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1 IEEE GlobeCom (GLOBECOM ), Taipei, Taiwan, November. LA-UR -4 : Proactive Queue Management over a Best-Effort Network Wu-chun Feng, Apu Kapadia, Sunil Thulasidasan Research & Development in Advanced Network Technology (RADIANT) Computer & Computational Sciences Division Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87 Department of Computer Science University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 34 W. Springfield Ave. Urbana, IL 68 Abstract We present a proactive queue-management (PQM) algorithm called that applies knowledge of the steadystate behavior of TCP connections to intelligently and proactively drop packets, thus preventing congestion from ever occurring and ensuring a higher degree of fairness between flows. This congestion-prevention approach is in contrast to the congestionavoidance approach of traditional active queue-management (AQM) schemes where congestion is actively detected early and then reacted to. In addition to enhancing fairness, keeps packet-queue lengths relatively low and reduces bandwidth and latency jitter. These characteristics are particularly beneficial to real-time multimedia applications. Further, achieves the above while maintaining high link utilization and low packet loss. and avoid congestion by reacting to congestion early before it becomes too problematic, prevents congestion from ever occurring, thus providing more stable QoS over a best-effort network. This congestion-prevention PQM scheme is based on a mathematical model of the steady-state behavior of TCP [] such that a high degree of fairness between flows is achieved while simultaneously maintaining high link utilization, low packet loss, and short queues. These characteristics are particularly beneficial to multimedia applications. Further, can also be used to identify and police non- TCP-friendly flows. However, we do not address this aspect of in this paper. I. INTRODUCTION Because network congestion leads to lost packets, thus wasting all the resources that the packet consumed on its way from source to destination, active queue-management (AQM) schemes such as RED [] and Blue [] have been proposed to actively detect congestion early and appropriately react to the impending congestion that would otherwise fill the queue and cause a burst of packet drops. In addition, Blue has been shown to have direct applicability to improving the performance of multimedia applications by reducing packet loss rates and queueing delays to networked applications such as interactive audio and video []. Since our proposed (Generalized Random Early Evasion Network) router classifies and ensures fairness between flows, we compare with two flow-based AQM schemes that are derivatives of RED and Blue Flow-based RED () [3] and Stochastic Fair Blue () [4]. While This work was supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy s Laboratory-Directed Research & Development Program through Los Alamos National Laboratory contract W-7-ENG-36. Apu Kapadia was funded in part by the U.S. Dept. of Energy s High-Performance Computer Science Fellowship through Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory. II. ALGORITHM applies knowledge of the steady-state behavior of TCP connections at the router to intelligently drop (or mark) packets for congestion notification. By using such a mechanism, a router can give each connection its fair share of bandwidth while preventing the build-up of packet queues. The throughput of a TCP connection depends, among other factors, on its round trip time (RTT) and the probability that its packets are dropped in the network. Specifically, Mathis et al. [] show that a connection s throughput satisfies the following equation under certain simplifying assumptions: where () is the bandwidth/throughput of the connection, is its round trip is the maximum segment size, time, and is the packet loss probability. is a constant that depends on the acknowledgement strategy that is used (e.g., delayed or every packet) as well as on whether packets are assumed to be lost periodically or at random. While this model may not be applicable to non-sack TCP implementations, to very short connections that never reach

