec:
39 Ivy Academic Search Ivy Academic search is a typical harvest only subject repository; it collects incrementally data from other repositories.
40 Google Scholar, mostly used by researchers Last but not least: Google. In the end, most users use Google, so on our priority list should be: visibility via Google. If we focus on dissemination and qualitative high infrastructures, Google will do the rest?
41 Services built on existing repositories > development Additional services such as data linking and enhanced publications can use the available repositories and their content; Developments have just started; And will need time repositories have to be filled Once the infrastructure is ready, we can start developing additional services on top of them, such as subject repositories. I mention here some that have proven to be successful (= used) and one that has high potential but is hardly used 41
42 In the light of the previous slides, we can ask ourselves if the PEER project appeared a little bit too early. It is a collaboration of publishers and research communities that aims to monitor the effects of self archiving in the long term; will that really increase visibility?
43 PEER: econtent + Project Because Publishers and research communities hold different views on whether mandated deposit in open access repositories will achieve greater use and impact. Aims to measure the effect of long term depositing over time. Services built on top of institutional repositories will influence a project such as PEER; if there is no interoperability, the impact will not per se increase. The main question here is again: is it not too early for such project?
44 Advocacy We were there from the beginning and we did a lot of advocacy work >> talking talking, spreading the word 44
45 Advocacy & information services SPARCEurope, North America and Japan: lobbying, networking, advocating: represent over 90 European University Libraries eifle: access for developing countries Enabling Open Scholarship (EOS): information service for scholars Open Access Scholarly Information Sourcebook (OASIS): practical steps for implementing Open Access Knowledge Exchange (DEFF, DFG, SURF & JISC, with participation of SPARC Europe): studies & surveys National levels national helpdesks OpenAIRE and others Institutional levels: scholarly communications officers Advocacy work depends on memberships, grants and sponsorships; the benefits are for all. 45
46 SPARC Europe: an Alliance of European Research Libraries European Universities One voice: To create a change in the scholarly communications
47 SPARC Europe: an Alliance of European Research Libraries We scan the horizon We advocate We lobby We create synergies We inform
48 Agenda A very brief introduction Open Access in Europe SPARC Europe focus areas Questions & Discussion Agenda for today.
49 SPARC Europe 2011 and beyond: strategic agenda, focus areas: Support Implementation of Open Access Policies at all levels Strengthen Open Access Publishing Encourage competition on the publishing market Support alternative measurement models Grow awareness amongst all stakeholders Support Open Access Services Collaborate with relevant partners such as PKP, COAR, DOAJ and more
50 LINKEDIN GROUP: SPARC Europe
51 Agenda A very brief introduction Open Access in Europe SPARC Europe focus areas Questions & Discussion
52 Is there a master plan in the Open Access Movement? Are we (= everyone involved!) tackling the real barriers? Will the current system of Scholarly Communications really change? Will publishers in the end transform to Open Access? Are we bold enough?
53 What do you think? Thank you for listening!! Astrid van Wesenbeeck SPARC Europe
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