2 # steady state, or to connections whose window size are artificially limited by the receiver s flow-control window. These issues are generally not problems in properly configured longlived connections such as in multimedia applications, e.g., video-on-demand (VoD) and bulk data transfers. Now, let us consider a scenario where there are active flows at a router on a particular outgoing link of capacity. considers a flow to be active if it has had at least one packet go through the router within a certain window of time. The fair-share throughput of each flow is (assuming each source attempts to transmit at least at that rate). Substituting for in Equation (), we derive the following expression for loss probability, i.e., () By using this value of as the dropping probability for congestion notification, coerces flows into sending at their fair rate. Because depends on the number of flows and the round-trip time of each flow, congestion notification is more aggressive for large and small. And by including as an inverse parameter in the equation, eliminates the bias of favoring TCP connections with smaller with respect to throughput [6]. (Recall that TCP connections with smaller can increase their window size faster due to the smaller and are therefore more aggressive. Hence, these flows grab more than their fair share of bandwidth, which leads to this bias.) End-to-end schemes have been proposed to correct for this bias by requiring TCP senders to increase their congestion windows by a constant proportional to [7][8]. However these schemes rely on a window constant, which is hard to calculate and varies with the topology of the network. In contrast, not only can accurately calculate the drop probabilities irrespective of the network topology, it also does not require any end-to-end modifications. Hence, can be used at edge routers to ensure fairness between flows (without having to modify stock TCP implementations). For example, an organization could choose to implement at its edge router to ensure fairness between flows that begin or end within that organization. The basic operation of does not require per-flow state information. and can be easily estimated, and in Section IV we discuss how the for a flow can be inferred from the network. Hence has minimal state requirements. keeps per-flow state information for flows that have packets buffered at the link. does not maintain per-flow state information, but instead employs a Bloom filter [9] to hash flows into levels of bins. Each bin maintains queue occupancy statistics for flows that map into that bin and a corresponding drop probability. Hence, the required state is. The selection of and is discussed in [4]. N FTP Sources Mbps Mbps */N ms */N ms ms Fig.. Mbps 3 ms Network Topology */N ms */N ms ms III. EXPERIMENTS AND EVALUATION N FTP Sinks We evaluate the performance of with respect to Flow-based RED () [3] and Stochastic Fair Blue () [4]. We compare to and since these active queue-management schemes are also flow-based. We also include results for Drop Tail queueing to provide a baseline for assessing performance. We assume that a router knows the bandwidth ( ) of the attached outgoing link. is the number of active flows, i.e., flows that have had at least one packet go through the router within a certain window of time. We discuss the estimation of in Section IV. The of a flow is estimated by the router by looking at the size of each packet. By doing this, we reduce the need for flow state to maintain information regarding packet sizes seen over an interval. In our experiments, we chose to be KB in all cases. The value of, in our random dropping, delayed acknowledgment model was fixed at.93 []. For the time being, we assume that the router has some mechanism for determining a flow s RTT and briefly discuss how this parameter can be estimated in Section IV. We used ns [] to evaluate the performance of over a network with the topology shown in Fig.. sources and sinks are connected to the routers over -Mbps links with propagation delays ranging from ms to ms. We varied the number of flows, from to. The bottleneck link has a bandwidth of "! and a delay of 3 ms. For our simulations, we started FTP connections from the leftmost nodes to the rightmost nodes within the first second of simulation and ran it for 8 seconds. is implemented at the gateway, which is the bottleneck router in our simulation. All of the metrics presented in this section link utilization, fairness, packet loss, queue size are measured at this gateway. We present results for link utilization, fairness, and queue size, after the first seconds to remove the startup transient effects and to study the steady-state behavior. Since we simulate more than $ % flows over &'% (*),+- links, the &'$ $ (*),+link creates a bottleneck.

3 A. Fairness attempts to limit all the TCP flows to their fair share of the outgoing link bandwidth. To assess s ability to maintain equal bandwidths between TCP flows, we use Jain s Fairness Index []. We briefly describe how the fairness index is calculated and then present our results. ) Jain s Fairness Index: This fairness index quantifies the degree of similarity between all the flow bandwidths. Given the set of throughputs ( ), the fairness index is calculated as follows: The fairness index always lies between and. Hence, a higher fairness index indicates better fairness between flows. The fairness index is when all the throughputs are equal. When all the throughputs are not equal, the fairness index drops below. ) Results: As shown in Fig., provides significantly better bandwidth fairness than the other queuemanagement schemes. The curve for Drop Tail shows us the fairness that would be expected at most gateways in the Internet today. outperforms Drop Tail and because it queues at least two packets of a flow before marking a packet from that flow. This provides much better fairness as long as each flow maintains one to two outstanding packets at the gateway. exhibits poor fairness because it is sensitive to varying RTTs between flows and breaks down under a large number of connections with varying RTTs [4]. s fairness index gradually rises. As the number of flows increases, we observe a lower fairness index for fewer flows because each flow has a higher share of bandwidth and flows with longer RTTs are unable to attain their steady state bandwidths in 8 seconds. Why? Even though can slow down flows with shorter RTTs (by dropping packets), it cannot speed up flows with longer RTTs. Better fairness for fewer flows is achieved by increasing the simulation time, allowing all flows to reach their steady state bandwidths. With a larger number of flows, the fair share of bandwidth is low enough so that all flows are able to attain close to their average share of bandwidth. Longer simulations yield even better fairness curves for Green while showing little improvement for Drop Tail,, and. B. Link Utilization At the end of each simulation, the overall link utilization is calculated as follows:!!#" $&%$ '' $ ( $! )%*+%, The numerator equals the total number of bytes leaving the link during the interval of seconds, and the denominator equals - In our experiments, we operate under the many flow mode. Fairness Fig.. Fairness Index Jain s Fairness Index vs. Number of the total possible bytes that could have left the link in the same interval. Fig. 3(a) shows that as the number of flows increases, performs as well as in terms of link utilization. Drop Tail achieves higher utilizations because the flows with shorter RTTs are allowed to be aggressive and no packets are voluntarily dropped early. While this yields better link utilizations, it sacrifices fairness heavily and can lead to higher packet loss. outperforms with respect to fairness and link utilization because deterministically maintains the average bandwidths of all flows while simply relies on queue occupancy statistics to regulate queue size. C. Packet Loss As shown in Fig. 3(b), the packet loss percentage is roughly the same for all flows and stays below. /. Equation () provides good estimates for / []. Since the overall packet loss stays well below / in our simulations, limits the rates of flows to their equal shares of bandwidth effectively. D. Fig. 4(a) shows the queue sizes for Drop Tail for flows and flows. As we can see, as the number of flows increases, the average queue size for Drop Tail increases dramatically. In contrast, as seen in Fig. 4(b), 4(c) and 4(d),, and keep the average queue sizes low. keeps queue sizes low by marking packets beyond a certain threshold and limiting the amount of buffer space for each flow. does so by increasing drop rates when there is packet loss and reducing drop rates when the link is underutilized. Hence, and try to dynamically converge to the correct operating point for low queue sizes. achieves its operating point by calculating drop probabilities for each flow based on their fair share of bandwidth. By ensuring that the aggregate bandwidth of the flows is equal to the available bandwidth at the link, there is no sustained buildup in queue length.

4 Overall Link Utilization Packet Loss (%) Utilization (%) Packet Loss (%) (a) Overall Link Utilization vs. Number of 3 4 (b) Overall Packet Loss vs. Number of Fig. 3. Link Utilization and Packet Loss statistics IV. ESTIMATING FLOW PARAMETERS Up until now, we assumed that routers had knowledge of the various flow parameters:,, and. The parameters and can be easily estimated. The of a flow is estimated by the router by looking at the size of each packet. One way that can be estimated is by counting the number of flows that have had at least one packet go through the router within a certain window of time. Long windows may cause to overestimate the number of flows and reduce the overall link utilization. Short windows may cause to underestimate the number of flows, resulting in over-provisioning of the link bandwidth. In our experiments, we assumed FTP file transfers, and hence the number of flows was a constant. Stabilized RED (SRED) uses a statistical technique to estimate the number of active flows []. SRED compares an arriving packet with a randomly chosen packet that was seen recently. If these packets belong to the same flow, the authors call it a hit. Hit rates can be statistically analyzed to give a reasonable estimate of the number of active flows,. Hit rates can also be used to identify and limit non-responsive flows that use more than their fair share of bandwidth. The round trip time,, is the most difficult parameter to estimate with any degree of accuracy. Below we briefly present two possible solutions to this. One solution makes use of the fact that the best estimates of RTT occurs at the TCP end host. Using the IP options available, the sender can insert the RTT into a prespecified field in the IP header. This can then be utilized by routers along the way where is deployed. Another solution is to make use of the IDMaps service [3]. A router can also perform the duties of an IDMaps tracer and maintain a database of RTT estimates, which can be used for fast lookups based on source and destination IP addresses. IDMaps provides RTT estimates accurate to within twice the actual value. Such estimates could result in lower fairness but are sufficient for to still outperform, and Drop Tail in terms of fairness. We leave further discussion and analysis of the use of IDMaps for future work. V. CONCLUSION In this paper, we have shown how applying the knowledge of the macroscopic behavior of the TCP congestion-avoidance algorithm at the routers can be used to achieve a high degree of fairness between flows while simultaneously maintaining high link utilization, low packet loss, and short queues. And because the implementation of relies on the knowledge of flow RTTs and the total number of active flows, we briefly discussed how these metrics can be inferred by a router. Similar to and, requires very little state information for its operation. Future work will focus on () identifying and policing non-responsive flows such as misbehaving real-time multimedia traffic and denial of service attacks, () adding a Bloom filter (as in ) or a hit-rate module (as in SRED) to identify and limit unresponsive flows, and (3) examining how behaves with short-lived connections (e.g., so-called web mice ) or with mixtures of different traffic types. The applications that stand to benefit the most from the fixed low-latency/high throughput fairness property of this algorithm are delay-sensitive traffic such as streaming, real-time audio and video applications. REFERENCES [] S. Floyd and V. Jacobson, Random Early Detection Gateways for Congestion Avoidance, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol., no. 4, pp , August 993. [] W. Feng, D. Kandlur, D. Saha, and K. Shin, BLUE: A New Class of Active Queue Management Algorithms, Tech. Rep., April 999. [3] D. Lin and R. Morris, Dynamics of Random Early Detection, in Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM 997, September 997.

5 4 3 Queue size vs.,, Queue size vs.,, (a) Drop Tail: vs. (b) : vs. 4 3 Queue size vs.,, Queue size vs.,, (c) : vs. (d) : vs. Fig. 4. Queue Occupancy Statistics for Drop Tail, Green,, and [4] W. Feng, D. Kandlur, D. Saha, and K. Shin, Stochastic Fair Blue: A Queue Management Algorithm for Enforcing Fairness, in Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, April. [] M. Mathis, J. Semke, J. Mahdavi, and T. Ott, The Macroscopic Behavior of the TCP Congestion Avoidance Algorithm, Computer Communication Review, vol. 7, no. 3, July 997. [6] T. Lakshman and U. Madhow, The Performance of TCP/IP for Networks with High Bandwidth-Delay Products and Random Loss, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol., no. 3, pp. 336, June 997. [7] S. Floyd, Connections with Multiple Congested Gateways in Packet- Switched Networks Part : One-way Traffic, ACM Computer Communication Review, vol., no., pp. 3 47, Oct. 99. [8] T. Henderson, E. Sahouria, S. McCanne, and R. Katz, On Improving the Fairness of TCP Congestion Avoidance, in Proc. of IEEE Globecom, November 998. [9] B. Bloom, Space/ Trade-offs in Hash Coding with Allowable Errors, Communications of the ACM, vol. 3, no. 7, July 97. [] ns, Network Simulator, [] D. Chiu and R. Jain, Analysis of the Increase and Decrease Algorithms for Congestion Avoidance in Computer Networks, Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, vol. 7, pp. 4, 989. [] Teunis J. Ott, T. V. Lakshman, and Larry H. Wong, SRED: Stabilized RED, in Proceedings of INFOCOM, 999, vol. 3, pp [3] P. Francis, S. Jamin, C. Jin, Y. Jin, D. Raz, Y. Shavitt, and L. Zhang, IDMaps: A Global Internet Host Distance Estimation Service, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, October.

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